Abstract

Intravital imaging has provided molecular, cellular and anatomical insight into the study of tumor. Early detection and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases can be enhanced with specific molecular markers and endoscopic imaging modalities. We present a wide-field multi-channel fluorescence endoscope to screen GI tract for colon cancer using multiple molecular probes targeting matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) conjugated with quantum dots (QD) in AOM/DSS mouse model. MMP9 and MMP14 antibody (Ab)-QD conjugates demonstrate specific binding to colonic adenoma. The average target-to-background (T/B) ratios are 2.10 ± 0.28 and 1.78 ± 0.18 for MMP14 Ab-QD and MMP9 Ab-QD, respectively. The overlap between the two molecular probes is 67.7 ± 8.4%. The presence of false negative indicates that even more number of targeting could increase the sensitivity of overall detection given heterogeneous molecular expression in tumors. Our approach indicates potential for the screening of small or flat lesions that are precancerous.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

2013

G. Oh, E. Chung, and S. H. Yun, “Optical fibers for high-resolution in vivo microendoscopic fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Fiber Technol.19(6), 760–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Bedard, A. R. Hansen, M. J. Ratain, and L. L. Siu, “Tumour heterogeneity in the clinic,” Nature501(7467), 355–364 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitsunaga, N. Kosaka, P. L. Choyke, M. R. Young, C. R. Dextras, S. M. Saud, N. H. Colburn, M. Sakabe, T. Nagano, D. Asanuma, Y. Urano, and H. Kobayashi, “Fluorescence endoscopic detection of murine colitis-associated colon cancer by topically applied enzymatically rapid-activatable probe,” Gut62(8), 1179–1186 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Steingräber, S. Schelhaas, A. Faust, A. H. Jacobs, M. Schäfers, and T. Goerge, “Molecular imaging reveals time course of matrix metalloproteinase activity in acute cutaneous vasculitis in vivo,” Exp. Dermatol.22(11), 730–735 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Steingräber, S. Schelhaas, A. Faust, A. H. Jacobs, M. Schäfers, and T. Goerge, “Molecular imaging reveals time course of matrix metalloproteinase activity in acute cutaneous vasculitis in vivo,” Exp. Dermatol.22(11), 730–735 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Atreya and M. Goetz, “Molecular imaging in gastroenterology,” Nat Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.10(12), 704–712 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitsunaga, N. Kosaka, P. L. Choyke, M. R. Young, C. R. Dextras, S. M. Saud, N. H. Colburn, M. Sakabe, T. Nagano, D. Asanuma, Y. Urano, and H. Kobayashi, “Fluorescence endoscopic detection of murine colitis-associated colon cancer by topically applied enzymatically rapid-activatable probe,” Gut62(8), 1179–1186 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

M. Gerlinger, A. J. Rowan, S. Horswell, J. Larkin, D. Endesfelder, E. Gronroos, P. Martinez, N. Matthews, A. Stewart, P. Tarpey, I. Varela, B. Phillimore, S. Begum, N. Q. McDonald, A. Butler, D. Jones, K. Raine, C. Latimer, C. R. Santos, M. Nohadani, A. C. Eklund, B. Spencer-Dene, G. Clark, L. Pickering, G. Stamp, M. Gore, Z. Szallasi, J. Downward, P. A. Futreal, and C. Swanton, “Intratumor heterogeneity and branched evolution revealed by multiregion sequencing,” N. Engl. J. Med.366(10), 883–892 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Saldua, C. A. Olsovsky, E. S. Callaway, R. S. Chapkin, and K. C. Maitland, “Imaging inflammation in mouse colon using a rapid stage-scanning confocal fluorescence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(1), 016006 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Munroe, P. Lee, A. Copland, K. K. Wu, T. Kaltenbach, R. M. Soetikno, and S. Friedland, “A tandem colonoscopy study of adenoma miss rates during endoscopic training: a venture into uncharted territory,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(3), 561–567 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Shahid, A. M. Buchner, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, and M. B. Wallace, “Diagnostic accuracy of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy and narrow band imaging for small colorectal polyps: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.107(2), 231–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goetz, “Molecular imaging in GI endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc.76(6), 1207–1209 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Chauhan, T. Stylianopoulos, J. D. Martin, Z. Popović, O. Chen, W. S. Kamoun, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Normalization of tumour blood vessels improves the delivery of nanomedicines in a size-dependent manner,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(6), 383–388 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Z. Li, X. Wang, F. Liu, Y. Cheng, B. Zhang, and D. Shi, “In vivo cancer targeting and imaging-guided surgery with near infrared-emitting quantum dot bioconjugates,” Theranostics2(8), 769–776 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

