Abstract

Psoriasis is a skin autoimmune disease characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis and dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Healthy skin (5 volunteers) and psoriatic lesions (3 patients) were visualized in vivo, with high contrast and resolution, with a Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope and a Multiphoton Microscope. Psoriatic features were identified and quantified. The effective diameter of the superficial blood vessels was measured at 35.2 ± 7.2 μm and the elongated dermal papillae had an effective diameter of 64.2 ± 22.6 μm. The methodologies developed could be employed for quantitative diagnostic purposes and furthermore serve as a monitoring method of the effect of personalized treatments.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  35. P. I. Spuls, L. L. A. Lecluse, M. L. N. F. Poulsen, J. D. Bos, R. S. Stern, and T. Nijsten, “How Good Are Clinical Severity and Outcome Measures for Psoriasis?: Quantitative Evaluation in a Systematic Review,” J. Invest. Dermatol.130(4), 933–943 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

R. Archid, A. Patzelt, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, S. S. Ahmad, M. Ulrich, E. Stockfleth, S. Philipp, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 101511 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Koehler, A. Preller, P. Elsner, K. König, U. C. Hipler, and M. Kaatz, “Non-invasive evaluation of dermal elastosis by in vivo multiphoton tomography with autofluorescence lifetime measurements,” Exp. Dermatol.21(1), 48–51 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, R. T. de Boer-van Huizen, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Reflectance confocal microscopy: an effective tool for monitoring ultraviolet B phototherapy in psoriasis,” Br. J. Dermatol.167(2), 396–403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, J. Lademann, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Combined in vivo multiphoton and CARS imaging of healthy and disease-affected human skin,” Microsc. Res. Tech.75(4), 492–498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

E. Ayroldi, A. Bastianelli, L. Cannarile, M. G. Petrillo, D. V. Delfino, and A. Fierabracci, “A pathogenetic approach to autoimmune skin disease therapy: psoriasis and biological drugs, unresolved issues, and future directions,” Curr. Pharm. Des.17(29), 3176–3190 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. König, H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, E. Büttner, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Optical skin biopsies by clinical CARS and multiphoton fluorescence/SHG tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(6), 465–468 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, M. M. Teussink, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Cellular features of psoriatic skin: imaging and quantification using in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy,” Cytometry B Clin. Cytom.80(3), 141–149 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Patalay, C. Talbot, Y. Alexandrov, I. Munro, M. A. Neil, K. König, P. M. French, A. Chu, G. W. Stamp, and C. Dunsby, “Quantification of cellular autofluorescence of human skin using multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging in two spectral detection channels,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3295–3308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

H. G. Breunig, H. Studier, and K. König, “Multiphoton excitation characteristics of cellular fluorophores of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express18(8), 7857–7871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. O. Roberson and A. M. Bowcock, “Psoriasis genetics: breaking the barrier,” Trends Genet.26(9), 415–423 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Weger, “Current status and new developments in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis with biological agents,” Br. J. Pharmacol.160(4), 810–820 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Spuls, L. L. A. Lecluse, M. L. N. F. Poulsen, J. D. Bos, R. S. Stern, and T. Nijsten, “How Good Are Clinical Severity and Outcome Measures for Psoriasis?: Quantitative Evaluation in a Systematic Review,” J. Invest. Dermatol.130(4), 933–943 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Suárez-Fariñas, K. R. Shah, A. S. Haider, J. G. Krueger, and M. A. Lowes, “Personalized medicine in psoriasis: developing a genomic classifier to predict histological response to Alefacept,” BMC Dermatol.10, 1 (2010).
[PubMed]

R. T. Woolf and C. H. Smith, “How genetic variation affects patient response and outcome to therapy for psoriasis,” Expert Rev. Clin. Immunol.6(6), 957–966 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Schmid, J. Schindelin, A. Cardona, M. Longair, and M. Heisenberg, “A high-level 3D visualization API for Java and ImageJ,” BMC Bioinformatics11(1), 274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. Hegyi, V. Hegyi, G. Messer, P. Arenberger, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Confocal laser-scanning capillaroscopy: a novel approach to the analysis of skin capillaries in vivo,” Skin Res. Technol.15(4), 476–481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ardigo, C. Cota, E. Berardesca, and S. González, “Concordance between in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and histology in the evaluation of plaque psoriasis,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol.23(6), 660–667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dimitrow, I. Riemann, A. Ehlers, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, P. Elsner, K. König, and M. Kaatz, “Spectral fluorescence lifetime detection and selective melanin imaging by multiphoton laser tomography for melanoma diagnosis,” Exp. Dermatol.18(6), 509–515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

K. König, “Clinical multiphoton tomography,” J. Biophotonics1(1), 13–23 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, S. Sestini, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Nonlinear laser imaging of skin lesions,” J. Biophotonics1(1), 62–73 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. A. Palero, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg van den Heuvel, H. J. Sterenborg, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Spectrally resolved multiphoton imaging of in vivo and excised mouse skin tissues,” Biophys. J.93(3), 992–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Lowes, A. M. Bowcock, and J. G. Krueger, “Pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasis,” Nature445(7130), 866–873 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. Hern, A. W. Stanton, R. H. Mellor, C. C. Harland, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “In vivo quantification of the structural abnormalities in psoriatic microvessels before and after pulsed dye laser treatment,” Br. J. Dermatol.152(3), 505–511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

S. González, M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Rubinstein, and R. R. Anderson, “Characterization of psoriasis in vivo by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Med.30(5-6), 337–356 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

B. R. Masters, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, “Multiphoton excitation microscopy of in vivo human skin. Functional and morphological optical biopsy based on three-dimensional imaging, lifetime measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.838(1 ADVANCES IN O), 58–67 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol.127(7), 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmad, S. S.

