Abstract

Acute circulatory disorders are commonly associated with systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) and sepsis. During sepsis, microcirculatory perfusion is compromised leading to tissue hypoperfusion and potentially to multiple organ dysfunction. In the present study, acute lung injury (ALI), one of the major causes leading to SIRS and sepsis, was experimentally induced in six female pigs. To investigate the progress of body temperature distribution, measurements with a long-wave infrared camera were carried out. Temperature centralization was evidenced during ALI owing to impairments of peripheral perfusion. In addition, statistical analysis demonstrated strong correlations between (a) standard deviation of the skin temperature distribution (SD) and shock index (SI) (p<0.0005), (b) SD and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (p<0.0005), (c) ΔT/Δx and SI (p<0.0005), as well as between (d) ΔT/Δx and MAP (p<0.0005). For clarification purposes, ΔT/Δx is a parameter implemented to quantify the spatial temperature gradient. This pioneering study created promising results. It demonstrated the capacity of infrared thermography as well as of the indexes, SD and ΔT/Δx, to detect impairments in both circulation and tissue perfusion.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M.  Odeh, “Sepsis, septicaemia, sepsis syndrome, and septic shock: the correct definition and use,” Postgrad. Med. J. 72(844), 66 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J.  Villar, J.  Blanco, H.  Zhang, A. S.  Slutsky, “Ventilator-induced lung injury and sepsis: two sides of the same coin?” Minerva Anestesiol. 77(6), 647–653 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  6. D.  Di Giantomasso, C. N.  May, R.  Bellomo, “Vital organ blood flow during hyperdynamic sepsis,” Chest 124(3), 1053–1059 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. C. P. L.  Shiramizo, A. R.  Marra, M. S.  Durão, Â. T.  Paes, M. B.  Edmond, O. F.  Pavão dos Santos, “Decreasing mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients by implementing a sepsis bundle in a hospital setting,” PLoS ONE 6(11), e26790 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F.  Stüber, “Effects of genomic polymorphisms on the course of sepsis: is there a concept for gene therapy?” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12(Suppl 17), S60–S64 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  9. J.-H.  Wu, C.-Y.  Chen, P.-N.  Tsao, W.-S.  Hsieh, H.-C.  Chou, “Neonatal sepsis: a 6-year analysis in a neonatal care unit in Taiwan,” Pediatr. Neonatol. 50(3), 88–95 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R.  Daniels, “Surviving the first hours in sepsis: getting the basics right (an intensivist’s perspective),” J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 66(Suppl 2), ii11–ii23 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. C.  Angus, W. T.  Linde-Zwirble, J.  Lidicker, G.  Clermont, J.  Carcillo, M. R.  Pinsky, “Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care,” Crit. Care Med. 29(7), 1303–1310 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. E.  Lawn, S.  Cousens, J.  ZupanLancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team, “4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why?” Lancet 365(9462), 891–900 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. L.  Zanotti-Cavazzoni, R. P.  Dellinger, “Hemodynamic optimization of sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion,” Crit. Care 10(Suppl 3), S2 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T.  Koch, S.  Geiger, M. J. R.  Ragaller, “Monitoring of organ dysfunction in sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome: Novel strategies,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12(Suppl 17), S53–S59 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  18. M. D. Menger, B. Vollmar, and K. Messmer, “Sepsis and nutritional blood flow,” in Sepsis, P. D. K. Reinhart, P. D. K. Eyrich, and P. D. C. Sprung, ed. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, 1994).
  19. K. D.  Fairchild, T. M.  O’Shea, “Heart rate characteristics: Physiomarkers for detection of late-onset neonatal sepsis,” Clin. Perinatol. 37(3), 581–598 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E.  Rivers, B.  Nguyen, S.  Havstad, J.  Ressler, A.  Muzzin, B.  Knoblich, E.  Peterson, M.  TomlanovichEarly Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group, “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1368–1377 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. J.  Love, “Thermography as an indicator of blood perfusion,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 335(1 Thermal Chara), 429–437 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. F. J.  Ring, H.  McEvoy, A.  Jung, J.  Zuber, G.  Machin, “New standards for devices used for the measurement of human body temperature,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34(4), 249–253 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. B.  Knobel, B. D.  Guenther, H. E.  Rice, “Thermoregulation and thermography in neonatal physiology and disease,” Biol. Res. Nurs. 13(3), 274–282 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. B. Rowell, Human Circulation: Regulation during Physical Stress (Oxford University Press, 1986).
  26. O. J. Garden, A. W. Bradbury, J. L. R. Forsythe, and R. W. Parks, Principles and Practice of Surgery (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012).
  27. A. K.  Abbas, K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, T.  Orlikowsky, S.  Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(1), 93 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M.  Garbey, N.  Sun, A.  Merla, I.  Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, A. K.  Abbas, N.  Heussen, S.  Leonhardt, T.  Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  30. G. F.  Lewis, R. G.  Gatto, S. W.  Porges, “A novel method for extracting respiration rate and relative tidal volume from infrared thermography,” Psychophysiology 48(7), 877–887 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. N.  Memarian, A. N.  Venetsanopoulos, T.  Chau, “Infrared thermography as an access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments,” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. 6(1), 11 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. Merla and G. L. Romani, “Functional infrared imaging in medicine: A quantitative diagnostic approach,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 224–227.
  33. G. C.  Wishart, M.  Campisi, M.  Boswell, D.  Chapman, V.  Shackleton, S.  Iddles, A.  Hallett, P. D.  Britton, “The accuracy of digital infrared imaging for breast cancer detection in women undergoing breast biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(6), 535–540 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. N.  Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  36. T.  Berger, J.  Green, T.  Horeczko, Y.  Hagar, N.  Garg, A.  Suarez, E.  Panacek, N.  Shapiro, “Shock index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: Pilot study,” West J. Emerg Med 14(2), 168–174 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. Y.  Yasaka, R. G.  Khemani, B. P.  Markovitz, “Is shock index associated with outcome in children with sepsis/septic shock?*,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 14(8), e372–e379 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. M. Y.  Rady, P.  Nightingale, R. A.  Little, J. D.  Edwards, “Shock index: a re-evaluation in acute circulatory failure,” Resuscitation 23(3), 227–234 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. S. L. Weinberg and S. K. Abramowitz, Statistics using SPSS: An integrative approach (Cambridge University Press, 2008).
  40. K. F. W.  Messmer, “Traumatic shock in polytrauma: Circulatory parameters, biochemistry, and resuscitation,” World J. Surg. 7(1), 26–30 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, A. K.  Abbas, N.  Heussen, S.  Leonhardt, T.  Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

