Abstract

We present optical coherence micro-elastography, an improved form of compression optical coherence elastography. We demonstrate the capacity of this technique to produce en face images, closely corresponding with histology, that reveal micro-scale mechanical contrast in human breast and lymph node tissues. We use phase-sensitive, three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) to probe the nanometer-to-micrometer-scale axial displacements in tissues induced by compressive loading. Optical coherence micro-elastography incorporates common-path interferometry, weighted averaging of the complex OCT signal and weighted least-squares regression. Using three-dimensional phase unwrapping, we have increased the maximum detectable strain eleven-fold over no unwrapping and the minimum detectable strain is 2.6 με. We demonstrate the potential of mechanical over optical contrast for visualizing micro-scale tissue structures in human breast cancer pathology and lymph node morphology.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2014 (2)

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20, 7101217 (2014).

K. M. Kennedy, S. Es’haghian, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Optical palpation: Optical coherence tomography-based tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” Opt. Lett.39(10), 3014–3017 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (5)

S. Song, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Tracking mechanical wave propagation within tissue using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: motion artifact and its compensation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol.58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nahas, M. Bauer, S. Roux, and A. C. Boccara, “3D static elastography at the micrometer scale using Full Field OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(10), 2138–2149 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (10)

K. D. Mohan and A. L. Oldenburg, “Elastography of soft materials and tissues by holographic imaging of surface acoustic waves,” Opt. Express20(17), 18887–18897 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, X. Cheng, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative elastography provided by surface acoustic waves measured by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 722–724 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, J. Li, R. K. Manapuram, F. M. Menodiado, D. R. Ingram, M. D. Twa, A. J. Lazar, D. C. Lev, R. E. Pollock, and K. V. Larin, “Noncontact measurement of elasticity for the detection of soft-tissue tumors using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography combined with a focused air-puff system,” Opt. Lett.37(24), 5184–5186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Plodinec, M. Loparic, C. A. Monnier, E. C. Obermann, R. Zanetti-Dallenbach, P. Oertle, J. T. Hyotyla, U. Aebi, M. Bentires-Alj, R. Y. H. Lim, and C.-A. Schoenenberger, “The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 757–765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Corpechot, F. Carrat, A. Poujol-Robert, F. Gaouar, D. Wendum, O. Chazouillères, and R. Poupon, “Noninvasive elastography-based assessment of liver fibrosis progression and prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis,” Hepatology56(1), 198–208 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Parker, M. M. Doyley, and D. J. Rubens, “Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(1), R1–R29 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sun, B. Standish, and V. X. Yang, “Optical coherence elastography: current status and future applications,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 043001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Structured three-dimensional optical phantom for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(20), 19480–19485 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Butcher, T. Alliston, and V. M. Weaver, “A tense situation: forcing tumour progression,” Nat. Rev. Cancer9(2), 108–122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

G. Y. Lee and C. T. Lim, “Biomechanics approaches to studying human diseases,” Trends Biotechnol.25(3), 111–118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 microm,” Opt. Express13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Nadkarni, B. E. Bouma, T. Helg, R. Chan, E. Halpern, A. Chau, M. S. Minsky, J. T. Motz, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by laser speckle imaging,” Circulation112(6), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. H. Chau, R. C. Chan, M. Shishkov, B. MacNeill, N. Iftimia, G. J. Tearney, R. D. Kamm, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, “Mechanical analysis of atherosclerotic plaques based on optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.32(11), 1494–1503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chan, A. Chau, W. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. Tearney, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Vakhtin, D. J. Kane, W. R. Wood, and K. A. Peterson, “Common-path interferometer for frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt.42(34), 6953–6958 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Weissleder, “Scaling down imaging: molecular mapping of cancer in mice,” Nat. Rev. Cancer2(1), 11–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

1995 (1)

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

Aebi, U.

M. Plodinec, M. Loparic, C. A. Monnier, E. C. Obermann, R. Zanetti-Dallenbach, P. Oertle, J. T. Hyotyla, U. Aebi, M. Bentires-Alj, R. Y. H. Lim, and C.-A. Schoenenberger, “The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 757–765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alliston, T.

