Abstract

Curing/preventing micrometastasis to lymph nodes (LNs) located outside the surgically resected area is essential for improving the morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer and head and neck cancer. However, no lymphatic therapy system exists that can deliver drugs to LNs located outside the dissection area. Here, we demonstrate proof of concept for a drug delivery system using MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice that exhibit systemic lymphadenopathy, with some peripheral LNs being as large as 10 mm in diameter. We report that a fluorescent solution injected into the subiliac LN (defined as the upstream LN within the dissection area) was delivered successfully to the proper axillary LN (defined as the downstream LN outside the dissection area) through the lymphatic vessels. Our results suggest that this approach could be used before surgical resection to deliver drugs to downstream LNs outside the dissection area. We anticipate that our methodology could be applied clinically, before surgical resection, to cure/prevent micrometastasis in LNs outside the dissection area, using techniques such as ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  26. S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Functional lymphatic imaging in tumor-bearing mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 360(1-2), 167–172 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. A. Leijte, I. M. van der Ploeg, R. A. Valdés Olmos, O. E. Nieweg, and S. Horenblas, “Visualization of tumor blockage and rerouting of lymphatic drainage in penile cancer patients by use of SPECT/CT,” J. Nucl. Med. 50(3), 364–367 (2009).
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  28. E. M. Bouta, R. W. Wood, E. B. Brown, H. Rahimi, C. T. Ritchlin, and E. M. Schwarz, “In vivo quantification of lymph viscosity and pressure in lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes of arthritic joints in mice,” J. Physiol. 592(6), 1213–1223 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

T. Sato, S. Mori, Y. Arai, and T. Kodama, “The combination of intralymphatic chemotherapy with ultrasound and nano-/microbubbles is efficient in the treatment of experimental tumors in mouse lymph nodes,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 40(6), 1237–1249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Bouta, R. W. Wood, E. B. Brown, H. Rahimi, C. T. Ritchlin, and E. M. Schwarz, “In vivo quantification of lymph viscosity and pressure in lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes of arthritic joints in mice,” J. Physiol. 592(6), 1213–1223 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

S. T. Proulx, P. Luciani, L. C. Dieterich, S. Karaman, J. C. Leroux, and M. Detmar, “Expansion of the lymphatic vasculature in cancer and inflammation: new opportunities for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(2), 550–557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Kodama, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Enhanced sonographic imaging to diagnose lymph node metastasis: importance of blood vessel volume and density,” Cancer Res. 73(7), 2082–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shao, S. Mori, Y. Yagishita, T. Okuno, Y. Hatakeyama, T. Sato, and T. Kodama, “Lymphatic mapping of mice with systemic lymphoproliferative disorder: usefulness as an inter-lymph node metastasis model of cancer,” J. Immunol. Methods 389(1-2), 69–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Okuno, S. Kato, Y. Hatakeyama, J. Okajima, S. Maruyama, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Photothermal therapy of tumors in lymph nodes using gold nanorods and near-infrared laser light,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 879–884 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nose, H. Komori, T. Miyazaki, and S. Mori, “Genomics of vasculitis: lessons from mouse models,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 6(1), 16–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Mouse model of lymph node metastasis via afferent lymphatic vessels for development of imaging modalities,” PLoS ONE 8(2), e55797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kosaka, M. Mitsunaga, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time lymphatic draining using quantum-dot optical imaging in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 96–100 (2013).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

M. R. Rajebi, G. Chaudry, H. M. Padua, B. Dillon, S. Yilmaz, R. W. Arnold, M. F. Landrigan-Ossar, and A. I. Alomari, “Intranodal lymphangiography: feasibility and preliminary experience in children,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 22(9), 1300–1305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhou, R. Wood, E. M. Schwarz, Y. J. Wang, and L. Xing, “Near-infrared lymphatic imaging demonstrates the dynamics of lymph flow and lymphangiogenesis during the acute versus chronic phases of arthritis in mice,” Arthritis Rheum. 62(7), 1881–1889 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Functional lymphatic imaging in tumor-bearing mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 360(1-2), 167–172 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. A. Leijte, I. M. van der Ploeg, R. A. Valdés Olmos, O. E. Nieweg, and S. Horenblas, “Visualization of tumor blockage and rerouting of lymphatic drainage in penile cancer patients by use of SPECT/CT,” J. Nucl. Med. 50(3), 364–367 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Jacobs, A. M. Harrison, S. H. Swerdlow, K. A. Foon, N. Avril, N. Vidnovic, J. Joyce, N. DeMonaco, and K. S. McCarty., “Radioisotopic localization of (90)Yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan in patients with CD20+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 11(1), 39–45 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. McElroy, K. Hayashi, B. Garmy-Susini, S. Kaushal, J. A. Varner, A. R. Moossa, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescent LYVE-1 antibody to image dynamically lymphatic trafficking of cancer cells in vivo,” J. Surg. Res. 151(1), 68–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, N. Sato, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time, multicolor, quantum dot lymphatic imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(12), 2818–2822 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. I. Harrell, B. M. Iritani, and A. Ruddell, “Lymph node mapping in the mouse,” J. Immunol. Methods 332(1-2), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, and P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1711–1716 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

W. Van den Broeck, A. Derore, and P. Simoens, “Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 312(1-2), 12–19 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

I. Bedrosian, R. Mick, S. Xu, H. Nisenbaum, M. Faries, P. Zhang, P. A. Cohen, G. Koski, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Intranodal administration of peptide-pulsed mature dendritic cell vaccines results in superior CD8+ T-cell function in melanoma patients,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(20), 3826–3835 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. A. Swartz, “The physiology of the lymphatic system,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 50(1-2), 3–20 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, “Microlymphatics and lymph flow,” Physiol. Rev. 70(4), 987–1028 (1990).
[PubMed]

Abe, Y.