R. Archid, A. Patzelt, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, S. S. Ahmad, M. Ulrich, E. Stockfleth, S. Philipp, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 101511 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, Y.

Alfano, R. R.

Alfieri, D.

Anderson, R. R.

S. González, M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Rubinstein, and R. R. Anderson, “Characterization of psoriasis in vivo by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Med.30(5-6), 337–356 (1999).
[PubMed]

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol.127(7), 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Archid, R.

R. Archid, A. Patzelt, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, S. S. Ahmad, M. Ulrich, E. Stockfleth, S. Philipp, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 101511 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ardigo, M.

M. Ardigo, C. Cota, E. Berardesca, and S. González, “Concordance between in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and histology in the evaluation of plaque psoriasis,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol.23(6), 660–667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arenberger, P.

J. Hegyi, V. Hegyi, G. Messer, P. Arenberger, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Confocal laser-scanning capillaroscopy: a novel approach to the analysis of skin capillaries in vivo,” Skin Res. Technol.15(4), 476–481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayroldi, E.

E. Ayroldi, A. Bastianelli, L. Cannarile, M. G. Petrillo, D. V. Delfino, and A. Fierabracci, “A pathogenetic approach to autoimmune skin disease therapy: psoriasis and biological drugs, unresolved issues, and future directions,” Curr. Pharm. Des.17(29), 3176–3190 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagci, I. S.

Y. K. Başaran, M. S. Gürel, A. T. Erdemir, E. Turan, N. Yurt, and I. S. Bağci, “Evaluation of the response to treatment of psoriasis vulgaris with reflectance confocal microscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basaran, Y. K.

Y. K. Başaran, M. S. Gürel, A. T. Erdemir, E. Turan, N. Yurt, and I. S. Bağci, “Evaluation of the response to treatment of psoriasis vulgaris with reflectance confocal microscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastianelli, A.

E. Ayroldi, A. Bastianelli, L. Cannarile, M. G. Petrillo, D. V. Delfino, and A. Fierabracci, “A pathogenetic approach to autoimmune skin disease therapy: psoriasis and biological drugs, unresolved issues, and future directions,” Curr. Pharm. Des.17(29), 3176–3190 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berardesca, E.

M. Ardigo, C. Cota, E. Berardesca, and S. González, “Concordance between in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and histology in the evaluation of plaque psoriasis,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol.23(6), 660–667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berking, C.

J. Hegyi, V. Hegyi, G. Messer, P. Arenberger, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Confocal laser-scanning capillaroscopy: a novel approach to the analysis of skin capillaries in vivo,” Skin Res. Technol.15(4), 476–481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bos, J. D.

P. I. Spuls, L. L. A. Lecluse, M. L. N. F. Poulsen, J. D. Bos, R. S. Stern, and T. Nijsten, “How Good Are Clinical Severity and Outcome Measures for Psoriasis?: Quantitative Evaluation in a Systematic Review,” J. Invest. Dermatol.130(4), 933–943 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowcock, A. M.

E. D. O. Roberson and A. M. Bowcock, “Psoriasis genetics: breaking the barrier,” Trends Genet.26(9), 415–423 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Lowes, A. M. Bowcock, and J. G. Krueger, “Pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasis,” Nature445(7130), 866–873 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breunig, H. G.

H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, J. Lademann, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Combined in vivo multiphoton and CARS imaging of healthy and disease-affected human skin,” Microsc. Res. Tech.75(4), 492–498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. König, H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, E. Büttner, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Optical skin biopsies by clinical CARS and multiphoton fluorescence/SHG tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(6), 465–468 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Breunig, H. Studier, and K. König, “Multiphoton excitation characteristics of cellular fluorophores of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express18(8), 7857–7871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruscino, N.

Bückle, R.

H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, J. Lademann, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Combined in vivo multiphoton and CARS imaging of healthy and disease-affected human skin,” Microsc. Res. Tech.75(4), 492–498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. König, H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, E. Büttner, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Optical skin biopsies by clinical CARS and multiphoton fluorescence/SHG tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(6), 465–468 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Büttner, E.

K. König, H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, E. Büttner, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Optical skin biopsies by clinical CARS and multiphoton fluorescence/SHG tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(6), 465–468 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Campolmi, P.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, M. Troiano, P. Campolmi, C. Morini, D. Massi, G. Cannarozzo, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In vivo non-invasive monitoring of collagen remodelling by two-photon microscopy after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing,” J. Biophotonics (2013) DOI .
[CrossRef]

Cannarile, L.

E. Ayroldi, A. Bastianelli, L. Cannarile, M. G. Petrillo, D. V. Delfino, and A. Fierabracci, “A pathogenetic approach to autoimmune skin disease therapy: psoriasis and biological drugs, unresolved issues, and future directions,” Curr. Pharm. Des.17(29), 3176–3190 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cannarozzo, G.

D. Kapsokalyvas, N. Bruscino, D. Alfieri, V. de Giorgi, G. Cannarozzo, R. Cicchi, D. Massi, N. Pimpinelli, and F. S. Pavone, “Spectral morphological analysis of skin lesions with a polarization multispectral dermoscope,” Opt. Express21(4), 4826–4840 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, M. Troiano, P. Campolmi, C. Morini, D. Massi, G. Cannarozzo, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In vivo non-invasive monitoring of collagen remodelling by two-photon microscopy after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing,” J. Biophotonics (2013) DOI .
[CrossRef]

Cardona, A.

B. Schmid, J. Schindelin, A. Cardona, M. Longair, and M. Heisenberg, “A high-level 3D visualization API for Java and ImageJ,” BMC Bioinformatics11(1), 274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, A.

Cicchi, R.