D. T. Butcher, T. Alliston, and V. M. Weaver, “A tense situation: forcing tumour progression,” Nat. Rev. Cancer9(2), 108–122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balu-Maestro, C.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, M.

Bellafiore, F. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentires-Alj, M.

M. Plodinec, M. Loparic, C. A. Monnier, E. C. Obermann, R. Zanetti-Dallenbach, P. Oertle, J. T. Hyotyla, U. Aebi, M. Bentires-Alj, R. Y. H. Lim, and C.-A. Schoenenberger, “The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 757–765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, H. C.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, W. A.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bisaillon, C.-E.

Blair, D. F.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, S. M.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boccara, A. C.

Boppart, S. A.

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

S. K. Nadkarni, B. E. Bouma, T. Helg, R. Chan, E. Halpern, A. Chau, M. S. Minsky, J. T. Motz, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by laser speckle imaging,” Circulation112(6), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Chau, R. C. Chan, M. Shishkov, B. MacNeill, N. Iftimia, G. J. Tearney, R. D. Kamm, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, “Mechanical analysis of atherosclerotic plaques based on optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.32(11), 1494–1503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bush, M. B.

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. T. Butcher, T. Alliston, and V. M. Weaver, “A tense situation: forcing tumour progression,” Nat. Rev. Cancer9(2), 108–122 (2009).
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Campbell, G.

Carrat, F.

C. Corpechot, F. Carrat, A. Poujol-Robert, F. Gaouar, D. Wendum, O. Chazouillères, and R. Poupon, “Noninvasive elastography-based assessment of liver fibrosis progression and prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis,” Hepatology56(1), 198–208 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavanaugh, B. C.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Céspedes, I.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, R.

S. K. Nadkarni, B. E. Bouma, T. Helg, R. Chan, E. Halpern, A. Chau, M. S. Minsky, J. T. Motz, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by laser speckle imaging,” Circulation112(6), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chan, A. Chau, W. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. Tearney, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, R. C.

A. H. Chau, R. C. Chan, M. Shishkov, B. MacNeill, N. Iftimia, G. J. Tearney, R. D. Kamm, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, “Mechanical analysis of atherosclerotic plaques based on optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.32(11), 1494–1503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chau, A.

S. K. Nadkarni, B. E. Bouma, T. Helg, R. Chan, E. Halpern, A. Chau, M. S. Minsky, J. T. Motz, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by laser speckle imaging,” Circulation112(6), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chan, A. Chau, W. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. Tearney, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chau, A. H.

A. H. Chau, R. C. Chan, M. Shishkov, B. MacNeill, N. Iftimia, G. J. Tearney, R. D. Kamm, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, “Mechanical analysis of atherosclerotic plaques based on optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.32(11), 1494–1503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chazouillères, O.

C. Corpechot, F. Carrat, A. Poujol-Robert, F. Gaouar, D. Wendum, O. Chazouillères, and R. Poupon, “Noninvasive elastography-based assessment of liver fibrosis progression and prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis,” Hepatology56(1), 198–208 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

Chin, L.

Chou, L.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen-Bacrie, C.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corpechot, C.

C. Corpechot, F. Carrat, A. Poujol-Robert, F. Gaouar, D. Wendum, O. Chazouillères, and R. Poupon, “Noninvasive elastography-based assessment of liver fibrosis progression and prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis,” Hepatology56(1), 198–208 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cosgrove, D. O.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

de Boer, J.

Doré, C. J.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
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Doyley, M. M.

K. J. Parker, M. M. Doyley, and D. J. Rubens, “Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(1), R1–R29 (2011).
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Dupps, W. J.

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehman, R. L.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Es’haghian, S.

Fatemi, M.

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, C.

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, M. R.

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaouar, F.

