Abstract

Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation (PR-SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating collagen fiber orientation quantitatively with low invasiveness. However, the waiting time for the mechanical polarization rotation makes it too sensitive to motion artifacts and hence has hampered its use in various applications in vivo. In the work described in this article, we constructed a motion-artifact-robust, PR-SHG microscope based on rapid polarization switching at every pixel with an electro-optic Pockells cell (PC) in synchronization with step-wise raster scanning of the focus spot and alternate data acquisition of a vertical-polarization-resolved SHG signal and a horizontal-polarization-resolved one. The constructed PC-based PR-SHG microscope enabled us to visualize orientation mapping of dermal collagen fiber in human facial skin in vivo without the influence of motion artifacts. Furthermore, it implied the location and/or age dependence of the collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin. The robustness to motion artifacts in the collagen orientation measurement will expand the application scope of SHG microscopy in dermatology and collagen-related fields.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics, (Holt McDougal, 1977).
  2. S. Fine and W. P. Hansen, “Optical second harmonic generation in biological systems,” Appl. Opt.10(10), 2350–2353 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82(1), 493–508 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. König and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 432–439 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. J. Koehler, K. König, P. Elsner, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “In vivo assessment of human skin aging by multiphoton laser scanning tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(19), 2879–2881 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Palero, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, H. J. Sterenborg, and H. C. Gerritsen, “In vivo nonlinear spectral imaging in mouse skin,” Opt. Express14(10), 4395–4402 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Yasui, Y. Takahashi, M. Ito, S. Fukushima, and T. Araki, “Ex vivo and in vivo second-harmonic-generation imaging of dermal collagen fiber in skin: comparison of imaging characteristics between mode-locked Cr:Forsterite and Ti:Sapphire lasers,” Appl. Opt.48(10), D88–D95 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S.-H. Chia, C.-H. Yu, C.-H. Lin, N.-C. Cheng, T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized video-rate epi-third-harmonic-generation fiber-microscope,” Opt. Express18(16), 17382–17391 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 061231 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Stoller, B.-M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(2), 205–214 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Yasui, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Characterization of collagen orientation in human dermis by two-dimensional second-harmonic-generation polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(2), 259–264 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Yasui, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Determination of collagen fiber orientation in human tissue by use of polarization measurement of molecular second-harmonic-generation light,” Appl. Opt.43(14), 2861–2867 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Yasui, K. Sasaki, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Tomographic imaging of collagen fiber orientation in human tissue using depth-resolved polarimetry of second-harmonic-generation light,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(13-15), 1397–1408 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, “Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044020 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Yasui, Y. Takahashi, S. Fukushima, Y. Ogura, T. Yamashita, T. Kuwahara, T. Hirao, and T. Araki, “Observation of dermal collagen fiber in wrinkled skin using polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express17(2), 912–923 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Latour, I. Gusachenko, L. Kowalczuk, I. Lamarre, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “In vivo structural imaging of the cornea by polarization-resolved second harmonic microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(1), 1–15 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron.34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express14(13), 6178–6187 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. A. Rao, M. R. Mehta, and K. C. Toussaint., “Fourier transform-second-harmonic generation imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express17(17), 14534–14542 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, and R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Ghazaryan, H. F. Tsai, G. Hayrapetyan, W.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, M. Y. Jeong, C.-S. Kim, S.-J. Chen, and C.-Y. Dong, “Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031105 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J.90(2), 693–703 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. P. J. Campagnola and C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation microscopy: principles and applications to disease diagnosis,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(1), 13–26 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013

T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 061231 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ghazaryan, H. F. Tsai, G. Hayrapetyan, W.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, M. Y. Jeong, C.-S. Kim, S.-J. Chen, and C.-Y. Dong, “Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

P. J. Campagnola and C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation microscopy: principles and applications to disease diagnosis,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(1), 13–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, “Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

T. Yasui, K. Sasaki, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Tomographic imaging of collagen fiber orientation in human tissue using depth-resolved polarimetry of second-harmonic-generation light,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(13-15), 1397–1408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Yasui, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Characterization of collagen orientation in human dermis by two-dimensional second-harmonic-generation polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(2), 259–264 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Determination of collagen fiber orientation in human tissue by use of polarization measurement of molecular second-harmonic-generation light,” Appl. Opt.43(14), 2861–2867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. König and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 432–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron.34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, B.-M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(2), 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

Araki, T.