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alomari, A. I.

M. R. Rajebi, G. Chaudry, H. M. Padua, B. Dillon, S. Yilmaz, R. W. Arnold, M. F. Landrigan-Ossar, and A. I. Alomari, “Intranodal lymphangiography: feasibility and preliminary experience in children,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 22(9), 1300–1305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arai, Y.

T. Sato, S. Mori, Y. Arai, and T. Kodama, “The combination of intralymphatic chemotherapy with ultrasound and nano-/microbubbles is efficient in the treatment of experimental tumors in mouse lymph nodes,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 40(6), 1237–1249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, R. W.

M. R. Rajebi, G. Chaudry, H. M. Padua, B. Dillon, S. Yilmaz, R. W. Arnold, M. F. Landrigan-Ossar, and A. I. Alomari, “Intranodal lymphangiography: feasibility and preliminary experience in children,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 22(9), 1300–1305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avril, N.

S. A. Jacobs, A. M. Harrison, S. H. Swerdlow, K. A. Foon, N. Avril, N. Vidnovic, J. Joyce, N. DeMonaco, and K. S. McCarty., “Radioisotopic localization of (90)Yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan in patients with CD20+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 11(1), 39–45 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrett, T.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, and P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1711–1716 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedrosian, I.

I. Bedrosian, R. Mick, S. Xu, H. Nisenbaum, M. Faries, P. Zhang, P. A. Cohen, G. Koski, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Intranodal administration of peptide-pulsed mature dendritic cell vaccines results in superior CD8+ T-cell function in melanoma patients,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(20), 3826–3835 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouta, E. M.

E. M. Bouta, R. W. Wood, E. B. Brown, H. Rahimi, C. T. Ritchlin, and E. M. Schwarz, “In vivo quantification of lymph viscosity and pressure in lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes of arthritic joints in mice,” J. Physiol. 592(6), 1213–1223 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouvet, M.

M. McElroy, K. Hayashi, B. Garmy-Susini, S. Kaushal, J. A. Varner, A. R. Moossa, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescent LYVE-1 antibody to image dynamically lymphatic trafficking of cancer cells in vivo,” J. Surg. Res. 151(1), 68–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, E. B.

E. M. Bouta, R. W. Wood, E. B. Brown, H. Rahimi, C. T. Ritchlin, and E. M. Schwarz, “In vivo quantification of lymph viscosity and pressure in lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes of arthritic joints in mice,” J. Physiol. 592(6), 1213–1223 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaudry, G.

M. R. Rajebi, G. Chaudry, H. M. Padua, B. Dillon, S. Yilmaz, R. W. Arnold, M. F. Landrigan-Ossar, and A. I. Alomari, “Intranodal lymphangiography: feasibility and preliminary experience in children,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 22(9), 1300–1305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, K.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choyke, P. L.

N. Kosaka, M. Mitsunaga, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time lymphatic draining using quantum-dot optical imaging in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 96–100 (2013).
[PubMed]

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, N. Sato, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time, multicolor, quantum dot lymphatic imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(12), 2818–2822 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, and P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1711–1716 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, D. S.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, J. K.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, P. A.

I. Bedrosian, R. Mick, S. Xu, H. Nisenbaum, M. Faries, P. Zhang, P. A. Cohen, G. Koski, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Intranodal administration of peptide-pulsed mature dendritic cell vaccines results in superior CD8+ T-cell function in melanoma patients,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(20), 3826–3835 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czerniecki, B. J.

I. Bedrosian, R. Mick, S. Xu, H. Nisenbaum, M. Faries, P. Zhang, P. A. Cohen, G. Koski, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Intranodal administration of peptide-pulsed mature dendritic cell vaccines results in superior CD8+ T-cell function in melanoma patients,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(20), 3826–3835 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeMonaco, N.

S. A. Jacobs, A. M. Harrison, S. H. Swerdlow, K. A. Foon, N. Avril, N. Vidnovic, J. Joyce, N. DeMonaco, and K. S. McCarty., “Radioisotopic localization of (90)Yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan in patients with CD20+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 11(1), 39–45 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Derore, A.

W. Van den Broeck, A. Derore, and P. Simoens, “Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 312(1-2), 12–19 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Detmar, M.

S. T. Proulx, P. Luciani, L. C. Dieterich, S. Karaman, J. C. Leroux, and M. Detmar, “Expansion of the lymphatic vasculature in cancer and inflammation: new opportunities for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(2), 550–557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dieterich, L. C.

S. T. Proulx, P. Luciani, L. C. Dieterich, S. Karaman, J. C. Leroux, and M. Detmar, “Expansion of the lymphatic vasculature in cancer and inflammation: new opportunities for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(2), 550–557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dillon, B.

M. R. Rajebi, G. Chaudry, H. M. Padua, B. Dillon, S. Yilmaz, R. W. Arnold, M. F. Landrigan-Ossar, and A. I. Alomari, “Intranodal lymphangiography: feasibility and preliminary experience in children,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 22(9), 1300–1305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endo, Y.