C. Corpechot, F. Carrat, A. Poujol-Robert, F. Gaouar, D. Wendum, O. Chazouillères, and R. Poupon, “Noninvasive elastography-based assessment of liver fibrosis progression and prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis,” Hepatology56(1), 198–208 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gay, J.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerstmann, D. K.

Greenleaf, J. F.

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guan, G.

Halpern, E.

S. K. Nadkarni, B. E. Bouma, T. Helg, R. Chan, E. Halpern, A. Chau, M. S. Minsky, J. T. Motz, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by laser speckle imaging,” Circulation112(6), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamza, S.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helg, T.

S. K. Nadkarni, B. E. Bouma, T. Helg, R. Chan, E. Halpern, A. Chau, M. S. Minsky, J. T. Motz, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by laser speckle imaging,” Circulation112(6), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, J.-P.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinds, M.

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hooley, R. J.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houser, S. L.

S. K. Nadkarni, B. E. Bouma, T. Helg, R. Chan, E. Halpern, A. Chau, M. S. Minsky, J. T. Motz, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by laser speckle imaging,” Circulation112(6), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

S. Song, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Tracking mechanical wave propagation within tissue using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: motion artifact and its compensation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, X. Cheng, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative elastography provided by surface acoustic waves measured by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 722–724 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyotyla, J. T.

M. Plodinec, M. Loparic, C. A. Monnier, E. C. Obermann, R. Zanetti-Dallenbach, P. Oertle, J. T. Hyotyla, U. Aebi, M. Bentires-Alj, R. Y. H. Lim, and C.-A. Schoenenberger, “The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 757–765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

R. Chan, A. Chau, W. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. Tearney, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Chau, R. C. Chan, M. Shishkov, B. MacNeill, N. Iftimia, G. J. Tearney, R. D. Kamm, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, “Mechanical analysis of atherosclerotic plaques based on optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.32(11), 1494–1503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingram, D. R.

Insana, M.

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Johnson, P. A.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juhan, V.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaazempur-Mofrad, M.

Kaazempur-Mofrad, M. R.

A. H. Chau, R. C. Chan, M. Shishkov, B. MacNeill, N. Iftimia, G. J. Tearney, R. D. Kamm, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, “Mechanical analysis of atherosclerotic plaques based on optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.32(11), 1494–1503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamm, R. D.

A. H. Chau, R. C. Chan, M. Shishkov, B. MacNeill, N. Iftimia, G. J. Tearney, R. D. Kamm, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, “Mechanical analysis of atherosclerotic plaques based on optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.32(11), 1494–1503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

Karl, W.

Kennedy, B. F.

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20, 7101217 (2014).

K. M. Kennedy, S. Es’haghian, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Optical palpation: Optical coherence tomography-based tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” Opt. Lett.39(10), 3014–3017 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Structured three-dimensional optical phantom for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(20), 19480–19485 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, K. M.

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20, 7101217 (2014).

K. M. Kennedy, S. Es’haghian, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Optical palpation: Optical coherence tomography-based tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” Opt. Lett.39(10), 3014–3017 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalil, A.

Kirkpatrick, S.

R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Acoustically modulated speckle imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Lett.23(11), 879–881 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koh, S. H.

Kotynek, J. G.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Lamouche, G.

Larin, K. V.

Latham, B.

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lazar, A. J.

Lee, G. Y.

G. Y. Lee and C. T. Lim, “Biomechanics approaches to studying human diseases,” Trends Biotechnol.25(3), 111–118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lev, D. C.

Li, C.

Li, J.

Li, X.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Lim, C. T.

G. Y. Lee and C. T. Lim, “Biomechanics approaches to studying human diseases,” Trends Biotechnol.25(3), 111–118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, R. Y. H.

