Abstract

The ability to extract different bio-medical parameters from one single wristwatch device can be very applicable. The wearable device that is presented in this paper is based on two optical approaches. The first is the extraction and separation of remote vibration sources and the second is the rotation of linearly polarized light by certain materials exposed to magnetic fields. The technique is based on tracking of temporal changes of reflected secondary speckles produced in the wrist when being illuminated by a laser beam. Change in skin’s temporal vibration profile together with change in the magnetic medium that is generated by time varied glucose concentration caused these temporal changes. In this paper we present experimental tests which are the first step towards an in vivo noncontact device for detection of glucose concentration in blood. The paper also shows very preliminary results for qualitative capability for indication of dehydration.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (2)

A. Anand, V. Trivedi, S. Mahajan, V. K. Chhaniwal, Z. Zalevsky, and B. Javidi, “Speckle-based optical sensor for low field Faraday rotation measurement,” Sensors Journal, IEEE13(2), 723–727 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun.289, 149–157 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

G. Danaei, M. M. Finucane, Y. Lu, G. M. Singh, M. J. Cowan, and C. J. Paciorek, “National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980,” Lancet378, 31–40 (2011).

Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 858–870 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

E. Jéquier and F. Constant, “Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration,” Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.64(2), 115–123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun.283(21), 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061707 (2010).

2009 (3)

I. Harman-Boehm, A. Gal, A. M. Raykhman, J. D. Zahn, E. Naidis, and Y. Mayzel, “Noninvasive glucose monitoring: a novel approach,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.3(2), 253–260 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Voyer, S. Richard, L. Doucet, and P. H. Carmichael, “Predisposing factors associated with delirium among demented long-term care residents,” Clin. Nurs. Res.18(2), 153–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express17(24), 21566–21580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

B. D. Cameron and Y. Li, “Polarization-based diffuse reflectance imaging for noninvasive measurement of glucose,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.1(6), 873–878 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Maughan, S. M. Shirreffs, and P. Watson, “Exercise, heat, hydration and the brain,” J. Am. Coll. Nutr.26(5), 604S–612S (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Murray, “Hydration and physical performance,” J. Am. Coll. Nutr.26(5), 542S–548S (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Sawka and T. D. Noakes, “Does dehydration impair exercise performance?” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.39(8), 1209–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. R. Culp, B. Wakefield, M. J. Dyck, P. Z. Cacchione, S. DeCrane, and S. Decker, “Bioelectrical impedance analysis and other hydration parameters as risk factors for delirium in rural nursing home residents,” J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.59(8), 813–817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, “Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing,” Clin. Chem.45(9), 1587–1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

L. E. Armstrong, C. M. Maresh, J. W. Castellani, M. F. Bergeron, R. W. Kenefick, K. E. LaGasse, and D. Riebe, “Urinary indices of hydration status,” Int. J. Sport Nutr.4(3), 265–279 (1994).
[PubMed]

1968 (1)

M. J. Frieser, “A survey of magnetooptic effects,” Magnetics, IEEE Trans4(2), 152–161 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Anand, A.

A. Anand, V. Trivedi, S. Mahajan, V. K. Chhaniwal, Z. Zalevsky, and B. Javidi, “Speckle-based optical sensor for low field Faraday rotation measurement,” Sensors Journal, IEEE13(2), 723–727 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, L. E.

L. E. Armstrong, C. M. Maresh, J. W. Castellani, M. F. Bergeron, R. W. Kenefick, K. E. LaGasse, and D. Riebe, “Urinary indices of hydration status,” Int. J. Sport Nutr.4(3), 265–279 (1994).
[PubMed]

Ashton, H. S.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, “Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing,” Clin. Chem.45(9), 1587–1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

Beiderman, Y.

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun.289, 149–157 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, R. Talyosef, D. Yeori, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Use of PC mouse components for continuous measuring of human heartbeat,” Appl. Opt.51(16), 3323–3328 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 858–870 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun.283(21), 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061707 (2010).

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express17(24), 21566–21580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergeron, M. F.

L. E. Armstrong, C. M. Maresh, J. W. Castellani, M. F. Bergeron, R. W. Kenefick, K. E. LaGasse, and D. Riebe, “Urinary indices of hydration status,” Int. J. Sport Nutr.4(3), 265–279 (1994).
[PubMed]

Blumenberg, R.