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faries, M.

I. Bedrosian, R. Mick, S. Xu, H. Nisenbaum, M. Faries, P. Zhang, P. A. Cohen, G. Koski, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Intranodal administration of peptide-pulsed mature dendritic cell vaccines results in superior CD8+ T-cell function in melanoma patients,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(20), 3826–3835 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foon, K. A.

S. A. Jacobs, A. M. Harrison, S. H. Swerdlow, K. A. Foon, N. Avril, N. Vidnovic, J. Joyce, N. DeMonaco, and K. S. McCarty., “Radioisotopic localization of (90)Yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan in patients with CD20+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 11(1), 39–45 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujino, T.

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukui, K.

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garmy-Susini, B.

M. McElroy, K. Hayashi, B. Garmy-Susini, S. Kaushal, J. A. Varner, A. R. Moossa, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescent LYVE-1 antibody to image dynamically lymphatic trafficking of cancer cells in vivo,” J. Surg. Res. 151(1), 68–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hama, Y.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, and P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1711–1716 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harrell, M. I.

M. I. Harrell, B. M. Iritani, and A. Ruddell, “Lymph node mapping in the mouse,” J. Immunol. Methods 332(1-2), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harrison, A. M.

S. A. Jacobs, A. M. Harrison, S. H. Swerdlow, K. A. Foon, N. Avril, N. Vidnovic, J. Joyce, N. DeMonaco, and K. S. McCarty., “Radioisotopic localization of (90)Yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan in patients with CD20+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 11(1), 39–45 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hatakeyama, Y.

L. Shao, S. Mori, Y. Yagishita, T. Okuno, Y. Hatakeyama, T. Sato, and T. Kodama, “Lymphatic mapping of mice with systemic lymphoproliferative disorder: usefulness as an inter-lymph node metastasis model of cancer,” J. Immunol. Methods 389(1-2), 69–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Okuno, S. Kato, Y. Hatakeyama, J. Okajima, S. Maruyama, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Photothermal therapy of tumors in lymph nodes using gold nanorods and near-infrared laser light,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 879–884 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayashi, K.

M. McElroy, K. Hayashi, B. Garmy-Susini, S. Kaushal, J. A. Varner, A. R. Moossa, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescent LYVE-1 antibody to image dynamically lymphatic trafficking of cancer cells in vivo,” J. Surg. Res. 151(1), 68–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffman, R. M.

M. McElroy, K. Hayashi, B. Garmy-Susini, S. Kaushal, J. A. Varner, A. R. Moossa, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescent LYVE-1 antibody to image dynamically lymphatic trafficking of cancer cells in vivo,” J. Surg. Res. 151(1), 68–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horenblas, S.

J. A. Leijte, I. M. van der Ploeg, R. A. Valdés Olmos, O. E. Nieweg, and S. Horenblas, “Visualization of tumor blockage and rerouting of lymphatic drainage in penile cancer patients by use of SPECT/CT,” J. Nucl. Med. 50(3), 364–367 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ichien, G.

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iritani, B. M.

M. I. Harrell, B. M. Iritani, and A. Ruddell, “Lymph node mapping in the mouse,” J. Immunol. Methods 332(1-2), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ito, M. R.

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobs, S. A.

S. A. Jacobs, A. M. Harrison, S. H. Swerdlow, K. A. Foon, N. Avril, N. Vidnovic, J. Joyce, N. DeMonaco, and K. S. McCarty., “Radioisotopic localization of (90)Yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan in patients with CD20+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 11(1), 39–45 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, Y. H.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, J. M.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joyce, J.

S. A. Jacobs, A. M. Harrison, S. H. Swerdlow, K. A. Foon, N. Avril, N. Vidnovic, J. Joyce, N. DeMonaco, and K. S. McCarty., “Radioisotopic localization of (90)Yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan in patients with CD20+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 11(1), 39–45 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamogawa, J.

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, K. W.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanno, H.

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanzaki, H.

S. Kato, Y. Shirai, H. Kanzaki, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Delivery of molecules to the lymph node via lymphatic vessels using ultrasound and nano/microbubbles,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.in press.

Karaman, S.

S. T. Proulx, P. Luciani, L. C. Dieterich, S. Karaman, J. C. Leroux, and M. Detmar, “Expansion of the lymphatic vasculature in cancer and inflammation: new opportunities for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(2), 550–557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kato, S.

T. Okuno, S. Kato, Y. Hatakeyama, J. Okajima, S. Maruyama, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Photothermal therapy of tumors in lymph nodes using gold nanorods and near-infrared laser light,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 879–884 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kato, Y. Shirai, H. Kanzaki, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Delivery of molecules to the lymph node via lymphatic vessels using ultrasound and nano/microbubbles,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.in press.

Kaushal, S.

M. McElroy, K. Hayashi, B. Garmy-Susini, S. Kaushal, J. A. Varner, A. R. Moossa, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescent LYVE-1 antibody to image dynamically lymphatic trafficking of cancer cells in vivo,” J. Surg. Res. 151(1), 68–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. H.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, H.

N. Kosaka, M. Mitsunaga, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time lymphatic draining using quantum-dot optical imaging in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 96–100 (2013).
[PubMed]

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, N. Sato, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time, multicolor, quantum dot lymphatic imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(12), 2818–2822 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, and P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1711–1716 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kodama, M.