M. Plodinec, M. Loparic, C. A. Monnier, E. C. Obermann, R. Zanetti-Dallenbach, P. Oertle, J. T. Hyotyla, U. Aebi, M. Bentires-Alj, R. Y. H. Lim, and C.-A. Schoenenberger, “The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 757–765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Locatelli, M.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
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R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
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M. Plodinec, M. Loparic, C. A. Monnier, E. C. Obermann, R. Zanetti-Dallenbach, P. Oertle, J. T. Hyotyla, U. Aebi, M. Bentires-Alj, R. Y. H. Lim, and C.-A. Schoenenberger, “The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 757–765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A. H. Chau, R. C. Chan, M. Shishkov, B. MacNeill, N. Iftimia, G. J. Tearney, R. D. Kamm, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, “Mechanical analysis of atherosclerotic plaques based on optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.32(11), 1494–1503 (2004).
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Manduca, A.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
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Mendelson, E. B.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
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Minsky, M. S.

S. K. Nadkarni, B. E. Bouma, T. Helg, R. Chan, E. Halpern, A. Chau, M. S. Minsky, J. T. Motz, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by laser speckle imaging,” Circulation112(6), 885–892 (2005).
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Mohan, K. D.

Monnier, C. A.

M. Plodinec, M. Loparic, C. A. Monnier, E. C. Obermann, R. Zanetti-Dallenbach, P. Oertle, J. T. Hyotyla, U. Aebi, M. Bentires-Alj, R. Y. H. Lim, and C.-A. Schoenenberger, “The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 757–765 (2012).
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S. K. Nadkarni, B. E. Bouma, T. Helg, R. Chan, E. Halpern, A. Chau, M. S. Minsky, J. T. Motz, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by laser speckle imaging,” Circulation112(6), 885–892 (2005).
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Mujat, M.

Munro, P. R. T.

Muthupillai, R.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S.

Nadkarni, S. K.

S. K. Nadkarni, B. E. Bouma, T. Helg, R. Chan, E. Halpern, A. Chau, M. S. Minsky, J. T. Motz, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by laser speckle imaging,” Circulation112(6), 885–892 (2005).
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Nahas, A.

Nguyen, F. T.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
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M. Plodinec, M. Loparic, C. A. Monnier, E. C. Obermann, R. Zanetti-Dallenbach, P. Oertle, J. T. Hyotyla, U. Aebi, M. Bentires-Alj, R. Y. H. Lim, and C.-A. Schoenenberger, “The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 757–765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Plodinec, M. Loparic, C. A. Monnier, E. C. Obermann, R. Zanetti-Dallenbach, P. Oertle, J. T. Hyotyla, U. Aebi, M. Bentires-Alj, R. Y. H. Lim, and C.-A. Schoenenberger, “The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 757–765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohlinger, R.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
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Oliphant, U. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophir, J.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
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Park, B.

Parker, K. J.

K. J. Parker, M. M. Doyley, and D. J. Rubens, “Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(1), R1–R29 (2011).
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Pazos, V.

Peterson, K. A.

Pierce, M. C.

Plodinec, M.

M. Plodinec, M. Loparic, C. A. Monnier, E. C. Obermann, R. Zanetti-Dallenbach, P. Oertle, J. T. Hyotyla, U. Aebi, M. Bentires-Alj, R. Y. H. Lim, and C.-A. Schoenenberger, “The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 757–765 (2012).
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Pollock, R. E.

Ponnekanti, H.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
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C. Corpechot, F. Carrat, A. Poujol-Robert, F. Gaouar, D. Wendum, O. Chazouillères, and R. Poupon, “Noninvasive elastography-based assessment of liver fibrosis progression and prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis,” Hepatology56(1), 198–208 (2012).
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Poupon, R.

C. Corpechot, F. Carrat, A. Poujol-Robert, F. Gaouar, D. Wendum, O. Chazouillères, and R. Poupon, “Noninvasive elastography-based assessment of liver fibrosis progression and prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis,” Hepatology56(1), 198–208 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, W.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quirk, B. C.

Robbins, P.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
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Rollins, A. M.

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016005 (2011).
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Rossman, P. J.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roux, S.

Rowland, K. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, A. S.

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(1), 016005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubens, D. J.

K. J. Parker, M. M. Doyley, and D. J. Rubens, “Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(1), R1–R29 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20, 7101217 (2014).