D. Kapsokalyvas, N. Bruscino, D. Alfieri, V. de Giorgi, G. Cannarozzo, R. Cicchi, D. Massi, N. Pimpinelli, and F. S. Pavone, “Spectral morphological analysis of skin lesions with a polarization multispectral dermoscope,” Opt. Express21(4), 4826–4840 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, S. Sestini, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Nonlinear laser imaging of skin lesions,” J. Biophotonics1(1), 62–73 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, M. Troiano, P. Campolmi, C. Morini, D. Massi, G. Cannarozzo, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In vivo non-invasive monitoring of collagen remodelling by two-photon microscopy after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing,” J. Biophotonics (2013) DOI .
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M. Ardigo, C. Cota, E. Berardesca, and S. González, “Concordance between in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and histology in the evaluation of plaque psoriasis,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol.23(6), 660–667 (2009).
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de Boer-van Huizen, R. T.

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, R. T. de Boer-van Huizen, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Reflectance confocal microscopy: an effective tool for monitoring ultraviolet B phototherapy in psoriasis,” Br. J. Dermatol.167(2), 396–403 (2012).
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de Bruijn, H. S.

J. A. Palero, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg van den Heuvel, H. J. Sterenborg, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Spectrally resolved multiphoton imaging of in vivo and excised mouse skin tissues,” Biophys. J.93(3), 992–1007 (2007).
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de Giorgi, V.

D. Kapsokalyvas, N. Bruscino, D. Alfieri, V. de Giorgi, G. Cannarozzo, R. Cicchi, D. Massi, N. Pimpinelli, and F. S. Pavone, “Spectral morphological analysis of skin lesions with a polarization multispectral dermoscope,” Opt. Express21(4), 4826–4840 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, S. Sestini, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Nonlinear laser imaging of skin lesions,” J. Biophotonics1(1), 62–73 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delfino, D. V.

E. Ayroldi, A. Bastianelli, L. Cannarile, M. G. Petrillo, D. V. Delfino, and A. Fierabracci, “A pathogenetic approach to autoimmune skin disease therapy: psoriasis and biological drugs, unresolved issues, and future directions,” Curr. Pharm. Des.17(29), 3176–3190 (2011).
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Demos, S. G.

Dimitrow, E.

E. Dimitrow, I. Riemann, A. Ehlers, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, P. Elsner, K. König, and M. Kaatz, “Spectral fluorescence lifetime detection and selective melanin imaging by multiphoton laser tomography for melanoma diagnosis,” Exp. Dermatol.18(6), 509–515 (2009).
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Dunsby, C.

Ehlers, A.

E. Dimitrow, I. Riemann, A. Ehlers, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, P. Elsner, K. König, and M. Kaatz, “Spectral fluorescence lifetime detection and selective melanin imaging by multiphoton laser tomography for melanoma diagnosis,” Exp. Dermatol.18(6), 509–515 (2009).
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Elsner, P.

M. J. Koehler, A. Preller, P. Elsner, K. König, U. C. Hipler, and M. Kaatz, “Non-invasive evaluation of dermal elastosis by in vivo multiphoton tomography with autofluorescence lifetime measurements,” Exp. Dermatol.21(1), 48–51 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dimitrow, I. Riemann, A. Ehlers, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, P. Elsner, K. König, and M. Kaatz, “Spectral fluorescence lifetime detection and selective melanin imaging by multiphoton laser tomography for melanoma diagnosis,” Exp. Dermatol.18(6), 509–515 (2009).
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Erdemir, A. T.

Y. K. Başaran, M. S. Gürel, A. T. Erdemir, E. Turan, N. Yurt, and I. S. Bağci, “Evaluation of the response to treatment of psoriasis vulgaris with reflectance confocal microscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. (2014), doi:.
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Fierabracci, A.

E. Ayroldi, A. Bastianelli, L. Cannarile, M. G. Petrillo, D. V. Delfino, and A. Fierabracci, “A pathogenetic approach to autoimmune skin disease therapy: psoriasis and biological drugs, unresolved issues, and future directions,” Curr. Pharm. Des.17(29), 3176–3190 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P. M.

Gerritsen, H. C.

J. A. Palero, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg van den Heuvel, H. J. Sterenborg, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Spectrally resolved multiphoton imaging of in vivo and excised mouse skin tissues,” Biophys. J.93(3), 992–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerritsen, M. J.

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, R. T. de Boer-van Huizen, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Reflectance confocal microscopy: an effective tool for monitoring ultraviolet B phototherapy in psoriasis,” Br. J. Dermatol.167(2), 396–403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, M. M. Teussink, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Cellular features of psoriatic skin: imaging and quantification using in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy,” Cytometry B Clin. Cytom.80(3), 141–149 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González, S.

M. Ardigo, C. Cota, E. Berardesca, and S. González, “Concordance between in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and histology in the evaluation of plaque psoriasis,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol.23(6), 660–667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. González, M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Rubinstein, and R. R. Anderson, “Characterization of psoriasis in vivo by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Med.30(5-6), 337–356 (1999).
[PubMed]

Gratton, E.

B. R. Masters, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, “Multiphoton excitation microscopy of in vivo human skin. Functional and morphological optical biopsy based on three-dimensional imaging, lifetime measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.838(1 ADVANCES IN O), 58–67 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gürel, M. S.

Y. K. Başaran, M. S. Gürel, A. T. Erdemir, E. Turan, N. Yurt, and I. S. Bağci, “Evaluation of the response to treatment of psoriasis vulgaris with reflectance confocal microscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haider, A. S.

M. Suárez-Fariñas, K. R. Shah, A. S. Haider, J. G. Krueger, and M. A. Lowes, “Personalized medicine in psoriasis: developing a genomic classifier to predict histological response to Alefacept,” BMC Dermatol.10, 1 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hancewicz, T. M.