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Kodama, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Enhanced sonographic imaging to diagnose lymph node metastasis: importance of blood vessel volume and density,” Cancer Res. 73(7), 2082–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kodama, T.

T. Sato, S. Mori, Y. Arai, and T. Kodama, “The combination of intralymphatic chemotherapy with ultrasound and nano-/microbubbles is efficient in the treatment of experimental tumors in mouse lymph nodes,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 40(6), 1237–1249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shao, S. Mori, Y. Yagishita, T. Okuno, Y. Hatakeyama, T. Sato, and T. Kodama, “Lymphatic mapping of mice with systemic lymphoproliferative disorder: usefulness as an inter-lymph node metastasis model of cancer,” J. Immunol. Methods 389(1-2), 69–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Okuno, S. Kato, Y. Hatakeyama, J. Okajima, S. Maruyama, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Photothermal therapy of tumors in lymph nodes using gold nanorods and near-infrared laser light,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 879–884 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Mouse model of lymph node metastasis via afferent lymphatic vessels for development of imaging modalities,” PLoS ONE 8(2), e55797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Kodama, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Enhanced sonographic imaging to diagnose lymph node metastasis: importance of blood vessel volume and density,” Cancer Res. 73(7), 2082–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kato, Y. Shirai, H. Kanzaki, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Delivery of molecules to the lymph node via lymphatic vessels using ultrasound and nano/microbubbles,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.in press.

Komori, H.

M. Nose, H. Komori, T. Miyazaki, and S. Mori, “Genomics of vasculitis: lessons from mouse models,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 6(1), 16–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kosaka, N.

N. Kosaka, M. Mitsunaga, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time lymphatic draining using quantum-dot optical imaging in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 96–100 (2013).
[PubMed]

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, N. Sato, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time, multicolor, quantum dot lymphatic imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(12), 2818–2822 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koski, G.

I. Bedrosian, R. Mick, S. Xu, H. Nisenbaum, M. Faries, P. Zhang, P. A. Cohen, G. Koski, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Intranodal administration of peptide-pulsed mature dendritic cell vaccines results in superior CD8+ T-cell function in melanoma patients,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(20), 3826–3835 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koyama, Y.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, and P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1711–1716 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Functional lymphatic imaging in tumor-bearing mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 360(1-2), 167–172 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Landrigan-Ossar, M. F.

M. R. Rajebi, G. Chaudry, H. M. Padua, B. Dillon, S. Yilmaz, R. W. Arnold, M. F. Landrigan-Ossar, and A. I. Alomari, “Intranodal lymphangiography: feasibility and preliminary experience in children,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 22(9), 1300–1305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D. S.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M. C.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. S.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leijte, J. A.

J. A. Leijte, I. M. van der Ploeg, R. A. Valdés Olmos, O. E. Nieweg, and S. Horenblas, “Visualization of tumor blockage and rerouting of lymphatic drainage in penile cancer patients by use of SPECT/CT,” J. Nucl. Med. 50(3), 364–367 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leroux, J. C.

S. T. Proulx, P. Luciani, L. C. Dieterich, S. Karaman, J. C. Leroux, and M. Detmar, “Expansion of the lymphatic vasculature in cancer and inflammation: new opportunities for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(2), 550–557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Mouse model of lymph node metastasis via afferent lymphatic vessels for development of imaging modalities,” PLoS ONE 8(2), e55797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Kodama, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Enhanced sonographic imaging to diagnose lymph node metastasis: importance of blood vessel volume and density,” Cancer Res. 73(7), 2082–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luciani, P.

S. T. Proulx, P. Luciani, L. C. Dieterich, S. Karaman, J. C. Leroux, and M. Detmar, “Expansion of the lymphatic vasculature in cancer and inflammation: new opportunities for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(2), 550–557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maruyama, S.

T. Okuno, S. Kato, Y. Hatakeyama, J. Okajima, S. Maruyama, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Photothermal therapy of tumors in lymph nodes using gold nanorods and near-infrared laser light,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 879–884 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCarty, K. S.

S. A. Jacobs, A. M. Harrison, S. H. Swerdlow, K. A. Foon, N. Avril, N. Vidnovic, J. Joyce, N. DeMonaco, and K. S. McCarty., “Radioisotopic localization of (90)Yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan in patients with CD20+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 11(1), 39–45 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McElroy, M.

M. McElroy, K. Hayashi, B. Garmy-Susini, S. Kaushal, J. A. Varner, A. R. Moossa, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescent LYVE-1 antibody to image dynamically lymphatic trafficking of cancer cells in vivo,” J. Surg. Res. 151(1), 68–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mick, R.

I. Bedrosian, R. Mick, S. Xu, H. Nisenbaum, M. Faries, P. Zhang, P. A. Cohen, G. Koski, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Intranodal administration of peptide-pulsed mature dendritic cell vaccines results in superior CD8+ T-cell function in melanoma patients,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(20), 3826–3835 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitsunaga, M.

N. Kosaka, M. Mitsunaga, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time lymphatic draining using quantum-dot optical imaging in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 96–100 (2013).
[PubMed]

Miyazaki, T.

M. Nose, H. Komori, T. Miyazaki, and S. Mori, “Genomics of vasculitis: lessons from mouse models,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 6(1), 16–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moossa, A. R.

M. McElroy, K. Hayashi, B. Garmy-Susini, S. Kaushal, J. A. Varner, A. R. Moossa, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescent LYVE-1 antibody to image dynamically lymphatic trafficking of cancer cells in vivo,” J. Surg. Res. 151(1), 68–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mori, S.

