Abstract

Real-time display of processed en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images is important for diagnosis. However, due to many steps of data processing requirements, such as Fast Fourier transformation (FFT), data re-sampling, spectral shaping, apodization, zero padding, followed by software cut of the 3D volume acquired to produce an en-face slice, conventional high-speed SD-OCT cannot render an en-face OCT image in real time. Recently we demonstrated a Master/Slave (MS)-OCT method that is highly parallelizable, as it provides reflectivity values of points at depth within an A-scan in parallel. This allows direct production of en-face images. In addition, the MS-OCT method does not require data linearization, which further simplifies the processing. The computation in our previous paper was however time consuming. In this paper we present an optimized algorithm that can be used to provide en-face MS-OCT images much quicker. Using such an algorithm we demonstrate around 10 times faster production of sets of en-face OCT images than previously obtained as well as simultaneous real-time display of up to 4 en-face OCT images of 200 × 200 pixels2 from the fovea and the optic nerve of a volunteer. We also demonstrate 3D and B-scan OCT images obtained from sets of MS-OCT C-scans, i.e. with no FFT and no intermediate step of generation of A-scans.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 026002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

2008 (5)

A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(4), 464–499 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2556–2558 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging the human retina and cone mosaic in vivo with PS-OCT,” Proc. SPIE6429, 64290T (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. Gh Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transverse and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.3, 12–20 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

J. Lewis, “Fast template matching,” Vision Interface95, 120–123 (1995).

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

S. Taplin, A. Gh Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Displacement sensor using channeled spectrum dispersed on a linear CCD array,” Electron. Lett.29, 896–897 (1993).

1984 (1)

A. Goshtasby, S. H. Gage, and J. F. Bartholic, “A two-stage cross correlation approach to template matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.6(3), 374–378 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Ahrens, G.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartholic, J. F.

A. Goshtasby, S. H. Gage, and J. F. Bartholic, “A two-stage cross correlation approach to template matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.6(3), 374–378 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, S.

Baumann, B.

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging the human retina and cone mosaic in vivo with PS-OCT,” Proc. SPIE6429, 64290T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biedermann, B. R.

Bradu, A.

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Calibration-free B-scan images produced by master/slave optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.39(3), 450–453 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandacher, G.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bukowska, D.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cha, J.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Y.

Chinn, S. R.

Cid, M. G.

Cucu, R.

de Boer, J. F.

Dobre, G.

Dobre, G. M.

Duker, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Eliceiri, K. W.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelke, R.

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F.

A. Gh Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transverse and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.3, 12–20 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gage, S. H.

A. Goshtasby, S. H. Gage, and J. F. Bartholic, “A two-stage cross correlation approach to template matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.6(3), 374–378 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, P.

Gehlbach, P. L.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goshtasby, A.

A. Goshtasby, S. H. Gage, and J. F. Bartholic, “A two-stage cross correlation approach to template matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.6(3), 374–378 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Gregori, G.

Grützner, G.

Hammer, D. X.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hathaway, M.

Hee, M. R.

Hillmann, D.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging the human retina and cone mosaic in vivo with PS-OCT,” Proc. SPIE6429, 64290T (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

Huang, X.

Huang, Y.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Hüttmann, G.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, Z.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jackson, D. A.

A. Gh Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transverse and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.3, 12–20 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1789–1791 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Taplin, A. Gh Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Displacement sensor using channeled spectrum dispersed on a linear CCD array,” Electron. Lett.29, 896–897 (1993).

Jian, Y.

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 026002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jiao, S.

Kang, J. U.

Kerbage, C.

Klein, T.

Knighton, R.

Knighton, R. W.

Koch, P.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laissue, P.

Lankenau, E.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, E. C. W.

Lee, W. P. A.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, J.

J. Lewis, “Fast template matching,” Vision Interface95, 120–123 (1995).

Liang, H.

Lim, H.

Mashimo, H.

Mujat, M.

Oelckers, S.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, G. M.

Palte, G.

Pedro, J.

Pircher, M.

Podoleanu, A.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Podoleanu, A. Gh

A. Gh Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transverse and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.3, 12–20 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Taplin, A. Gh Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Displacement sensor using channeled spectrum dispersed on a linear CCD array,” Electron. Lett.29, 896–897 (1993).

Potsaid, B.

Probst, J.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

Rasband, W. S.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J.

Rosen, R. B.

Sarunic, M. V.

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 026002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, D.

Schmitt, J.

Schneider, C. A.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seeger, M.

A. Gh Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transverse and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.3, 12–20 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stifter, D.

Swanson, E. A.

Sylwestrzak, M.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szlag, D.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taplin, S.

S. Taplin, A. Gh Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Displacement sensor using channeled spectrum dispersed on a linear CCD array,” Electron. Lett.29, 896–897 (1993).

Targowski, P.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T.-H.

Ustun, T. E.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van der Jeught, S.

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, D. J.

A. Gh Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transverse and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.3, 12–20 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1789–1791 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Taplin, A. Gh Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Displacement sensor using channeled spectrum dispersed on a linear CCD array,” Electron. Lett.29, 896–897 (1993).

Wiesauer, K.

Wieser, W.

Winter, C.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, K.

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 026002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

Zhang, K.

Zhou, C.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Taplin, A. Gh Podoleanu, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Displacement sensor using channeled spectrum dispersed on a linear CCD array,” Electron. Lett.29, 896–897 (1993).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

A. Goshtasby, S. H. Gage, and J. F. Bartholic, “A two-stage cross correlation approach to template matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.6(3), 374–378 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (7)

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gh Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transverse and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt.3, 12–20 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 026002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (12)

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T.-H. Tsai, J. Schmitt, Q. Huang, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy of the human colon using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(2), 784–796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Rosen, M. Hathaway, J. Rogers, J. Pedro, P. Garcia, P. Laissue, G. M. Dobre, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Multidimensional en-face OCT imaging of the retina,” Opt. Express17(5), 4112–4133 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system,” Opt. Express18(11), 11772–11784 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
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K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Graphics processing unit accelerated non-uniform fast Fourier transform for ultrahigh-speed, real-time Fourier-domain OCT,” Opt. Express18(22), 23472–23487 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. Puliafito, “Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(2), 444–452 (2005).
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K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, “En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation,” Opt. Express13(3), 1015–1024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liang, M. G. Cid, R. Cucu, G. Dobre, A. Podoleanu, J. Pedro, and D. Saunders, “En-face optical coherence tomography - a novel application of non-invasive imaging to art conservation,” Opt. Express13(16), 6133–6144 (2005).
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S. Jiao, C. Wu, R. W. Knighton, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, “Registration of high-density cross sectional images to the fundus image in spectral-domain ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(8), 3368–3376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lim, M. Mujat, C. Kerbage, E. C. W. Lee, Y. Chen, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed imaging of human retina in vivo with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(26), 12902–12908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging the human retina and cone mosaic in vivo with PS-OCT,” Proc. SPIE6429, 64290T (2007).
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A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(4), 464–499 (2008).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
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A. Gh. Podoleanu, and A. Bradu, “Master-slave interferometry for parallel spectral domain interferometry sensing and versatile 3D optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express21, 19324.-193238 (2013).

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