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harland, C. C.

S. Hern, A. W. Stanton, R. H. Mellor, C. C. Harland, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “In vivo quantification of the structural abnormalities in psoriatic microvessels before and after pulsed dye laser treatment,” Br. J. Dermatol.152(3), 505–511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegyi, J.

J. Hegyi, V. Hegyi, G. Messer, P. Arenberger, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Confocal laser-scanning capillaroscopy: a novel approach to the analysis of skin capillaries in vivo,” Skin Res. Technol.15(4), 476–481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegyi, V.

J. Hegyi, V. Hegyi, G. Messer, P. Arenberger, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Confocal laser-scanning capillaroscopy: a novel approach to the analysis of skin capillaries in vivo,” Skin Res. Technol.15(4), 476–481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heisenberg, M.

B. Schmid, J. Schindelin, A. Cardona, M. Longair, and M. Heisenberg, “A high-level 3D visualization API for Java and ImageJ,” BMC Bioinformatics11(1), 274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hern, S.

S. Hern, A. W. Stanton, R. H. Mellor, C. C. Harland, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “In vivo quantification of the structural abnormalities in psoriatic microvessels before and after pulsed dye laser treatment,” Br. J. Dermatol.152(3), 505–511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hipler, U. C.

M. J. Koehler, A. Preller, P. Elsner, K. König, U. C. Hipler, and M. Kaatz, “Non-invasive evaluation of dermal elastosis by in vivo multiphoton tomography with autofluorescence lifetime measurements,” Exp. Dermatol.21(1), 48–51 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaatz, M.

M. J. Koehler, A. Preller, P. Elsner, K. König, U. C. Hipler, and M. Kaatz, “Non-invasive evaluation of dermal elastosis by in vivo multiphoton tomography with autofluorescence lifetime measurements,” Exp. Dermatol.21(1), 48–51 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dimitrow, I. Riemann, A. Ehlers, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, P. Elsner, K. König, and M. Kaatz, “Spectral fluorescence lifetime detection and selective melanin imaging by multiphoton laser tomography for melanoma diagnosis,” Exp. Dermatol.18(6), 509–515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, P. D.

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapsokalyvas, D.

D. Kapsokalyvas, N. Bruscino, D. Alfieri, V. de Giorgi, G. Cannarozzo, R. Cicchi, D. Massi, N. Pimpinelli, and F. S. Pavone, “Spectral morphological analysis of skin lesions with a polarization multispectral dermoscope,” Opt. Express21(4), 4826–4840 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, M. Troiano, P. Campolmi, C. Morini, D. Massi, G. Cannarozzo, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In vivo non-invasive monitoring of collagen remodelling by two-photon microscopy after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing,” J. Biophotonics (2013) DOI .
[CrossRef]

Kellner-Höfer, M.

H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, J. Lademann, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Combined in vivo multiphoton and CARS imaging of healthy and disease-affected human skin,” Microsc. Res. Tech.75(4), 492–498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. König, H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, E. Büttner, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Optical skin biopsies by clinical CARS and multiphoton fluorescence/SHG tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(6), 465–468 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, M. J.

M. J. Koehler, A. Preller, P. Elsner, K. König, U. C. Hipler, and M. Kaatz, “Non-invasive evaluation of dermal elastosis by in vivo multiphoton tomography with autofluorescence lifetime measurements,” Exp. Dermatol.21(1), 48–51 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dimitrow, I. Riemann, A. Ehlers, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, P. Elsner, K. König, and M. Kaatz, “Spectral fluorescence lifetime detection and selective melanin imaging by multiphoton laser tomography for melanoma diagnosis,” Exp. Dermatol.18(6), 509–515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, K.

M. J. Koehler, A. Preller, P. Elsner, K. König, U. C. Hipler, and M. Kaatz, “Non-invasive evaluation of dermal elastosis by in vivo multiphoton tomography with autofluorescence lifetime measurements,” Exp. Dermatol.21(1), 48–51 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, J. Lademann, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Combined in vivo multiphoton and CARS imaging of healthy and disease-affected human skin,” Microsc. Res. Tech.75(4), 492–498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. König, H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, E. Büttner, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Optical skin biopsies by clinical CARS and multiphoton fluorescence/SHG tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(6), 465–468 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Patalay, C. Talbot, Y. Alexandrov, I. Munro, M. A. Neil, K. König, P. M. French, A. Chu, G. W. Stamp, and C. Dunsby, “Quantification of cellular autofluorescence of human skin using multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging in two spectral detection channels,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3295–3308 (2011).
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H. G. Breunig, H. Studier, and K. König, “Multiphoton excitation characteristics of cellular fluorophores of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express18(8), 7857–7871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dimitrow, I. Riemann, A. Ehlers, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, P. Elsner, K. König, and M. Kaatz, “Spectral fluorescence lifetime detection and selective melanin imaging by multiphoton laser tomography for melanoma diagnosis,” Exp. Dermatol.18(6), 509–515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. König, “Clinical multiphoton tomography,” J. Biophotonics1(1), 13–23 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krueger, J. G.

M. Suárez-Fariñas, K. R. Shah, A. S. Haider, J. G. Krueger, and M. A. Lowes, “Personalized medicine in psoriasis: developing a genomic classifier to predict histological response to Alefacept,” BMC Dermatol.10, 1 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. A. Lowes, A. M. Bowcock, and J. G. Krueger, “Pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasis,” Nature445(7130), 866–873 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lademann, J.