Brodie, Z.

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun.289, 149–157 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Burshtein, N.

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061707 (2010).

Cacchione, P. Z.

K. R. Culp, B. Wakefield, M. J. Dyck, P. Z. Cacchione, S. DeCrane, and S. Decker, “Bioelectrical impedance analysis and other hydration parameters as risk factors for delirium in rural nursing home residents,” J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.59(8), 813–817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cameron, B. D.

B. D. Cameron and Y. Li, “Polarization-based diffuse reflectance imaging for noninvasive measurement of glucose,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.1(6), 873–878 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmichael, P. H.

P. Voyer, S. Richard, L. Doucet, and P. H. Carmichael, “Predisposing factors associated with delirium among demented long-term care residents,” Clin. Nurs. Res.18(2), 153–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castellani, J. W.

L. E. Armstrong, C. M. Maresh, J. W. Castellani, M. F. Bergeron, R. W. Kenefick, K. E. LaGasse, and D. Riebe, “Urinary indices of hydration status,” Int. J. Sport Nutr.4(3), 265–279 (1994).
[PubMed]

Chhaniwal, V. K.

A. Anand, V. Trivedi, S. Mahajan, V. K. Chhaniwal, Z. Zalevsky, and B. Javidi, “Speckle-based optical sensor for low field Faraday rotation measurement,” Sensors Journal, IEEE13(2), 723–727 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Constant, F.

E. Jéquier and F. Constant, “Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration,” Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.64(2), 115–123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowan, M. J.

G. Danaei, M. M. Finucane, Y. Lu, G. M. Singh, M. J. Cowan, and C. J. Paciorek, “National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980,” Lancet378, 31–40 (2011).

Culp, K. R.

K. R. Culp, B. Wakefield, M. J. Dyck, P. Z. Cacchione, S. DeCrane, and S. Decker, “Bioelectrical impedance analysis and other hydration parameters as risk factors for delirium in rural nursing home residents,” J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.59(8), 813–817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danaei, G.

G. Danaei, M. M. Finucane, Y. Lu, G. M. Singh, M. J. Cowan, and C. J. Paciorek, “National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980,” Lancet378, 31–40 (2011).

Decker, S.

K. R. Culp, B. Wakefield, M. J. Dyck, P. Z. Cacchione, S. DeCrane, and S. Decker, “Bioelectrical impedance analysis and other hydration parameters as risk factors for delirium in rural nursing home residents,” J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.59(8), 813–817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeCrane, S.

K. R. Culp, B. Wakefield, M. J. Dyck, P. Z. Cacchione, S. DeCrane, and S. Decker, “Bioelectrical impedance analysis and other hydration parameters as risk factors for delirium in rural nursing home residents,” J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.59(8), 813–817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doucet, L.

P. Voyer, S. Richard, L. Doucet, and P. H. Carmichael, “Predisposing factors associated with delirium among demented long-term care residents,” Clin. Nurs. Res.18(2), 153–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyck, M. J.

K. R. Culp, B. Wakefield, M. J. Dyck, P. Z. Cacchione, S. DeCrane, and S. Decker, “Bioelectrical impedance analysis and other hydration parameters as risk factors for delirium in rural nursing home residents,” J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.59(8), 813–817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esenaliev, R. O.

Finucane, M. M.

G. Danaei, M. M. Finucane, Y. Lu, G. M. Singh, M. J. Cowan, and C. J. Paciorek, “National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980,” Lancet378, 31–40 (2011).

Freeborn, S. S.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, “Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing,” Clin. Chem.45(9), 1587–1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

Frieser, M. J.

M. J. Frieser, “A survey of magnetooptic effects,” Magnetics, IEEE Trans4(2), 152–161 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gal, A.

I. Harman-Boehm, A. Gal, A. M. Raykhman, J. D. Zahn, E. Naidis, and Y. Mayzel, “Noninvasive glucose monitoring: a novel approach,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.3(2), 253–260 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, J.

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun.289, 149–157 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, R. Talyosef, D. Yeori, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Use of PC mouse components for continuous measuring of human heartbeat,” Appl. Opt.51(16), 3323–3328 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 858–870 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun.283(21), 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061707 (2010).

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express17(24), 21566–21580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gingold, S.

Hannigan, J.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, “Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing,” Clin. Chem.45(9), 1587–1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

Harman-Boehm, I.