G. Lanza, L. Messerini, R. Gafà, M. Risio, and Gruppo Italiano Patologi Apparato Digerente (GIPAD)Società Italiana di Anatomia Patologica e Citopatologia Diagnostica/International Academy of Pathology, Italian division (SIAPEC/IAP), “Colorectal tumors: the histology report,” Dig. Liver Dis.43(Suppl 4), S344–S355 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pierce, P. M. Vila, A. D. Polydorides, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Low-cost endomicroscopy in the esophagus and colon,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.106(9), 1722–1724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Elahi, S. J. Miller, B. Joshi, and T. D. Wang, “Targeted imaging of colorectal dysplasia in living mice with fluorescence microendoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 981–986 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. M. Yoon, S.-J. Myung, B. D. Ye, I.-W. Kim, N. G. Lee, Y. M. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, Y. S. Park, C. S. Park, D. H. Moon, H. Kim, M. Y. Do, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a protease-specific probe for the detection of colon tumors,” Gut Liver4(4), 488–497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Popović, W. Liu, V. P. Chauhan, J. Lee, C. Wong, A. B. Greytak, N. Insin, D. G. Nocera, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “A nanoparticle size series for in vivo fluorescence imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(46), 8649–8652 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cui, Y. Jin, D. Poudyal, A. A. Chumanevich, T. Davis, A. Windust, A. Hofseth, W. Wu, J. Habiger, E. Pena, P. Wood, M. Nagarkatti, P. S. Nagarkatti, and L. Hofseth, “Mechanistic insight into the ability of American ginseng to suppress colon cancer associated with colitis,” Carcinogenesis31(10), 1734–1741 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Li and T. D. Wang, “Targeted endoscopic imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.19(2), 283–298 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. von Burstin, S. Eser, B. Seidler, A. Meining, M. Bajbouj, J. Mages, R. Lang, A. J. Kind, A. E. Schnieke, R. M. Schmid, G. Schneider, and D. Saur, “Highly sensitive detection of early-stage pancreatic cancer by multimodal near-infrared molecular imaging in living mice,” Int. J. Cancer123(9), 2138–2147 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI(3)K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

R. Upadhyay, R. A. Sheth, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, “Quantitative real-time catheter-based fluorescence molecular imaging in mice,” Radiology245(2), 523–531 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. C. van Rijn, J. B. Reitsma, J. Stoker, P. M. Bossuyt, S. J. van Deventer, and E. Dekker, “Polyp miss rate determined by tandem colonoscopy: a systematic review,” Am. J. Gastroenterol.101(2), 343–350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basché, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and characterization of highly luminescent CdSe-core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS multishell nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(20), 7480–7488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. Kiesslich, J. Fritsch, M. Holtmann, H. H. Koehler, M. Stolte, S. Kanzler, B. Nafe, M. Jung, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Methylene blue-aided chromoendoscopy for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia and colon cancer in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology124(4), 880–888 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Tutton, M. L. George, S. A. Eccles, S. Burton, R. I. Swift, and A. M. Abulafi, “Use of plasma MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels as a surrogate for tumour expression in colorectal cancer patients,” Int. J. Cancer107(4), 541–550 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Boivin, K. Washington, K. Yang, J. M. Ward, T. P. Pretlow, R. Russell, D. G. Besselsen, V. L. Godfrey, T. Doetschman, W. F. Dove, H. C. Pitot, R. B. Halberg, S. H. Itzkowitz, J. Groden, and R. J. Coffey, “Pathology of mouse models of intestinal cancer: consensus report and recommendations,” Gastroenterology124(3), 762–777 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. Haringsma, G. N. Tytgat, H. Yano, H. Iishi, M. Tatsuta, T. Ogihara, H. Watanabe, N. Sato, N. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and R. W. Cline, “Autofluorescence endoscopy: feasibility of detection of GI neoplasms unapparent to white light endoscopy with an evolving technology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.53(6), 642–650 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bremer, C.-H. Tung, and R. Weissleder, “In vivo molecular target assessment of matrix metalloproteinase inhibition,” Nat. Med.7(6), 743–748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. E. Koblinski, M. Ahram, and B. F. Sloane, “Unraveling the role of proteases in cancer,” Clin. Chim. Acta291(2), 113–135 (2000).
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1999