T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 061231 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Takahashi, M. Ito, S. Fukushima, and T. Araki, “Ex vivo and in vivo second-harmonic-generation imaging of dermal collagen fiber in skin: comparison of imaging characteristics between mode-locked Cr:Forsterite and Ti:Sapphire lasers,” Appl. Opt.48(10), D88–D95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Takahashi, S. Fukushima, Y. Ogura, T. Yamashita, T. Kuwahara, T. Hirao, and T. Araki, “Observation of dermal collagen fiber in wrinkled skin using polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express17(2), 912–923 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, K. Sasaki, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Tomographic imaging of collagen fiber orientation in human tissue using depth-resolved polarimetry of second-harmonic-generation light,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(13-15), 1397–1408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Determination of collagen fiber orientation in human tissue by use of polarization measurement of molecular second-harmonic-generation light,” Appl. Opt.43(14), 2861–2867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Characterization of collagen orientation in human dermis by two-dimensional second-harmonic-generation polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(2), 259–264 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bückle, R.

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola and C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation microscopy: principles and applications to disease diagnosis,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(1), 13–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J.90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celliers, P. M.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, M.-C.

Chen, I.-H.

S.-H. Chia, C.-H. Yu, C.-H. Lin, N.-C. Cheng, T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized video-rate epi-third-harmonic-generation fiber-microscope,” Opt. Express18(16), 17382–17391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron.34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-J.

A. Ghazaryan, H. F. Tsai, G. Hayrapetyan, W.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, M. Y. Jeong, C.-S. Kim, S.-J. Chen, and C.-Y. Dong, “Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.-Y.

Chen, W.-L.

A. Ghazaryan, H. F. Tsai, G. Hayrapetyan, W.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, M. Y. Jeong, C.-S. Kim, S.-J. Chen, and C.-Y. Dong, “Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-F.

A. Ghazaryan, H. F. Tsai, G. Hayrapetyan, W.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, M. Y. Jeong, C.-S. Kim, S.-J. Chen, and C.-Y. Dong, “Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, N.-C.

Cheng, P.-C.

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron.34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chia, S.-H.

Christie, R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.-W.

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron.34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cicchi, R.

Da Silva, L. B.

P. Stoller, B.-M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(2), 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bruijn, H. S.

Dong, C.-Y.

A. Ghazaryan, H. F. Tsai, G. Hayrapetyan, W.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, M. Y. Jeong, C.-S. Kim, S.-J. Chen, and C.-Y. Dong, “Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola and C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation microscopy: principles and applications to disease diagnosis,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(1), 13–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, P.

Fine, S.

Fukushima, S.

R. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 061231 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Takahashi, M. Ito, S. Fukushima, and T. Araki, “Ex vivo and in vivo second-harmonic-generation imaging of dermal collagen fiber in skin: comparison of imaging characteristics between mode-locked Cr:Forsterite and Ti:Sapphire lasers,” Appl. Opt.48(10), D88–D95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Takahashi, S. Fukushima, Y. Ogura, T. Yamashita, T. Kuwahara, T. Hirao, and T. Araki, “Observation of dermal collagen fiber in wrinkled skin using polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express17(2), 912–923 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerritsen, H. C.

Ghazaryan, A.

A. Ghazaryan, H. F. Tsai, G. Hayrapetyan, W.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, M. Y. Jeong, C.-S. Kim, S.-J. Chen, and C.-Y. Dong, “Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gusachenko, I.

Hansen, W. P.

Hayrapetyan, G.

A. Ghazaryan, H. F. Tsai, G. Hayrapetyan, W.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, M. Y. Jeong, C.-S. Kim, S.-J. Chen, and C.-Y. Dong, “Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirao, T.

T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Takahashi, S. Fukushima, Y. Ogura, T. Yamashita, T. Kuwahara, T. Hirao, and T. Araki, “Observation of dermal collagen fiber in wrinkled skin using polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express17(2), 912–923 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoppe, P. E.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H.-Y.

Hyman, B. T.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, M.

Jeong, M. Y.

A. Ghazaryan, H. F. Tsai, G. Hayrapetyan, W.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, M. Y. Jeong, C.-S. Kim, S.-J. Chen, and C.-Y. Dong, “Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaatz, M.