H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, J. Lademann, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Combined in vivo multiphoton and CARS imaging of healthy and disease-affected human skin,” Microsc. Res. Tech.75(4), 492–498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Archid, A. Patzelt, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, S. S. Ahmad, M. Ulrich, E. Stockfleth, S. Philipp, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 101511 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. König, H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, E. Büttner, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Optical skin biopsies by clinical CARS and multiphoton fluorescence/SHG tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(6), 465–468 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laiho, L. H.

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange-Asschenfeldt, B.

R. Archid, A. Patzelt, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, S. S. Ahmad, M. Ulrich, E. Stockfleth, S. Philipp, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 101511 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lecluse, L. L. A.

P. I. Spuls, L. L. A. Lecluse, M. L. N. F. Poulsen, J. D. Bos, R. S. Stern, and T. Nijsten, “How Good Are Clinical Severity and Outcome Measures for Psoriasis?: Quantitative Evaluation in a Systematic Review,” J. Invest. Dermatol.130(4), 933–943 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levick, J. R.

S. Hern, A. W. Stanton, R. H. Mellor, C. C. Harland, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “In vivo quantification of the structural abnormalities in psoriatic microvessels before and after pulsed dye laser treatment,” Br. J. Dermatol.152(3), 505–511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longair, M.

B. Schmid, J. Schindelin, A. Cardona, M. Longair, and M. Heisenberg, “A high-level 3D visualization API for Java and ImageJ,” BMC Bioinformatics11(1), 274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotti, T.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, S. Sestini, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Nonlinear laser imaging of skin lesions,” J. Biophotonics1(1), 62–73 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, M. Troiano, P. Campolmi, C. Morini, D. Massi, G. Cannarozzo, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In vivo non-invasive monitoring of collagen remodelling by two-photon microscopy after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing,” J. Biophotonics (2013) DOI .
[CrossRef]

Lowes, M. A.

M. Suárez-Fariñas, K. R. Shah, A. S. Haider, J. G. Krueger, and M. A. Lowes, “Personalized medicine in psoriasis: developing a genomic classifier to predict histological response to Alefacept,” BMC Dermatol.10, 1 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. A. Lowes, A. M. Bowcock, and J. G. Krueger, “Pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasis,” Nature445(7130), 866–873 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maio, V.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massi, D.

D. Kapsokalyvas, N. Bruscino, D. Alfieri, V. de Giorgi, G. Cannarozzo, R. Cicchi, D. Massi, N. Pimpinelli, and F. S. Pavone, “Spectral morphological analysis of skin lesions with a polarization multispectral dermoscope,” Opt. Express21(4), 4826–4840 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, S. Sestini, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Nonlinear laser imaging of skin lesions,” J. Biophotonics1(1), 62–73 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, M. Troiano, P. Campolmi, C. Morini, D. Massi, G. Cannarozzo, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In vivo non-invasive monitoring of collagen remodelling by two-photon microscopy after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing,” J. Biophotonics (2013) DOI .
[CrossRef]

Masters, B.

Masters, B. R.

B. R. Masters, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, “Multiphoton excitation microscopy of in vivo human skin. Functional and morphological optical biopsy based on three-dimensional imaging, lifetime measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.838(1 ADVANCES IN O), 58–67 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mellor, R. H.

S. Hern, A. W. Stanton, R. H. Mellor, C. C. Harland, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “In vivo quantification of the structural abnormalities in psoriatic microvessels before and after pulsed dye laser treatment,” Br. J. Dermatol.152(3), 505–511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messer, G.

J. Hegyi, V. Hegyi, G. Messer, P. Arenberger, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Confocal laser-scanning capillaroscopy: a novel approach to the analysis of skin capillaries in vivo,” Skin Res. Technol.15(4), 476–481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morini, C.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, M. Troiano, P. Campolmi, C. Morini, D. Massi, G. Cannarozzo, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In vivo non-invasive monitoring of collagen remodelling by two-photon microscopy after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing,” J. Biophotonics (2013) DOI .
[CrossRef]

Mortimer, P. S.

S. Hern, A. W. Stanton, R. H. Mellor, C. C. Harland, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “In vivo quantification of the structural abnormalities in psoriatic microvessels before and after pulsed dye laser treatment,” Br. J. Dermatol.152(3), 505–511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, I.

Neil, M. A.

Nijsten, T.

P. I. Spuls, L. L. A. Lecluse, M. L. N. F. Poulsen, J. D. Bos, R. S. Stern, and T. Nijsten, “How Good Are Clinical Severity and Outcome Measures for Psoriasis?: Quantitative Evaluation in a Systematic Review,” J. Invest. Dermatol.130(4), 933–943 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norgauer, J.

E. Dimitrow, I. Riemann, A. Ehlers, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, P. Elsner, K. König, and M. Kaatz, “Spectral fluorescence lifetime detection and selective melanin imaging by multiphoton laser tomography for melanoma diagnosis,” Exp. Dermatol.18(6), 509–515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palero, J. A.

J. A. Palero, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg van den Heuvel, H. J. Sterenborg, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Spectrally resolved multiphoton imaging of in vivo and excised mouse skin tissues,” Biophys. J.93(3), 992–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patalay, R.

Patzelt, A.

R. Archid, A. Patzelt, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, S. S. Ahmad, M. Ulrich, E. Stockfleth, S. Philipp, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 101511 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavone, F. S.

D. Kapsokalyvas, N. Bruscino, D. Alfieri, V. de Giorgi, G. Cannarozzo, R. Cicchi, D. Massi, N. Pimpinelli, and F. S. Pavone, “Spectral morphological analysis of skin lesions with a polarization multispectral dermoscope,” Opt. Express21(4), 4826–4840 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, S. Sestini, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Nonlinear laser imaging of skin lesions,” J. Biophotonics1(1), 62–73 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, M. Troiano, P. Campolmi, C. Morini, D. Massi, G. Cannarozzo, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In vivo non-invasive monitoring of collagen remodelling by two-photon microscopy after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing,” J. Biophotonics (2013) DOI .
[CrossRef]

Pelet, S.