T. Sato, S. Mori, Y. Arai, and T. Kodama, “The combination of intralymphatic chemotherapy with ultrasound and nano-/microbubbles is efficient in the treatment of experimental tumors in mouse lymph nodes,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 40(6), 1237–1249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shao, S. Mori, Y. Yagishita, T. Okuno, Y. Hatakeyama, T. Sato, and T. Kodama, “Lymphatic mapping of mice with systemic lymphoproliferative disorder: usefulness as an inter-lymph node metastasis model of cancer,” J. Immunol. Methods 389(1-2), 69–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Okuno, S. Kato, Y. Hatakeyama, J. Okajima, S. Maruyama, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Photothermal therapy of tumors in lymph nodes using gold nanorods and near-infrared laser light,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 879–884 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nose, H. Komori, T. Miyazaki, and S. Mori, “Genomics of vasculitis: lessons from mouse models,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 6(1), 16–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Mouse model of lymph node metastasis via afferent lymphatic vessels for development of imaging modalities,” PLoS ONE 8(2), e55797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Kodama, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Enhanced sonographic imaging to diagnose lymph node metastasis: importance of blood vessel volume and density,” Cancer Res. 73(7), 2082–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kato, Y. Shirai, H. Kanzaki, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Delivery of molecules to the lymph node via lymphatic vessels using ultrasound and nano/microbubbles,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.in press.

Morimoto, K.

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, Y.

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakatsuru, S.

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nieweg, O. E.

J. A. Leijte, I. M. van der Ploeg, R. A. Valdés Olmos, O. E. Nieweg, and S. Horenblas, “Visualization of tumor blockage and rerouting of lymphatic drainage in penile cancer patients by use of SPECT/CT,” J. Nucl. Med. 50(3), 364–367 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nisenbaum, H.

I. Bedrosian, R. Mick, S. Xu, H. Nisenbaum, M. Faries, P. Zhang, P. A. Cohen, G. Koski, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Intranodal administration of peptide-pulsed mature dendritic cell vaccines results in superior CD8+ T-cell function in melanoma patients,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(20), 3826–3835 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishihara, M.

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nose, M.

M. Nose, H. Komori, T. Miyazaki, and S. Mori, “Genomics of vasculitis: lessons from mouse models,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 6(1), 16–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogasawara, H.

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogawa, M.

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, N. Sato, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time, multicolor, quantum dot lymphatic imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(12), 2818–2822 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okajima, J.

T. Okuno, S. Kato, Y. Hatakeyama, J. Okajima, S. Maruyama, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Photothermal therapy of tumors in lymph nodes using gold nanorods and near-infrared laser light,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 879–884 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okuno, T.

T. Okuno, S. Kato, Y. Hatakeyama, J. Okajima, S. Maruyama, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Photothermal therapy of tumors in lymph nodes using gold nanorods and near-infrared laser light,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 879–884 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shao, S. Mori, Y. Yagishita, T. Okuno, Y. Hatakeyama, T. Sato, and T. Kodama, “Lymphatic mapping of mice with systemic lymphoproliferative disorder: usefulness as an inter-lymph node metastasis model of cancer,” J. Immunol. Methods 389(1-2), 69–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padua, H. M.

M. R. Rajebi, G. Chaudry, H. M. Padua, B. Dillon, S. Yilmaz, R. W. Arnold, M. F. Landrigan-Ossar, and A. I. Alomari, “Intranodal lymphangiography: feasibility and preliminary experience in children,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 22(9), 1300–1305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piao, J. Y.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proulx, S. T.

S. T. Proulx, P. Luciani, L. C. Dieterich, S. Karaman, J. C. Leroux, and M. Detmar, “Expansion of the lymphatic vasculature in cancer and inflammation: new opportunities for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(2), 550–557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, W. M.

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quan, B.

Y. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, K. Choi, J. Y. Piao, B. Quan, Y. S. Lee, J. M. Jeong, J. K. Chung, D. S. Lee, M. C. Lee, J. Lee, D. S. Chung, and K. W. Kang, “In vivo imaging of sentinel nodes using fluorescent silica nanoparticles in living mice,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 12(2), 155–162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rahimi, H.

E. M. Bouta, R. W. Wood, E. B. Brown, H. Rahimi, C. T. Ritchlin, and E. M. Schwarz, “In vivo quantification of lymph viscosity and pressure in lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes of arthritic joints in mice,” J. Physiol. 592(6), 1213–1223 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajebi, M. R.

M. R. Rajebi, G. Chaudry, H. M. Padua, B. Dillon, S. Yilmaz, R. W. Arnold, M. F. Landrigan-Ossar, and A. I. Alomari, “Intranodal lymphangiography: feasibility and preliminary experience in children,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 22(9), 1300–1305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regino, C. A.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, and P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1711–1716 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritchlin, C. T.

E. M. Bouta, R. W. Wood, E. B. Brown, H. Rahimi, C. T. Ritchlin, and E. M. Schwarz, “In vivo quantification of lymph viscosity and pressure in lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes of arthritic joints in mice,” J. Physiol. 592(6), 1213–1223 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruddell, A.

M. I. Harrell, B. M. Iritani, and A. Ruddell, “Lymph node mapping in the mouse,” J. Immunol. Methods 332(1-2), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, M.