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M. Gerlinger, A. J. Rowan, S. Horswell, J. Larkin, D. Endesfelder, E. Gronroos, P. Martinez, N. Matthews, A. Stewart, P. Tarpey, I. Varela, B. Phillimore, S. Begum, N. Q. McDonald, A. Butler, D. Jones, K. Raine, C. Latimer, C. R. Santos, M. Nohadani, A. C. Eklund, B. Spencer-Dene, G. Clark, L. Pickering, G. Stamp, M. Gore, Z. Szallasi, J. Downward, P. A. Futreal, and C. Swanton, “Intratumor heterogeneity and branched evolution revealed by multiregion sequencing,” N. Engl. J. Med.366(10), 883–892 (2012).
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M. D. Baugh, M. J. Perry, A. P. Hollander, D. R. Davies, S. S. Cross, A. J. Lobo, C. J. Taylor, and G. S. Evans, “Matrix metalloproteinase levels are elevated in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastroenterology117(4), 814–822 (1999).
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M. Mitsunaga, N. Kosaka, P. L. Choyke, M. R. Young, C. R. Dextras, S. M. Saud, N. H. Colburn, M. Sakabe, T. Nagano, D. Asanuma, Y. Urano, and H. Kobayashi, “Fluorescence endoscopic detection of murine colitis-associated colon cancer by topically applied enzymatically rapid-activatable probe,” Gut62(8), 1179–1186 (2013).
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G. P. Boivin, K. Washington, K. Yang, J. M. Ward, T. P. Pretlow, R. Russell, D. G. Besselsen, V. L. Godfrey, T. Doetschman, W. F. Dove, H. C. Pitot, R. B. Halberg, S. H. Itzkowitz, J. Groden, and R. J. Coffey, “Pathology of mouse models of intestinal cancer: consensus report and recommendations,” Gastroenterology124(3), 762–777 (2003).
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M. Gerlinger, A. J. Rowan, S. Horswell, J. Larkin, D. Endesfelder, E. Gronroos, P. Martinez, N. Matthews, A. Stewart, P. Tarpey, I. Varela, B. Phillimore, S. Begum, N. Q. McDonald, A. Butler, D. Jones, K. Raine, C. Latimer, C. R. Santos, M. Nohadani, A. C. Eklund, B. Spencer-Dene, G. Clark, L. Pickering, G. Stamp, M. Gore, Z. Szallasi, J. Downward, P. A. Futreal, and C. Swanton, “Intratumor heterogeneity and branched evolution revealed by multiregion sequencing,” N. Engl. J. Med.366(10), 883–892 (2012).
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M. G. Tutton, M. L. George, S. A. Eccles, S. Burton, R. I. Swift, and A. M. Abulafi, “Use of plasma MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels as a surrogate for tumour expression in colorectal cancer patients,” Int. J. Cancer107(4), 541–550 (2003).
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M. Gerlinger, A. J. Rowan, S. Horswell, J. Larkin, D. Endesfelder, E. Gronroos, P. Martinez, N. Matthews, A. Stewart, P. Tarpey, I. Varela, B. Phillimore, S. Begum, N. Q. McDonald, A. Butler, D. Jones, K. Raine, C. Latimer, C. R. Santos, M. Nohadani, A. C. Eklund, B. Spencer-Dene, G. Clark, L. Pickering, G. Stamp, M. Gore, Z. Szallasi, J. Downward, P. A. Futreal, and C. Swanton, “Intratumor heterogeneity and branched evolution revealed by multiregion sequencing,” N. Engl. J. Med.366(10), 883–892 (2012).
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M. D. Baugh, M. J. Perry, A. P. Hollander, D. R. Davies, S. S. Cross, A. J. Lobo, C. J. Taylor, and G. S. Evans, “Matrix metalloproteinase levels are elevated in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastroenterology117(4), 814–822 (1999).
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R. Kiesslich, J. Fritsch, M. Holtmann, H. H. Koehler, M. Stolte, S. Kanzler, B. Nafe, M. Jung, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Methylene blue-aided chromoendoscopy for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia and colon cancer in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology124(4), 880–888 (2003).
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M. Gerlinger, A. J. Rowan, S. Horswell, J. Larkin, D. Endesfelder, E. Gronroos, P. Martinez, N. Matthews, A. Stewart, P. Tarpey, I. Varela, B. Phillimore, S. Begum, N. Q. McDonald, A. Butler, D. Jones, K. Raine, C. Latimer, C. R. Santos, M. Nohadani, A. C. Eklund, B. Spencer-Dene, G. Clark, L. Pickering, G. Stamp, M. Gore, Z. Szallasi, J. Downward, P. A. Futreal, and C. Swanton, “Intratumor heterogeneity and branched evolution revealed by multiregion sequencing,” N. Engl. J. Med.366(10), 883–892 (2012).
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P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, M.B. Sang, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, E. Chung, K.H. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-J. Myung, Raid and Multiplexed Quantum Dot Conjugate Spraying Probes for Colonoscopic Cancer Diagonosis.