K. M. Kennedy, S. Es’haghian, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Optical palpation: Optical coherence tomography-based tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” Opt. Lett.39(10), 3014–3017 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
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B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Structured three-dimensional optical phantom for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(20), 19480–19485 (2011).
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B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, C.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, C. M.

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, A. Curatolo, T. R. Hillman, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 020506 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schäfer, F. K. W.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schoenenberger, C.-A.

M. Plodinec, M. Loparic, C. A. Monnier, E. C. Obermann, R. Zanetti-Dallenbach, P. Oertle, J. T. Hyotyla, U. Aebi, M. Bentires-Alj, R. Y. H. Lim, and C.-A. Schoenenberger, “The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 757–765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scolaro, L.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

A. H. Chau, R. C. Chan, M. Shishkov, B. MacNeill, N. Iftimia, G. J. Tearney, R. D. Kamm, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, “Mechanical analysis of atherosclerotic plaques based on optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.32(11), 1494–1503 (2004).
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R. Chan, A. Chau, W. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. Tearney, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
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Song, S.

S. Song, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Tracking mechanical wave propagation within tissue using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: motion artifact and its compensation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Standish, B.

C. Sun, B. Standish, and V. X. Yang, “Optical coherence elastography: current status and future applications,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 043001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stavros, A. T.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

C. Sun, B. Standish, and V. X. Yang, “Optical coherence elastography: current status and future applications,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 043001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svensson, W. E.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Tardivon, A.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

S. K. Nadkarni, B. E. Bouma, T. Helg, R. Chan, E. Halpern, A. Chau, M. S. Minsky, J. T. Motz, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by laser speckle imaging,” Circulation112(6), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Chau, R. C. Chan, M. Shishkov, B. MacNeill, N. Iftimia, G. J. Tearney, R. D. Kamm, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, “Mechanical analysis of atherosclerotic plaques based on optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.32(11), 1494–1503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tien, A.

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121510 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tourasse, C.

W. A. Berg, D. O. Cosgrove, C. J. Doré, F. K. W. Schäfer, W. E. Svensson, R. J. Hooley, R. Ohlinger, E. B. Mendelson, C. Balu-Maestro, M. Locatelli, C. Tourasse, B. C. Cavanaugh, V. Juhan, A. T. Stavros, A. Tardivon, J. Gay, J.-P. Henry, C. Cohen-Bacrie, and BE1 Investigators, “Shear-wave elastography improves the specificity of breast US: the BE1 multinational study of 939 masses,” Radiology262(2), 435–449 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Twa, M. D.

Vakhtin, A. B.

Wang, R. K.

S. Song, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Tracking mechanical wave propagation within tissue using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: motion artifact and its compensation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(12), 121505 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, X. Cheng, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Quantitative elastography provided by surface acoustic waves measured by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 722–724 (2012).
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R. K. Wang, S. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for mapping tissue microstrains in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
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Wang, S.

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D. T. Butcher, T. Alliston, and V. M. Weaver, “A tense situation: forcing tumour progression,” Nat. Rev. Cancer9(2), 108–122 (2009).
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R. Weissleder, “Scaling down imaging: molecular mapping of cancer in mice,” Nat. Rev. Cancer2(1), 11–18 (2002).
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C. Corpechot, F. Carrat, A. Poujol-Robert, F. Gaouar, D. Wendum, O. Chazouillères, and R. Poupon, “Noninvasive elastography-based assessment of liver fibrosis progression and prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis,” Hepatology56(1), 198–208 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wood, W. R.

Yang, V. X.

C. Sun, B. Standish, and V. X. Yang, “Optical coherence elastography: current status and future applications,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(4), 043001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdi, Y.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zanetti-Dallenbach, R.