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrillo, M. G.

E. Ayroldi, A. Bastianelli, L. Cannarile, M. G. Petrillo, D. V. Delfino, and A. Fierabracci, “A pathogenetic approach to autoimmune skin disease therapy: psoriasis and biological drugs, unresolved issues, and future directions,” Curr. Pharm. Des.17(29), 3176–3190 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philipp, S.

R. Archid, A. Patzelt, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, S. S. Ahmad, M. Ulrich, E. Stockfleth, S. Philipp, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 101511 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pimpinelli, N.

Poulsen, M. L. N. F.

P. I. Spuls, L. L. A. Lecluse, M. L. N. F. Poulsen, J. D. Bos, R. S. Stern, and T. Nijsten, “How Good Are Clinical Severity and Outcome Measures for Psoriasis?: Quantitative Evaluation in a Systematic Review,” J. Invest. Dermatol.130(4), 933–943 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preller, A.

M. J. Koehler, A. Preller, P. Elsner, K. König, U. C. Hipler, and M. Kaatz, “Non-invasive evaluation of dermal elastosis by in vivo multiphoton tomography with autofluorescence lifetime measurements,” Exp. Dermatol.21(1), 48–51 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

S. González, M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Rubinstein, and R. R. Anderson, “Characterization of psoriasis in vivo by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Med.30(5-6), 337–356 (1999).
[PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riemann, I.

E. Dimitrow, I. Riemann, A. Ehlers, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, P. Elsner, K. König, and M. Kaatz, “Spectral fluorescence lifetime detection and selective melanin imaging by multiphoton laser tomography for melanoma diagnosis,” Exp. Dermatol.18(6), 509–515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberson, E. D. O.

E. D. O. Roberson and A. M. Bowcock, “Psoriasis genetics: breaking the barrier,” Trends Genet.26(9), 415–423 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinstein, G.

S. González, M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Rubinstein, and R. R. Anderson, “Characterization of psoriasis in vivo by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Med.30(5-6), 337–356 (1999).
[PubMed]

Ruzicka, T.

J. Hegyi, V. Hegyi, G. Messer, P. Arenberger, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Confocal laser-scanning capillaroscopy: a novel approach to the analysis of skin capillaries in vivo,” Skin Res. Technol.15(4), 476–481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schindelin, J.

B. Schmid, J. Schindelin, A. Cardona, M. Longair, and M. Heisenberg, “A high-level 3D visualization API for Java and ImageJ,” BMC Bioinformatics11(1), 274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, B.

B. Schmid, J. Schindelin, A. Cardona, M. Longair, and M. Heisenberg, “A high-level 3D visualization API for Java and ImageJ,” BMC Bioinformatics11(1), 274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sestini, S.

R. Cicchi, S. Sestini, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Nonlinear laser imaging of skin lesions,” J. Biophotonics1(1), 62–73 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, K. R.

M. Suárez-Fariñas, K. R. Shah, A. S. Haider, J. G. Krueger, and M. A. Lowes, “Personalized medicine in psoriasis: developing a genomic classifier to predict histological response to Alefacept,” BMC Dermatol.10, 1 (2010).
[PubMed]

Smith, C. H.

R. T. Woolf and C. H. Smith, “How genetic variation affects patient response and outcome to therapy for psoriasis,” Expert Rev. Clin. Immunol.6(6), 957–966 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P.

So, P. T.

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Masters, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, “Multiphoton excitation microscopy of in vivo human skin. Functional and morphological optical biopsy based on three-dimensional imaging, lifetime measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.838(1 ADVANCES IN O), 58–67 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spuls, P. I.

P. I. Spuls, L. L. A. Lecluse, M. L. N. F. Poulsen, J. D. Bos, R. S. Stern, and T. Nijsten, “How Good Are Clinical Severity and Outcome Measures for Psoriasis?: Quantitative Evaluation in a Systematic Review,” J. Invest. Dermatol.130(4), 933–943 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamp, G. W.

Stanton, A. W.

S. Hern, A. W. Stanton, R. H. Mellor, C. C. Harland, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “In vivo quantification of the structural abnormalities in psoriatic microvessels before and after pulsed dye laser treatment,” Br. J. Dermatol.152(3), 505–511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

J. A. Palero, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg van den Heuvel, H. J. Sterenborg, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Spectrally resolved multiphoton imaging of in vivo and excised mouse skin tissues,” Biophys. J.93(3), 992–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, R. S.

P. I. Spuls, L. L. A. Lecluse, M. L. N. F. Poulsen, J. D. Bos, R. S. Stern, and T. Nijsten, “How Good Are Clinical Severity and Outcome Measures for Psoriasis?: Quantitative Evaluation in a Systematic Review,” J. Invest. Dermatol.130(4), 933–943 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterry, W.

H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, J. Lademann, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Combined in vivo multiphoton and CARS imaging of healthy and disease-affected human skin,” Microsc. Res. Tech.75(4), 492–498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Archid, A. Patzelt, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, S. S. Ahmad, M. Ulrich, E. Stockfleth, S. Philipp, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 101511 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. König, H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, E. Büttner, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Optical skin biopsies by clinical CARS and multiphoton fluorescence/SHG tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(6), 465–468 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stockfleth, E.

R. Archid, A. Patzelt, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, S. S. Ahmad, M. Ulrich, E. Stockfleth, S. Philipp, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 101511 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Studier, H.

Suárez-Fariñas, M.