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J. Haringsma, G. N. Tytgat, H. Yano, H. Iishi, M. Tatsuta, T. Ogihara, H. Watanabe, N. Sato, N. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and R. W. Cline, “Autofluorescence endoscopy: feasibility of detection of GI neoplasms unapparent to white light endoscopy with an evolving technology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.53(6), 642–650 (2001).
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Z. Popović, W. Liu, V. P. Chauhan, J. Lee, C. Wong, A. B. Greytak, N. Insin, D. G. Nocera, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “A nanoparticle size series for in vivo fluorescence imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(46), 8649–8652 (2010).
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G. P. Boivin, K. Washington, K. Yang, J. M. Ward, T. P. Pretlow, R. Russell, D. G. Besselsen, V. L. Godfrey, T. Doetschman, W. F. Dove, H. C. Pitot, R. B. Halberg, S. H. Itzkowitz, J. Groden, and R. J. Coffey, “Pathology of mouse models of intestinal cancer: consensus report and recommendations,” Gastroenterology124(3), 762–777 (2003).
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A. K. Steingräber, S. Schelhaas, A. Faust, A. H. Jacobs, M. Schäfers, and T. Goerge, “Molecular imaging reveals time course of matrix metalloproteinase activity in acute cutaneous vasculitis in vivo,” Exp. Dermatol.22(11), 730–735 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Steingräber, S. Schelhaas, A. Faust, A. H. Jacobs, M. Schäfers, and T. Goerge, “Molecular imaging reveals time course of matrix metalloproteinase activity in acute cutaneous vasculitis in vivo,” Exp. Dermatol.22(11), 730–735 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. P. Chauhan, T. Stylianopoulos, J. D. Martin, Z. Popović, O. Chen, W. S. Kamoun, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Normalization of tumour blood vessels improves the delivery of nanomedicines in a size-dependent manner,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(6), 383–388 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Popović, W. Liu, V. P. Chauhan, J. Lee, C. Wong, A. B. Greytak, N. Insin, D. G. Nocera, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “A nanoparticle size series for in vivo fluorescence imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(46), 8649–8652 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
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X. Cui, Y. Jin, D. Poudyal, A. A. Chumanevich, T. Davis, A. Windust, A. Hofseth, W. Wu, J. Habiger, E. Pena, P. Wood, M. Nagarkatti, P. S. Nagarkatti, and L. Hofseth, “Mechanistic insight into the ability of American ginseng to suppress colon cancer associated with colitis,” Carcinogenesis31(10), 1734–1741 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D.

M. Gerlinger, A. J. Rowan, S. Horswell, J. Larkin, D. Endesfelder, E. Gronroos, P. Martinez, N. Matthews, A. Stewart, P. Tarpey, I. Varela, B. Phillimore, S. Begum, N. Q. McDonald, A. Butler, D. Jones, K. Raine, C. Latimer, C. R. Santos, M. Nohadani, A. C. Eklund, B. Spencer-Dene, G. Clark, L. Pickering, G. Stamp, M. Gore, Z. Szallasi, J. Downward, P. A. Futreal, and C. Swanton, “Intratumor heterogeneity and branched evolution revealed by multiregion sequencing,” N. Engl. J. Med.366(10), 883–892 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI(3)K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, B.

Jung, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Fritsch, M. Holtmann, H. H. Koehler, M. Stolte, S. Kanzler, B. Nafe, M. Jung, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Methylene blue-aided chromoendoscopy for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia and colon cancer in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology124(4), 880–888 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, S.

J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, M.B. Sang, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, E. Chung, K.H. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-J. Myung, Raid and Multiplexed Quantum Dot Conjugate Spraying Probes for Colonoscopic Cancer Diagonosis.

Kaltenbach, T.

C. A. Munroe, P. Lee, A. Copland, K. K. Wu, T. Kaltenbach, R. M. Soetikno, and S. Friedland, “A tandem colonoscopy study of adenoma miss rates during endoscopic training: a venture into uncharted territory,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(3), 561–567 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamoun, W. S.