Kapsokalyvas, D.

Kim, B.-M.

P. Stoller, B.-M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(2), 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C.-S.

A. Ghazaryan, H. F. Tsai, G. Hayrapetyan, W.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, M. Y. Jeong, C.-S. Kim, S.-J. Chen, and C.-Y. Dong, “Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koehler, M. J.

König, K.

M. J. Koehler, K. König, P. Elsner, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “In vivo assessment of human skin aging by multiphoton laser scanning tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(19), 2879–2881 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. König and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 432–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczuk, L.

Kuwahara, T.

Lamarre, I.

Latour, G.

Lee, W.-J.

Lin, B.-L.

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron.34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

Lin, C.-Y.

Liu, T.-M.

Malone, C. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mansfield, J. C.

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, “Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matcher, S. J.

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, “Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, T.

R. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 061231 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matteini, P.

Mehta, M. R.

Millard, A. C.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J.90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moger, J.

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, “Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohler, W. A.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J.90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murota, H.

R. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 061231 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikitin, A. Y.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogura, Y.

T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Takahashi, S. Fukushima, Y. Ogura, T. Yamashita, T. Kuwahara, T. Hirao, and T. Araki, “Observation of dermal collagen fiber in wrinkled skin using polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express17(2), 912–923 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palero, J. A.

Pavone, F. S.

Pini, R.

Plotnikov, S. V.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J.90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, R. A.

Ratto, F.

Reiser, K. M.

P. Stoller, B.-M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(2), 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riemann, I.

K. König and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 432–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

Rubenchik, A. M.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, B.-M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(2), 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, K.

R. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 061231 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, K. Sasaki, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Tomographic imaging of collagen fiber orientation in human tissue using depth-resolved polarimetry of second-harmonic-generation light,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(13-15), 1397–1408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

Shieh, D.-B.

Sterenborg, H. J.

Stoller, P.

P. Stoller, B.-M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(2), 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stringari, C.

Sun, C.-K.

Tai, S.-P.

Takahashi, Y.

Tanaka, R.

T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 061231 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

R. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 061231 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terasaki, M.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tohno, Y.

T. Yasui, K. Sasaki, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Tomographic imaging of collagen fiber orientation in human tissue using depth-resolved polarimetry of second-harmonic-generation light,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(13-15), 1397–1408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Characterization of collagen orientation in human dermis by two-dimensional second-harmonic-generation polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(2), 259–264 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Determination of collagen fiber orientation in human tissue by use of polarization measurement of molecular second-harmonic-generation light,” Appl. Opt.43(14), 2861–2867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toussaint, K. C.

Tsai, H. F.

A. Ghazaryan, H. F. Tsai, G. Hayrapetyan, W.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, M. Y. Jeong, C.-S. Kim, S.-J. Chen, and C.-Y. Dong, “Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, H.-J.

Tsai, T.-H.

van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, A.

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winlove, C. P.

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, “Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, P.-C.

Yamashita, T.

T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Takahashi, S. Fukushima, Y. Ogura, T. Yamashita, T. Kuwahara, T. Hirao, and T. Araki, “Observation of dermal collagen fiber in wrinkled skin using polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express17(2), 912–923 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasui, T.

T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 061231 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Takahashi, M. Ito, S. Fukushima, and T. Araki, “Ex vivo and in vivo second-harmonic-generation imaging of dermal collagen fiber in skin: comparison of imaging characteristics between mode-locked Cr:Forsterite and Ti:Sapphire lasers,” Appl. Opt.48(10), D88–D95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Takahashi, S. Fukushima, Y. Ogura, T. Yamashita, T. Kuwahara, T. Hirao, and T. Araki, “Observation of dermal collagen fiber in wrinkled skin using polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express17(2), 912–923 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, K. Sasaki, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Tomographic imaging of collagen fiber orientation in human tissue using depth-resolved polarimetry of second-harmonic-generation light,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(13-15), 1397–1408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Characterization of collagen orientation in human dermis by two-dimensional second-harmonic-generation polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(2), 259–264 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Determination of collagen fiber orientation in human tissue by use of polarization measurement of molecular second-harmonic-generation light,” Appl. Opt.43(14), 2861–2867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonetsu, M.

T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-H.