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Mouse model of lymph node metastasis via afferent lymphatic vessels for development of imaging modalities,” PLoS ONE 8(2), e55797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Okuno, S. Kato, Y. Hatakeyama, J. Okajima, S. Maruyama, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Photothermal therapy of tumors in lymph nodes using gold nanorods and near-infrared laser light,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 879–884 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Kodama, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Enhanced sonographic imaging to diagnose lymph node metastasis: importance of blood vessel volume and density,” Cancer Res. 73(7), 2082–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kato, Y. Shirai, H. Kanzaki, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Delivery of molecules to the lymph node via lymphatic vessels using ultrasound and nano/microbubbles,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.in press.

Sato, N.

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, N. Sato, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time, multicolor, quantum dot lymphatic imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(12), 2818–2822 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, T.

T. Sato, S. Mori, Y. Arai, and T. Kodama, “The combination of intralymphatic chemotherapy with ultrasound and nano-/microbubbles is efficient in the treatment of experimental tumors in mouse lymph nodes,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 40(6), 1237–1249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shao, S. Mori, Y. Yagishita, T. Okuno, Y. Hatakeyama, T. Sato, and T. Kodama, “Lymphatic mapping of mice with systemic lymphoproliferative disorder: usefulness as an inter-lymph node metastasis model of cancer,” J. Immunol. Methods 389(1-2), 69–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawasaki, T.

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid-Schönbein, G. W.

G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, “Microlymphatics and lymph flow,” Physiol. Rev. 70(4), 987–1028 (1990).
[PubMed]

Schwarz, E. M.

E. M. Bouta, R. W. Wood, E. B. Brown, H. Rahimi, C. T. Ritchlin, and E. M. Schwarz, “In vivo quantification of lymph viscosity and pressure in lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes of arthritic joints in mice,” J. Physiol. 592(6), 1213–1223 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhou, R. Wood, E. M. Schwarz, Y. J. Wang, and L. Xing, “Near-infrared lymphatic imaging demonstrates the dynamics of lymph flow and lymphangiogenesis during the acute versus chronic phases of arthritis in mice,” Arthritis Rheum. 62(7), 1881–1889 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Functional lymphatic imaging in tumor-bearing mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 360(1-2), 167–172 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, L.

L. Shao, S. Mori, Y. Yagishita, T. Okuno, Y. Hatakeyama, T. Sato, and T. Kodama, “Lymphatic mapping of mice with systemic lymphoproliferative disorder: usefulness as an inter-lymph node metastasis model of cancer,” J. Immunol. Methods 389(1-2), 69–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirai, Y.

S. Kato, Y. Shirai, H. Kanzaki, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Delivery of molecules to the lymph node via lymphatic vessels using ultrasound and nano/microbubbles,” Ultrasound Med. Biol.in press.

Simoens, P.

W. Van den Broeck, A. Derore, and P. Simoens, “Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 312(1-2), 12–19 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soga, Y.

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swartz, M. A.

M. A. Swartz, “The physiology of the lymphatic system,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 50(1-2), 3–20 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swerdlow, S. H.

S. A. Jacobs, A. M. Harrison, S. H. Swerdlow, K. A. Foon, N. Avril, N. Vidnovic, J. Joyce, N. DeMonaco, and K. S. McCarty., “Radioisotopic localization of (90)Yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan in patients with CD20+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 11(1), 39–45 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, S.

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Mouse model of lymph node metastasis via afferent lymphatic vessels for development of imaging modalities,” PLoS ONE 8(2), e55797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Kodama, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Enhanced sonographic imaging to diagnose lymph node metastasis: importance of blood vessel volume and density,” Cancer Res. 73(7), 2082–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terada, M.

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsubaki, T.

Y. Tanaka, H. Komori, S. Mori, Y. Soga, T. Tsubaki, M. Terada, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujino, S. Nakamura, H. Kanno, T. Sawasaki, Y. Endo, and M. Nose, “Evaluating the role of rheumatoid factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model with a newly established ELISA system,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 220(3), 199–206 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urano, Y.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, and P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1711–1716 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valdés Olmos, R. A.

J. A. Leijte, I. M. van der Ploeg, R. A. Valdés Olmos, O. E. Nieweg, and S. Horenblas, “Visualization of tumor blockage and rerouting of lymphatic drainage in penile cancer patients by use of SPECT/CT,” J. Nucl. Med. 50(3), 364–367 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van den Broeck, W.

W. Van den Broeck, A. Derore, and P. Simoens, “Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 312(1-2), 12–19 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Ploeg, I. M.

J. A. Leijte, I. M. van der Ploeg, R. A. Valdés Olmos, O. E. Nieweg, and S. Horenblas, “Visualization of tumor blockage and rerouting of lymphatic drainage in penile cancer patients by use of SPECT/CT,” J. Nucl. Med. 50(3), 364–367 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varner, J. A.

M. McElroy, K. Hayashi, B. Garmy-Susini, S. Kaushal, J. A. Varner, A. R. Moossa, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescent LYVE-1 antibody to image dynamically lymphatic trafficking of cancer cells in vivo,” J. Surg. Res. 151(1), 68–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vidnovic, N.

S. A. Jacobs, A. M. Harrison, S. H. Swerdlow, K. A. Foon, N. Avril, N. Vidnovic, J. Joyce, N. DeMonaco, and K. S. McCarty., “Radioisotopic localization of (90)Yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan in patients with CD20+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 11(1), 39–45 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. J.