I. Harman-Boehm, A. Gal, A. M. Raykhman, J. D. Zahn, E. Naidis, and Y. Mayzel, “Noninvasive glucose monitoring: a novel approach,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.3(2), 253–260 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horovitz, I.

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061707 (2010).

Javidi, B.

A. Anand, V. Trivedi, S. Mahajan, V. K. Chhaniwal, Z. Zalevsky, and B. Javidi, “Speckle-based optical sensor for low field Faraday rotation measurement,” Sensors Journal, IEEE13(2), 723–727 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jéquier, E.

E. Jéquier and F. Constant, “Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration,” Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.64(2), 115–123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kenefick, R. W.

L. E. Armstrong, C. M. Maresh, J. W. Castellani, M. F. Bergeron, R. W. Kenefick, K. E. LaGasse, and D. Riebe, “Urinary indices of hydration status,” Int. J. Sport Nutr.4(3), 265–279 (1994).
[PubMed]

LaGasse, K. E.

L. E. Armstrong, C. M. Maresh, J. W. Castellani, M. F. Bergeron, R. W. Kenefick, K. E. LaGasse, and D. Riebe, “Urinary indices of hydration status,” Int. J. Sport Nutr.4(3), 265–279 (1994).
[PubMed]

Larin, K. V.

Larina, I. V.

Li, Y.

B. D. Cameron and Y. Li, “Polarization-based diffuse reflectance imaging for noninvasive measurement of glucose,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.1(6), 873–878 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindberg, J.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, “Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing,” Clin. Chem.45(9), 1587–1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

Lu, Y.

G. Danaei, M. M. Finucane, Y. Lu, G. M. Singh, M. J. Cowan, and C. J. Paciorek, “National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980,” Lancet378, 31–40 (2011).

MacKenzie, H. A.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, “Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing,” Clin. Chem.45(9), 1587–1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

Mahajan, S.

A. Anand, V. Trivedi, S. Mahajan, V. K. Chhaniwal, Z. Zalevsky, and B. Javidi, “Speckle-based optical sensor for low field Faraday rotation measurement,” Sensors Journal, IEEE13(2), 723–727 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maresh, C. M.

L. E. Armstrong, C. M. Maresh, J. W. Castellani, M. F. Bergeron, R. W. Kenefick, K. E. LaGasse, and D. Riebe, “Urinary indices of hydration status,” Int. J. Sport Nutr.4(3), 265–279 (1994).
[PubMed]

Margalit, I.

Maughan, R. J.

R. J. Maughan, S. M. Shirreffs, and P. Watson, “Exercise, heat, hydration and the brain,” J. Am. Coll. Nutr.26(5), 604S–612S (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayzel, Y.

I. Harman-Boehm, A. Gal, A. M. Raykhman, J. D. Zahn, E. Naidis, and Y. Mayzel, “Noninvasive glucose monitoring: a novel approach,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.3(2), 253–260 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mico, V.

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun.289, 149–157 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, R. Talyosef, D. Yeori, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Use of PC mouse components for continuous measuring of human heartbeat,” Appl. Opt.51(16), 3323–3328 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 858–870 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun.283(21), 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061707 (2010).

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express17(24), 21566–21580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

Murray, B.

B. Murray, “Hydration and physical performance,” J. Am. Coll. Nutr.26(5), 542S–548S (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naidis, E.

I. Harman-Boehm, A. Gal, A. M. Raykhman, J. D. Zahn, E. Naidis, and Y. Mayzel, “Noninvasive glucose monitoring: a novel approach,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.3(2), 253–260 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noakes, T. D.

M. N. Sawka and T. D. Noakes, “Does dehydration impair exercise performance?” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.39(8), 1209–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paciorek, C. J.

G. Danaei, M. M. Finucane, Y. Lu, G. M. Singh, M. J. Cowan, and C. J. Paciorek, “National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980,” Lancet378, 31–40 (2011).

Rabani, N.

Rae, P.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, “Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing,” Clin. Chem.45(9), 1587–1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

Raykhman, A. M.

I. Harman-Boehm, A. Gal, A. M. Raykhman, J. D. Zahn, E. Naidis, and Y. Mayzel, “Noninvasive glucose monitoring: a novel approach,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.3(2), 253–260 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richard, S.