V. P. Chauhan, T. Stylianopoulos, J. D. Martin, Z. Popović, O. Chen, W. S. Kamoun, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Normalization of tumour blood vessels improves the delivery of nanomedicines in a size-dependent manner,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(6), 383–388 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanzler, S.

R. Kiesslich, J. Fritsch, M. Holtmann, H. H. Koehler, M. Stolte, S. Kanzler, B. Nafe, M. Jung, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Methylene blue-aided chromoendoscopy for the detection of intraepithelial neoplasia and colon cancer in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology124(4), 880–888 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kargman, S. L.

M. Oshima, J. E. Dinchuk, S. L. Kargman, H. Oshima, B. Hancock, E. Kwong, J. M. Trzaskos, J. F. Evans, and M. M. Taketo, “Suppression of Intestinal Polyposis in ApcΔ716 Knockout Mice By Inhibition Of Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2),” Cell87(5), 803–809 (1996).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characteristics of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) antibody (Ab) -quantum dot (QD) probes. (A) Absorbance and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of MMP9 Ab-Red QD and MMP14 Ab-Yellow QD. (B) Scheme for Ab-QD conjugation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multi-channel fluorescence endoscopy system. (A) Scheme of the system. Excitation laser beams (473 nm) are delivered into illumination fibers. Reflected- and emitted light from the colonic tissues is detected by endoscope. Collected lights are focused on charge coupled device (CCD) camera with additional fluorescence light filtering through proper emission filters. (B) Photograph of system and close-up view of imaging scope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Specific binding of molecular probe in vivo. Tumor lesions (white arrows) are showed in white light images (A, D). These lesions are well-localized on fluorescence images by MMP14 Ab-Yellow QD (B, white arrow) and MMP9-AbRed QD (E, white arrows). Blue-and green-dotted circles on images are representative region of tumor and normal tissues, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining (C, F) showed adenomatous features including distorted crypt architecture, and normal appearing adjacent colonic mucosa. Colonic adenomas were localized on fluorescence images with two molecular probes. However, in mouse which has no tumoral lesion (G), there is no significant accumulation of MMP14 Ab-Yellow QD (H) and MMP9 Ab-Red QD (I). H&E staining from normal mouse (J) shows normal crypt. Scale bar: 200 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Early detection of colonic tumor in vivo. (A) White light image of early tumoral lesion of colon (white arrow). (B) MMP14 Ab-Yellow QD is accumulated in tumoral lesion (white arrow) molecular probe. Blue-and green-dotted circles on images are representative region of tumor and normal tissues, respectively. (C) Histologic evaluation of this lesion shows features of high-grades of adenoma. Scale bar: 200 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Multi-color fluorescence imaging by molecular probes. White light image (A) showed suspicious tumor lesion (white arrows). (B) MMP14 Ab-Yellow QD, (C) MMP9 Ab-Red QD and (D) Merged image (B) and (C) images showed similar accumulation pattern to tumor lesion. Blue-and green-dotted circles on images are representative region of tumor and normal tissues, respectively. (E) Histologic evaluation of this lesion shows features of high-grades of adenomas, magnification 4x and (I) enlarged image of (E), magnification 20x. (F-H) Quantitative fluorescence image. (F) MMP14-Yellow QD and (G) MMP9-Red QD. (H) Overlaid image of (F) and (G). Scale bar (E) 200 μm and (I) 50μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Tissue-selective binding of molecular probes. White light images from colonic adenomas (A, B) showed several tumoral lesions. Sequential i.v. injection of MMP14-Yellow QD (C) and MMP9 Ab-Red QD (D) results in similar patterns of binding to colonic dysplasia. Overlaid image (E) results shows colocalization of two probes. Some tumor is not bounded with MMP9 and MMP14 molecular probes (red dotted line). Ex vivo colon tissue imaging with (F) White light, (G) MMP14 Ab-Red QD and (H) MMP14 Ab-Yellow QD using IVIS Spectrum. Dotted lines in the white light image (inset of F) indicate tumors.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Quantitative analysis of tumor specific molecular probes from intravital endoscopic imaging. (A) Comparison of fluorescence intensity between tumor and normal mucosa in 3 mice. Fluorescence signals at tumor is higher than normal tissue by MMP9 and MMP14 molecular probes (n = 3). (B) Comparison of T/B ratios of two molecular probes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The changes of fluorescence intensity from tumor over time with two different molecular probes. Change of fluorescence intensity by (A) MMP14 Ab-Yellow QD and (C) MMP9 Ab-Red QD probes over each time point. B and D: comparison of T/B ratios at 12 or 24 hour time points.

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