Q. Zhou, R. Wood, E. M. Schwarz, Y. J. Wang, and L. Xing, “Near-infrared lymphatic imaging demonstrates the dynamics of lymph flow and lymphangiogenesis during the acute versus chronic phases of arthritis in mice,” Arthritis Rheum. 62(7), 1881–1889 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wood, R.

Q. Zhou, R. Wood, E. M. Schwarz, Y. J. Wang, and L. Xing, “Near-infrared lymphatic imaging demonstrates the dynamics of lymph flow and lymphangiogenesis during the acute versus chronic phases of arthritis in mice,” Arthritis Rheum. 62(7), 1881–1889 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wood, R. W.

E. M. Bouta, R. W. Wood, E. B. Brown, H. Rahimi, C. T. Ritchlin, and E. M. Schwarz, “In vivo quantification of lymph viscosity and pressure in lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes of arthritic joints in mice,” J. Physiol. 592(6), 1213–1223 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, L.

Q. Zhou, R. Wood, E. M. Schwarz, Y. J. Wang, and L. Xing, “Near-infrared lymphatic imaging demonstrates the dynamics of lymph flow and lymphangiogenesis during the acute versus chronic phases of arthritis in mice,” Arthritis Rheum. 62(7), 1881–1889 (2010).
[PubMed]

Xu, S.

I. Bedrosian, R. Mick, S. Xu, H. Nisenbaum, M. Faries, P. Zhang, P. A. Cohen, G. Koski, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Intranodal administration of peptide-pulsed mature dendritic cell vaccines results in superior CD8+ T-cell function in melanoma patients,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(20), 3826–3835 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yagishita, Y.

L. Shao, S. Mori, Y. Yagishita, T. Okuno, Y. Hatakeyama, T. Sato, and T. Kodama, “Lymphatic mapping of mice with systemic lymphoproliferative disorder: usefulness as an inter-lymph node metastasis model of cancer,” J. Immunol. Methods 389(1-2), 69–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yazawa, C.

S. Nakatsuru, M. Terada, M. Nishihara, J. Kamogawa, T. Miyazaki, W. M. Qu, K. Morimoto, C. Yazawa, H. Ogasawara, Y. Abe, K. Fukui, G. Ichien, M. R. Ito, S. Mori, Y. Nakamura, and M. Nose, “Genetic dissection of the complex pathological manifestations of collagen disease in MRL/lpr mice,” Pathol. Int. 49(11), 974–982 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yilmaz, S.

M. R. Rajebi, G. Chaudry, H. M. Padua, B. Dillon, S. Yilmaz, R. W. Arnold, M. F. Landrigan-Ossar, and A. I. Alomari, “Intranodal lymphangiography: feasibility and preliminary experience in children,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 22(9), 1300–1305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

I. Bedrosian, R. Mick, S. Xu, H. Nisenbaum, M. Faries, P. Zhang, P. A. Cohen, G. Koski, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Intranodal administration of peptide-pulsed mature dendritic cell vaccines results in superior CD8+ T-cell function in melanoma patients,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(20), 3826–3835 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou, R. Wood, E. M. Schwarz, Y. J. Wang, and L. Xing, “Near-infrared lymphatic imaging demonstrates the dynamics of lymph flow and lymphangiogenesis during the acute versus chronic phases of arthritis in mice,” Arthritis Rheum. 62(7), 1881–1889 (2010).
[PubMed]

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (1)

M. A. Swartz, “The physiology of the lymphatic system,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 50(1-2), 3–20 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Vasc. Dis. (1)

M. Nose, H. Komori, T. Miyazaki, and S. Mori, “Genomics of vasculitis: lessons from mouse models,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 6(1), 16–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arthritis Rheum. (1)

Q. Zhou, R. Wood, E. M. Schwarz, Y. J. Wang, and L. Xing, “Near-infrared lymphatic imaging demonstrates the dynamics of lymph flow and lymphangiogenesis during the acute versus chronic phases of arthritis in mice,” Arthritis Rheum. 62(7), 1881–1889 (2010).
[PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

L. Li, S. Mori, M. Kodama, M. Sakamoto, S. Takahashi, and T. Kodama, “Enhanced sonographic imaging to diagnose lymph node metastasis: importance of blood vessel volume and density,” Cancer Res. 73(7), 2082–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (1)

N. Kosaka, M. Mitsunaga, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time lymphatic draining using quantum-dot optical imaging in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 96–100 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

I. Bedrosian, R. Mick, S. Xu, H. Nisenbaum, M. Faries, P. Zhang, P. A. Cohen, G. Koski, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Intranodal administration of peptide-pulsed mature dendritic cell vaccines results in superior CD8+ T-cell function in melanoma patients,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(20), 3826–3835 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Control. Release (2)

T. Okuno, S. Kato, Y. Hatakeyama, J. Okajima, S. Maruyama, M. Sakamoto, S. Mori, and T. Kodama, “Photothermal therapy of tumors in lymph nodes using gold nanorods and near-infrared laser light,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 879–884 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Proulx, P. Luciani, L. C. Dieterich, S. Karaman, J. C. Leroux, and M. Detmar, “Expansion of the lymphatic vasculature in cancer and inflammation: new opportunities for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(2), 550–557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Immunol. Methods (4)