P. Voyer, S. Richard, L. Doucet, and P. H. Carmichael, “Predisposing factors associated with delirium among demented long-term care residents,” Clin. Nurs. Res.18(2), 153–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riebe, D.

L. E. Armstrong, C. M. Maresh, J. W. Castellani, M. F. Bergeron, R. W. Kenefick, K. E. LaGasse, and D. Riebe, “Urinary indices of hydration status,” Int. J. Sport Nutr.4(3), 265–279 (1994).
[PubMed]

Sawka, M. N.

M. N. Sawka and T. D. Noakes, “Does dehydration impair exercise performance?” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.39(8), 1209–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, “Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing,” Clin. Chem.45(9), 1587–1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

Shenhav, A.

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun.289, 149–157 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shirreffs, S. M.

R. J. Maughan, S. M. Shirreffs, and P. Watson, “Exercise, heat, hydration and the brain,” J. Am. Coll. Nutr.26(5), 604S–612S (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, G. M.

G. Danaei, M. M. Finucane, Y. Lu, G. M. Singh, M. J. Cowan, and C. J. Paciorek, “National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980,” Lancet378, 31–40 (2011).

Spiers, S.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, “Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing,” Clin. Chem.45(9), 1587–1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

Talyosef, R.

Teicher, M.

Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 858–870 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun.283(21), 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061707 (2010).

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express17(24), 21566–21580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trivedi, V.

A. Anand, V. Trivedi, S. Mahajan, V. K. Chhaniwal, Z. Zalevsky, and B. Javidi, “Speckle-based optical sensor for low field Faraday rotation measurement,” Sensors Journal, IEEE13(2), 723–727 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Voyer, P.

P. Voyer, S. Richard, L. Doucet, and P. H. Carmichael, “Predisposing factors associated with delirium among demented long-term care residents,” Clin. Nurs. Res.18(2), 153–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wakefield, B.

K. R. Culp, B. Wakefield, M. J. Dyck, P. Z. Cacchione, S. DeCrane, and S. Decker, “Bioelectrical impedance analysis and other hydration parameters as risk factors for delirium in rural nursing home residents,” J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.59(8), 813–817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, P.

R. J. Maughan, S. M. Shirreffs, and P. Watson, “Exercise, heat, hydration and the brain,” J. Am. Coll. Nutr.26(5), 604S–612S (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeori, D.

Zahn, J. D.

I. Harman-Boehm, A. Gal, A. M. Raykhman, J. D. Zahn, E. Naidis, and Y. Mayzel, “Noninvasive glucose monitoring: a novel approach,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.3(2), 253–260 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zalevsky, Z.

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun.289, 149–157 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Anand, V. Trivedi, S. Mahajan, V. K. Chhaniwal, Z. Zalevsky, and B. Javidi, “Speckle-based optical sensor for low field Faraday rotation measurement,” Sensors Journal, IEEE13(2), 723–727 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, R. Talyosef, D. Yeori, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Use of PC mouse components for continuous measuring of human heartbeat,” Appl. Opt.51(16), 3323–3328 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 858–870 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun.283(21), 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061707 (2010).

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express17(24), 21566–21580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Clin. Chem. (1)

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, “Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing,” Clin. Chem.45(9), 1587–1595 (1999).
[PubMed]

Clin. Nurs. Res. (1)

P. Voyer, S. Richard, L. Doucet, and P. H. Carmichael, “Predisposing factors associated with delirium among demented long-term care residents,” Clin. Nurs. Res.18(2), 153–171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (1)

E. Jéquier and F. Constant, “Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration,” Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.64(2), 115–123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Sport Nutr. (1)

L. E. Armstrong, C. M. Maresh, J. W. Castellani, M. F. Bergeron, R. W. Kenefick, K. E. LaGasse, and D. Riebe, “Urinary indices of hydration status,” Int. J. Sport Nutr.4(3), 265–279 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Nutr. (2)

R. J. Maughan, S. M. Shirreffs, and P. Watson, “Exercise, heat, hydration and the brain,” J. Am. Coll. Nutr.26(5), 604S–612S (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Murray, “Hydration and physical performance,” J. Am. Coll. Nutr.26(5), 542S–548S (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061707 (2010).

