Abstract

Optical measurement of straylight in the human eye is a challenging task. Issues such as illumination geometry, detector sensitivity and dynamic range as well as various inherent artifacts must be addressed. We developed a novel instrument based on the principle of double-pass optical integration adapted for fast measurements in a clinical setting. The experimental setup was validated using four different diffusers introduced in front of the eyes of ten subjects. Measurement limitations and future implications of rapid optical measurement of straylight in ophthalmic diagnosis are discussed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. L. Holladay, “The fundamentals of glare and visibility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.12(4), 271–319 (1926).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Vos, “Disability glare - a state of the art report,” CIEJ3(2), 39–53 (1984).
  3. L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(2), 768–776 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A4(6), 1109–1114 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and D. R. Williams, “Odd aberrations and double-pass measurements of retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A12(2), 195–201 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. S. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis.12(3), 20 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. S. Stiles, “The effect of glare on the brightness difference threshold,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B104(731), 322 (1929).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. J. Vos and T. J. van den Berg, “Report on disability glare,” CIE Collection135, 1–9 (1999).
  9. J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res.82(4), 688–692 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(2), 294–300 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis.12(3), 20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(2), 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(2), 294–300 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res.82(4), 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. J. Vos and T. J. van den Berg, “Report on disability glare,” CIE Collection135, 1–9 (1999).

1995 (1)

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare - a state of the art report,” CIEJ3(2), 39–53 (1984).

1929 (1)

W. S. Stiles, “The effect of glare on the brightness difference threshold,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B104(731), 322 (1929).
[CrossRef]

1926 (1)

Artal, P.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis.12(3), 20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and D. R. Williams, “Odd aberrations and double-pass measurements of retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A12(2), 195–201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A4(6), 1109–1114 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bescós, J.

Bueno, J. M.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis.12(3), 20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coppens, J. E.

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(2), 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(2), 294–300 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res.82(4), 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Wit, G. C.

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(2), 294–300 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franssen, L.

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(2), 294–300 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(2), 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res.82(4), 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ginis, H. S.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis.12(3), 20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holladay, L. L.

Marcos, S.

Navarro, R.

Pennos, A.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perez, G. M.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pérez, G. M.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis.12(3), 20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santamaría, J.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, “The effect of glare on the brightness difference threshold,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B104(731), 322 (1929).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, T. J.

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(2), 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(2), 294–300 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res.82(4), 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos and T. J. van den Berg, “Report on disability glare,” CIE Collection135, 1–9 (1999).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos and T. J. van den Berg, “Report on disability glare,” CIE Collection135, 1–9 (1999).

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare - a state of the art report,” CIEJ3(2), 39–53 (1984).

Williams, D. R.

CIE Collection (1)

J. J. Vos and T. J. van den Berg, “Report on disability glare,” CIE Collection135, 1–9 (1999).

CIEJ (1)

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare - a state of the art report,” CIEJ3(2), 39–53 (1984).

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res.82(4), 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(2), 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(2), 294–300 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Vis. (1)

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis.12(3), 20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B (1)

W. S. Stiles, “The effect of glare on the brightness difference threshold,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B104(731), 322 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left: Schematic of the illumination and measurement arms. Right: Photograph of the device mounted on an ophthalmic instrument base for the measurement of human eyes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illumination and measurement geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Split video method for axial positioning of the instrument with respect to the eye’s pupil.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured signal and the modulus of its Fourier Transform.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Straylight induced by the filters (expressed as the logarithm of the straylight parameter). BPM1/4, BPM1/2, BPM1 and BPM2 refer to different diffusing filters that were introduced in front of the eyes that are manufactured to introduce progressively more straylight.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PSF(θ)= S θ 2
I a = I o θ 1 θ 2 2πθPSF(θ)dθ
I a = I o 0 θ 1 2πθPSF(θ)dθ
PS F dp = 1 2π θ s 1 θ 2 θ 1 I a I a + I d
S dp = θ s 2 PS F dp
S= S dp 2

Metrics