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Functional lymphatic imaging in tumor-bearing mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 360(1-2), 167–172 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Harrell, B. M. Iritani, and A. Ruddell, “Lymph node mapping in the mouse,” J. Immunol. Methods 332(1-2), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Van den Broeck, A. Derore, and P. Simoens, “Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 312(1-2), 12–19 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shao, S. Mori, Y. Yagishita, T. Okuno, Y. Hatakeyama, T. Sato, and T. Kodama, “Lymphatic mapping of mice with systemic lymphoproliferative disorder: usefulness as an inter-lymph node metastasis model of cancer,” J. Immunol. Methods 389(1-2), 69–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, N. Sato, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo real-time, multicolor, quantum dot lymphatic imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(12), 2818–2822 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Nucl. Med. (1)

J. A. Leijte, I. M. van der Ploeg, R. A. Valdés Olmos, O. E. Nieweg, and S. Horenblas, “Visualization of tumor blockage and rerouting of lymphatic drainage in penile cancer patients by use of SPECT/CT,” J. Nucl. Med. 50(3), 364–367 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (1)

E. M. Bouta, R. W. Wood, E. B. Brown, H. Rahimi, C. T. Ritchlin, and E. M. Schwarz, “In vivo quantification of lymph viscosity and pressure in lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes of arthritic joints in mice,” J. Physiol. 592(6), 1213–1223 (2014).
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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MP4 (1694 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The MXH10/Mo/lpr mouse and the lymphatic route. A. MXH10/Mo/lpr mouse. AALN: accessory axillary lymph node; PALN: proper axillary lymph node; SiLN: subiliac lymph node. B. 0.5% Evans blue solution was injected into the SiLN of an MXH10/Mo/lpr mouse to trace the downstream lymphatic route to the axillary region. The solution reached the PALN but not the AALN. Some solution flowed to the vein near the SiLN. LV: lymphatic vessel. Arrows: flow direction.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Sequential frames from Media 1. Fluorescence solution flowed into the 1st lymphangion (b) and reached the 32nd lymphangion (i). (a) 1 sec, (b) 30 sec, (c) 39 sec, (d) 44 sec, (e) 47 sec, (f) 52 sec, (g) 58 sec, (h) 64 sec, (i) 68 sec after the start of recording.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Lymphatic route from the SiLN to the PALN. A. Overall view of the lymphatic route from the SiLN to the PALN. The lymphatic vessel consisted of many lymphangions (cf. Media 1). B. Afferent lymphatic vessel (ALV) in the PALN. C and D. A valve in a lymphangion. C is depicted in unicolor, D in pseudocolor. The valve acted as a one-way valve. A vein running parallel to the lymphatic vessel (LV) is evident in D.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Bifurcation patterns for the lymphatic vessel that lies between the SiLN and the PALN. A. Representative images showing one bifurcation: (a) unicolor; (b) gold; and (c) pseudocolor. The lymph flowed in a single direction from the SiLN to accumulate in the PALN. A vein ran parallel to the lymphatic vessel (LV). B. Classification of the bifurcation patterns into four types (n = 20): (a) no bifurcation, i.e., a single vessel (2/20); (b) one bifurcation (8/20); (c) two bifurcations (4/20); and (d) three bifurcations (6/20).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fluid drainage pathways in the SiLN after injection of fluorescent solution. A. Internal diffusion of fluorescent solution in the SiLN after injection. (a) 10 sec, (b) 20 sec, (c) 40 sec. B. Change in the mean fluorescence intensity in the SiLN and in the efferent lymphatic vessel (ELV). The fluorescence intensity in the SiLN became saturated at 40 sec, while the intensity in the region of the ELV began to increase sharply at 20 sec, and then increased steadily up to 40 sec. A 120 μL volume of fluorescent solution was injected into the center of the SiLN at a velocity of 50 μL/min, using a syringe pump.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Fluid drainage pathways in the PALN after injection of fluorescent solution into the SiLN. A. Change in the fluorescence intensity in the PALN. (a) 0 sec, (b) 60 sec, (c) 120 sec after injection. ALV: afferent lymphatic vessel; LC: lymphatic channel. Scale: 1 mm. B. Relationship between the mean fluorescence intensity in the PALN and the time elapsed from the start of the injection. C. Fluid drainage pathways in the PALN in another mouse after the injection was terminated (after 144 sec). (a) The fluorescent solution derived from the two afferent lymphatic vessels emptied into the PALN around the periphery. The fluorescent solution took a circuitous route to the right-hand side and passed into the marginal sinus (MS). Scale: 1 mm. (b) The center was filled with fluorescent solution derived from the lymphatic channels and MS. Scale: 1 mm. The fluorescent solution (120 μL) was injected into the center of the SiLN at a velocity of 50 μL/min, using a driven syringe pump. PALN: proper axillary lymph node; ALV: afferent lymphatic vessel.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fluid drainage pathways in the AALN and PALN after injection of fluorescent solution into the AALN. A. Fluid drainage pathways in the AALN and PALN. Fluorescent solution was injected into the AALN. Flow was detected from the AALN to the PALN. (a) 0 sec, (b) 30 sec, (c) 60 sec, (d) 90 sec, (e) 120 sec after injection (n = 2). B. Relationship between mean fluorescence intensity and the time elapsed from the start of the injection. PALN: proper axillary lymph node; AALN: accessory axillary lymph node; none: regions outside the PALN and AALN. The fluorescent solution (120 μL) was injected into the center of the AALN at a velocity of 50 μL/min, using a driven syringe pump.

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