J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. (2)

B. D. Cameron and Y. Li, “Polarization-based diffuse reflectance imaging for noninvasive measurement of glucose,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.1(6), 873–878 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Harman-Boehm, A. Gal, A. M. Raykhman, J. D. Zahn, E. Naidis, and Y. Mayzel, “Noninvasive glucose monitoring: a novel approach,” J. Diabetes Sci. Tech.3(2), 253–260 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (1)

K. R. Culp, B. Wakefield, M. J. Dyck, P. Z. Cacchione, S. DeCrane, and S. Decker, “Bioelectrical impedance analysis and other hydration parameters as risk factors for delirium in rural nursing home residents,” J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.59(8), 813–817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet (1)

G. Danaei, M. M. Finucane, Y. Lu, G. M. Singh, M. J. Cowan, and C. J. Paciorek, “National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980,” Lancet378, 31–40 (2011).

Magnetics, IEEE Trans (1)

M. J. Frieser, “A survey of magnetooptic effects,” Magnetics, IEEE Trans4(2), 152–161 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. (1)

M. N. Sawka and T. D. Noakes, “Does dehydration impair exercise performance?” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.39(8), 1209–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Shenhav, Z. Brodie, Y. Beiderman, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical sensor for remote estimation of alcohol concentration in blood stream,” Opt. Commun.289, 149–157 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun.283(21), 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sensors Journal, IEEE (1)

A. Anand, V. Trivedi, S. Mahajan, V. K. Chhaniwal, Z. Zalevsky, and B. Javidi, “Speckle-based optical sensor for low field Faraday rotation measurement,” Sensors Journal, IEEE13(2), 723–727 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC), http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/

Z. Zalevsky, J. Garcia, V. Mico, M. Belkin, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit and R. Barelly, “Method and system for non-invasively monitoring biological or biochemical parameters of individual,” PCT Application No. PCT/IL2013/050658.

CNoga Medical Ltd, http://www.cnoga.com/

Oculir Inc, http://www.oculir.com/

FreeStyle Lite Blood Glucose Monitoring System, https://www.myfreestyle.com/products/freestyle-lite-overview.html?icid=in_footer-product-banner_product-home_freestyle-lite

P. A. Uchagaonkar, S. A. Shinde, V. Patil, and R. K. Kamat, “embedded wearable system for hydration measurement,” Int J Phys Mathemat Sci 1,127–131 (2011). http://www.cibtech.org/jpms.htm

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A flowchart of the glucose concentration effects on the speckle pattern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The optical configuration for remote measuring of glucose levels from the subject’s hand. The subject’s hand is under laser illumination. The magnet is connected to the side of the device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The OCG pulses that were measured by our bracelet setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Summary of the algorithm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Stability test of the system: The normalized optical parameter during 30 minutes. The difference in values is displayed [in percents].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

An experiment without the effect of the magnet. Glucose level is denoted with a red line (measured with glucometer device) and the optically measured parameter is denoted with a blue line. (a). First experiment completely without a magnet. (b). Second experiment completely without a magnet.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized Glucose level in blood and the normalized peak amplitude of the same subject. Glucose level is denoted with a red line and the optically measured parameter is denoted with a blue line.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized Glucose level in blood and the normalized peak amplitude of 4 different subjects. Glucose level is denoted with a red line and the optically measured parameter is denoted with a blue line.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a). The OCG pulses that were measured at the beginning of the experiment in order to calibrate the system. The ellipse marks the region of the fluctuations. (b). Close-up of the fluctuations at the beginning of the experiment (time 0) that corresponds to the ellipse markup in Fig. 6(a). (c). The OCG pulses that were measured at the end of the experiment (after 70 minutes). The ellipse marks the region of the fluctuations. (d). Close-up of the fluctuations at the end of the experiment (after 70 minutes).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Weight of tested subjects compared to the maximum amplitude peak measured by the proposed optical device. The weight is denoted by a red line and red axes and the optically measured parameter is denoted by a black line and black axes. (a). First subject. (b). Second subject. (c). Third subject.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nutritional values of 500 ml grape soda.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of subject information.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of subject’s information.

Tables Icon

Table 4 The STD of background fluctuation at the beginning and end of the dehydration experiment.

Tables Icon

Table 5 Summary of measured values by subject.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ=ϑBL= πLΔn(B) λ 0
B min πLθR
β= 4πtanα λ 4πα λ
C V (t)β(t)
s= ( 1 n1 i=1 n ( x i x ¯ ) 2 ) 0.5

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