M. Plodinec, M. Loparic, C. A. Monnier, E. C. Obermann, R. Zanetti-Dallenbach, P. Oertle, J. T. Hyotyla, U. Aebi, M. Bentires-Alj, R. Y. H. Lim, and C.-A. Schoenenberger, “The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 757–765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res.69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

A. H. Chau, R. C. Chan, M. Shishkov, B. MacNeill, N. Iftimia, G. J. Tearney, R. D. Kamm, B. E. Bouma, and M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, “Mechanical analysis of atherosclerotic plaques based on optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.32(11), 1494–1503 (2004).
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Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.5(1), 57–78 (2003).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 144103 (2006).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

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Circulation (1)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20, 7101217 (2014).

J. Biomed. Opt. (7)

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Opt. Express (7)

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (8812 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of optical coherence micro-elastography on a structured phantom. (a) Sample arm of the imaging system. RP, rigid plate; SP, structured phantom; IW, imaging window; RA, ring actuator; L, Lens; X-Y GM, xy-scanning galvanometer mirrors. Perspective and side-view illustrations of the phantom are also shown. (b) Displacement of the ring actuator and synchronized x-scanning galvanometer-mirror scan pattern. (c) Illustrations of displacement and local strain at two locations in the phantom.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Displacement and (b) strain sensitivity measurements, respectively, for common-path, σ d,cp and σ ε,cp (red), and dual-arm, σ d,da and σ ε,da (blue), configurations of our portable imaging system determined using (a) an adhesive tape phantom and (b) a scattering silicone sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal processing steps used in optical coherence micro-elastography illustrated with experimental data from a structured phantom. (a) Loaded ( C L ) and unloaded ( C U ) complex OCT B-mode frame pairs (q) are acquired within a y-range of ~6 μm. (b) The phase difference, Δ ϕ k , and weighting, W k , are calculated for each pair of B-mode scans, for k=1,3...2q-1 . (c) The weighted-average phase difference, Δ ϕ av , is calculated by averaging q complex quotients, Q k . (d) The unwrapped phase difference is calculated using a three-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithm, described in Section 2.5. Negative phase difference indicates decreasing displacement with depth (Fig. 1(c)). (e) A B-mode micro-elastogram is calculated from the rate of change of the unwrapped phase difference with depth, using weighted least-squares linear regression over axial range, Δz . Increasing negative strain indicates increasing amounts of compression of the sample in response to the load. In the micro-elastogram, the scale is in millistrain, mε. Scales bars, 200 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flowchart for the three-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Three-dimensional OCT perspective view of the phantom obtained from a depth of ~500 μm. (b) Corresponding perspective view of the three-dimensional micro-elastogram displaying the local strain, and a cutaway view revealing a B-mode micro-elastogram through the central region of the inclusion. OCT data are displayed on a log intensity scale and local strain is displayed in millistrain, mε. Scale bars (arrows), 0.5 mm (Media 1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical coherence micro-elastography of malignant human breast tissue. (a) En face OCT image at a depth of ~100 μm. (b) Corresponding en face micro-elastogram. (c) Histology, co-registered with OCT and micro-elastogram. A, adipose; D, duct; M, smooth muscle; T, region densely permeated with tumor; and V, blood vessel. In the micro-elastogram, the scale is in millistrain, mε. The insets show a 2.5× magnification of the blue-dotted boxes. Scale bars in the inset, 0.25 mm. In the micro-elastogram, the scale is in millistrain, mε.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical coherence micro-elastography of human breast tissue diagnosed as ductal carcinoma in situ at a depth of ~100 μm. (a) En face OCT image; (b) En face micro-elastogram and; (c) Histology, co-registered with OCT and micro-elastogram. The micro-elastogram presents additional contrast compared to the OCT image. L, lobule; and T, tumor in a duct. In the micro-elastogram, the scale is in millistrain, mε.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical coherence micro-elastography of human lymph node tissue. (a) En face OCT image at a depth of ~140 μm. (b) Corresponding en face micro-elastogram. (c) Histology, co-registered with OCT and micro-elastogram. C, capsule; F, follicle; M, medulla; and P, paracortex. In the micro-elastogram, the scale is in millistrain, mε.

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