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Biophys. J.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J.90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J.82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J.82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

K. König and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 432–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Characterization of collagen orientation in human dermis by two-dimensional second-harmonic-generation polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(2), 259–264 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, M. Yonetsu, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, T. Yamashita, Y. Ogura, T. Hirao, H. Murota, and T. Araki, “In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tanaka, S. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(6), 061231 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, B.-M. Kim, A. M. Rubenchik, K. M. Reiser, and L. B. Da Silva, “Polarization-dependent optical second-harmonic imaging of a rat-tail tendon,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(2), 205–214 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, “Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ghazaryan, H. F. Tsai, G. Hayrapetyan, W.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, M. Y. Jeong, C.-S. Kim, S.-J. Chen, and C.-Y. Dong, “Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(3), 031105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Photon. Rev.

P. J. Campagnola and C.-Y. Dong, “Second harmonic generation microscopy: principles and applications to disease diagnosis,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(1), 13–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express14(13), 6178–6187 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Rao, M. R. Mehta, and K. C. Toussaint., “Fourier transform-second-harmonic generation imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express17(17), 14534–14542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, and R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, Y. Takahashi, S. Fukushima, Y. Ogura, T. Yamashita, T. Kuwahara, T. Hirao, and T. Araki, “Observation of dermal collagen fiber in wrinkled skin using polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express17(2), 912–923 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Chia, C.-H. Yu, C.-H. Lin, N.-C. Cheng, T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized video-rate epi-third-harmonic-generation fiber-microscope,” Opt. Express18(16), 17382–17391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Palero, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, H. J. Sterenborg, and H. C. Gerritsen, “In vivo nonlinear spectral imaging in mouse skin,” Opt. Express14(10), 4395–4402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

T. Yasui, K. Sasaki, Y. Tohno, and T. Araki, “Tomographic imaging of collagen fiber orientation in human tissue using depth-resolved polarimetry of second-harmonic-generation light,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(13-15), 1397–1408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron.34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics, (Holt McDougal, 1977).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (937 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (789 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Data acquisition method of VPR-SHG image and HPR-SHG image in (a) the previous PR-SHG microscopy based on continuous rotation of polarization angle and (b) the proposed PR-SHG microscopy based on rapid switching of polarization angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup. PC: Electro-optic Pockells cell; PMT: photon-counting photomultiplier with Peltier cooling. Inset is a photograph of the attachment ring. (b) Comparison of autocorrelation traces of the laser light before and after passing though the prism pair and PC. (c) Photograph of in vivo measurement of the human facial skin. (d) Timing chart of scanning signals of slow GM and fast GM, switching signal of PC, and timing signal of data acquisition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

VPR-SHG image, HPR-SHG image, and α image of human Achilles tendon ex vivo measured by the PC-based PR-SHG microscopy (image size = 300 µm × 300 µm, pixel size = 128 pixel × 128 pixel, image acquisition time = 2 s). The collagen orientation of the sample was directed at (a) 90 degree (vertical orientation), (b) 0 degree (horizontal orientation), and (c) 45 degree (middle between horizontal and vertical orientations), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

VPR-SHG image, HPR-SHG image, and α image of human Achilles tendon ex vivo measured by the mechanical-rotation-based PR-SHG microscopy (image size = 300 µm × 300 µm, pixel size = 128 × 128 pixels, image acquisition time = 8 s). The collagen orientation of the sample was directed at (a) 90 degree (vertical orientation), (b) 0 degree (horizontal orientation), and (c) 45 degree (middle between horizontal and vertical orientations), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A series of α images (image size = 400 µm by 400 µm region, pixel size = 128 pixels × 128 pixels) acquired every 2 s using the PC-based PR-SHG microscopy (Media 1). The same region in the cheek skin for a male subject in his 24 years old was continuously measured.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A series of α images (image size = 400 µm by 400 µm region, pixel size = 256 pixels × 256 pixels) acquired every 10 s using the mechanical-rotation-based PR-SHG microscopy (Media 2). The same region in the cheek skin for a male subject in his 24 years old was continuously measured.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of α images in human facial skin measured by PC-based PR-SHG microscopy (image size = 1.6 mm by 1.6 mm region). (a) Cheek skin and (b) eye corner skin for a male subject in his 24 years old, and (c) cheek skin and (d) eye corner skin for a male subject in his 57 years old.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α= I V I H I V + I H

Metrics