M. Suárez-Fariñas, K. R. Shah, A. S. Haider, J. G. Krueger, and M. A. Lowes, “Personalized medicine in psoriasis: developing a genomic classifier to predict histological response to Alefacept,” BMC Dermatol.10, 1 (2010).
[PubMed]

Talbot, C.

Teussink, M. M.

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, M. M. Teussink, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Cellular features of psoriatic skin: imaging and quantification using in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy,” Cytometry B Clin. Cytom.80(3), 141–149 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troiano, M.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, M. Troiano, P. Campolmi, C. Morini, D. Massi, G. Cannarozzo, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In vivo non-invasive monitoring of collagen remodelling by two-photon microscopy after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing,” J. Biophotonics (2013) DOI .
[CrossRef]

Turan, E.

Y. K. Başaran, M. S. Gürel, A. T. Erdemir, E. Turan, N. Yurt, and I. S. Bağci, “Evaluation of the response to treatment of psoriasis vulgaris with reflectance confocal microscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulrich, M.

R. Archid, A. Patzelt, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, S. S. Ahmad, M. Ulrich, E. Stockfleth, S. Philipp, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 101511 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Kerkhof, P. C.

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, R. T. de Boer-van Huizen, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Reflectance confocal microscopy: an effective tool for monitoring ultraviolet B phototherapy in psoriasis,” Br. J. Dermatol.167(2), 396–403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, M. M. Teussink, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Cellular features of psoriatic skin: imaging and quantification using in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy,” Cytometry B Clin. Cytom.80(3), 141–149 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Ploeg van den Heuvel, A.

J. A. Palero, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg van den Heuvel, H. J. Sterenborg, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Spectrally resolved multiphoton imaging of in vivo and excised mouse skin tissues,” Biophys. J.93(3), 992–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Erp, P. E.

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, R. T. de Boer-van Huizen, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Reflectance confocal microscopy: an effective tool for monitoring ultraviolet B phototherapy in psoriasis,” Br. J. Dermatol.167(2), 396–403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, M. M. Teussink, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Cellular features of psoriatic skin: imaging and quantification using in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy,” Cytometry B Clin. Cytom.80(3), 141–149 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Wiechen, A.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weger, W.

W. Weger, “Current status and new developments in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis with biological agents,” Br. J. Pharmacol.160(4), 810–820 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinigel, M.

H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, J. Lademann, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Combined in vivo multiphoton and CARS imaging of healthy and disease-affected human skin,” Microsc. Res. Tech.75(4), 492–498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. König, H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, E. Büttner, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Optical skin biopsies by clinical CARS and multiphoton fluorescence/SHG tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(6), 465–468 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wolberink, E. A.

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, R. T. de Boer-van Huizen, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Reflectance confocal microscopy: an effective tool for monitoring ultraviolet B phototherapy in psoriasis,” Br. J. Dermatol.167(2), 396–403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, M. M. Teussink, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Cellular features of psoriatic skin: imaging and quantification using in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy,” Cytometry B Clin. Cytom.80(3), 141–149 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woolf, R. T.

R. T. Woolf and C. H. Smith, “How genetic variation affects patient response and outcome to therapy for psoriasis,” Expert Rev. Clin. Immunol.6(6), 957–966 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurt, N.

Y. K. Başaran, M. S. Gürel, A. T. Erdemir, E. Turan, N. Yurt, and I. S. Bağci, “Evaluation of the response to treatment of psoriasis vulgaris with reflectance confocal microscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

B. R. Masters, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, “Multiphoton excitation microscopy of in vivo human skin. Functional and morphological optical biopsy based on three-dimensional imaging, lifetime measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.838(1 ADVANCES IN O), 58–67 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Dermatol. (1)

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol.127(7), 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

J. A. Palero, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg van den Heuvel, H. J. Sterenborg, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Spectrally resolved multiphoton imaging of in vivo and excised mouse skin tissues,” Biophys. J.93(3), 992–1007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

BMC Bioinformatics (1)

B. Schmid, J. Schindelin, A. Cardona, M. Longair, and M. Heisenberg, “A high-level 3D visualization API for Java and ImageJ,” BMC Bioinformatics11(1), 274 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

BMC Dermatol. (1)

M. Suárez-Fariñas, K. R. Shah, A. S. Haider, J. G. Krueger, and M. A. Lowes, “Personalized medicine in psoriasis: developing a genomic classifier to predict histological response to Alefacept,” BMC Dermatol.10, 1 (2010).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol. (2)

S. Hern, A. W. Stanton, R. H. Mellor, C. C. Harland, J. R. Levick, and P. S. Mortimer, “In vivo quantification of the structural abnormalities in psoriatic microvessels before and after pulsed dye laser treatment,” Br. J. Dermatol.152(3), 505–511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, R. T. de Boer-van Huizen, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Reflectance confocal microscopy: an effective tool for monitoring ultraviolet B phototherapy in psoriasis,” Br. J. Dermatol.167(2), 396–403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Pharmacol. (1)

W. Weger, “Current status and new developments in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis with biological agents,” Br. J. Pharmacol.160(4), 810–820 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Pharm. Des. (1)

E. Ayroldi, A. Bastianelli, L. Cannarile, M. G. Petrillo, D. V. Delfino, and A. Fierabracci, “A pathogenetic approach to autoimmune skin disease therapy: psoriasis and biological drugs, unresolved issues, and future directions,” Curr. Pharm. Des.17(29), 3176–3190 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry B Clin. Cytom. (1)

E. A. Wolberink, P. E. van Erp, M. M. Teussink, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and M. J. Gerritsen, “Cellular features of psoriatic skin: imaging and quantification using in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy,” Cytometry B Clin. Cytom.80(3), 141–149 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Dermatol. (2)

E. Dimitrow, I. Riemann, A. Ehlers, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, P. Elsner, K. König, and M. Kaatz, “Spectral fluorescence lifetime detection and selective melanin imaging by multiphoton laser tomography for melanoma diagnosis,” Exp. Dermatol.18(6), 509–515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Koehler, A. Preller, P. Elsner, K. König, U. C. Hipler, and M. Kaatz, “Non-invasive evaluation of dermal elastosis by in vivo multiphoton tomography with autofluorescence lifetime measurements,” Exp. Dermatol.21(1), 48–51 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Expert Rev. Clin. Immunol. (1)

R. T. Woolf and C. H. Smith, “How genetic variation affects patient response and outcome to therapy for psoriasis,” Expert Rev. Clin. Immunol.6(6), 957–966 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

R. Archid, A. Patzelt, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, S. S. Ahmad, M. Ulrich, E. Stockfleth, S. Philipp, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 101511 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (3)

R. Cicchi, S. Sestini, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Nonlinear laser imaging of skin lesions,” J. Biophotonics1(1), 62–73 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, V. De Giorgi, V. Maio, A. Van Wiechen, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Scoring of collagen organization in healthy and diseased human dermis by multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 34–43 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. König, “Clinical multiphoton tomography,” J. Biophotonics1(1), 13–23 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. (1)

M. Ardigo, C. Cota, E. Berardesca, and S. González, “Concordance between in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and histology in the evaluation of plaque psoriasis,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol.23(6), 660–667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

P. I. Spuls, L. L. A. Lecluse, M. L. N. F. Poulsen, J. D. Bos, R. S. Stern, and T. Nijsten, “How Good Are Clinical Severity and Outcome Measures for Psoriasis?: Quantitative Evaluation in a Systematic Review,” J. Invest. Dermatol.130(4), 933–943 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Med. (1)

S. González, M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Rubinstein, and R. R. Anderson, “Characterization of psoriasis in vivo by reflectance confocal microscopy,” J. Med.30(5-6), 337–356 (1999).
[PubMed]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

K. König, H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, E. Büttner, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Optical skin biopsies by clinical CARS and multiphoton fluorescence/SHG tomography,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(6), 465–468 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, J. Lademann, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Combined in vivo multiphoton and CARS imaging of healthy and disease-affected human skin,” Microsc. Res. Tech.75(4), 492–498 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

M. A. Lowes, A. M. Bowcock, and J. G. Krueger, “Pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasis,” Nature445(7130), 866–873 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Skin Res. Technol. (1)

J. Hegyi, V. Hegyi, G. Messer, P. Arenberger, T. Ruzicka, and C. Berking, “Confocal laser-scanning capillaroscopy: a novel approach to the analysis of skin capillaries in vivo,” Skin Res. Technol.15(4), 476–481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Genet. (1)

E. D. O. Roberson and A. M. Bowcock, “Psoriasis genetics: breaking the barrier,” Trends Genet.26(9), 415–423 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, M. Troiano, P. Campolmi, C. Morini, D. Massi, G. Cannarozzo, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In vivo non-invasive monitoring of collagen remodelling by two-photon microscopy after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing,” J. Biophotonics (2013) DOI .
[CrossRef]

K. Wolff and T. B. Fitzpatrick, Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine, 7th ed. Klaus Wolff, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2008), pp. 2 v. (xxxv, 2402, 2136 p.).

R. G. Langley, G. G. Krueger, and C. E. Griffiths, “Psoriasis: epidemiology, clinical features, and quality of life,” Ann Rheum Dis 64 Suppl 2, ii18–23; discussion ii24–15 (2005).

J. Malvehy, Handbook of Dermoscopy (Taylor & Francis, 2006), p. 95

Y. K. Başaran, M. S. Gürel, A. T. Erdemir, E. Turan, N. Yurt, and I. S. Bağci, “Evaluation of the response to treatment of psoriasis vulgaris with reflectance confocal microscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multiphoton Microscope, a) A schematic view of the experimental setup, b) A photograph of the Multiphoton Microscope where the articulated arm and the microscope head are visible. In the inset, a magnified photo of the configuration used for in-vivo imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope images. Healthy skin (a-c). Psoriasis (d-i). a)Dermoscopic white light image, b) Blood Contrast, blood vessels are encoded dark grey, small ones are visible c) Scattering Contrast, well defined wrinkle network is visible, d) Dermoscopic white light image where homogeneous red dots with some patches of pink to bright red are visible, e) Blood Contrast image, bigger blood vessels are visible. Inset: magnified vessel details, f) Scattering Contrast image. The wrinkle network is completely absent. Arrow: wrinkle, circles: dark parallel structures g) The vessel segmentation image, f) Blood Contrast image merged with the segmented image, i) Scattering Contrast image merged with the segmented image, blood vessels do not colocalize with the characteristic dark parallel structures of psoriasis. (Scale bar: 1mm)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two photon autofluorescence images of the layers of the epidermis. The images are from the dorsal forearm of healthy (a-d) and psoriatic (e-h) skin. Scale bars: 50 μm

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SHG images of the dermis, a-f) Images from healthy papillary dermis, g-l) Images from psoriatic papillary dermis, the ellipse in g) marks the surface of the papilla measured (scale bars: 50 μm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3D reconstruction of the dermal layer of healthy a),c) and psoriatic b),d) skin lesion. a) and b) the 3D volumes view is set to the x-y plane. c) and d) the volumes are rotated 30° in the y-z plane. c) The papillae in healthy skin are short, typically 30 μm and with small diameter around 29 μm. d) Psoriatic papillae dimensions are bigger with typical lengths more than 100 μm and a diameter of around 65 μm. (Scale bars: 50 μm).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the measured vessel and papillae characteristics in psoriasis and healthy skin

Metrics