T.  Berger, J.  Green, T.  Horeczko, Y.  Hagar, N.  Garg, A.  Suarez, E.  Panacek, N.  Shapiro, “Shock index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: Pilot study,” West J. Emerg Med 14(2), 168–174 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.  Yasaka, R. G.  Khemani, B. P.  Markovitz, “Is shock index associated with outcome in children with sepsis/septic shock?*,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 14(8), e372–e379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

R.  Daniels, “Surviving the first hours in sepsis: getting the basics right (an intensivist’s perspective),” J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 66(Suppl 2), ii11–ii23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.  Villar, J.  Blanco, H.  Zhang, A. S.  Slutsky, “Ventilator-induced lung injury and sepsis: two sides of the same coin?” Minerva Anestesiol. 77(6), 647–653 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. C. P. L.  Shiramizo, A. R.  Marra, M. S.  Durão, Â. T.  Paes, M. B.  Edmond, O. F.  Pavão dos Santos, “Decreasing mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients by implementing a sepsis bundle in a hospital setting,” PLoS ONE 6(11), e26790 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F.  Lewis, R. G.  Gatto, S. W.  Porges, “A novel method for extracting respiration rate and relative tidal volume from infrared thermography,” Psychophysiology 48(7), 877–887 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B.  Knobel, B. D.  Guenther, H. E.  Rice, “Thermoregulation and thermography in neonatal physiology and disease,” Biol. Res. Nurs. 13(3), 274–282 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K.  Abbas, K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, T.  Orlikowsky, S.  Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(1), 93 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

K. D.  Fairchild, T. M.  O’Shea, “Heart rate characteristics: Physiomarkers for detection of late-onset neonatal sepsis,” Clin. Perinatol. 37(3), 581–598 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. F. J.  Ring, H.  McEvoy, A.  Jung, J.  Zuber, G.  Machin, “New standards for devices used for the measurement of human body temperature,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34(4), 249–253 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C.  Wishart, M.  Campisi, M.  Boswell, D.  Chapman, V.  Shackleton, S.  Iddles, A.  Hallett, P. D.  Britton, “The accuracy of digital infrared imaging for breast cancer detection in women undergoing breast biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(6), 535–540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

N.  Memarian, A. N.  Venetsanopoulos, T.  Chau, “Infrared thermography as an access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments,” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. 6(1), 11 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H.  Wu, C.-Y.  Chen, P.-N.  Tsao, W.-S.  Hsieh, H.-C.  Chou, “Neonatal sepsis: a 6-year analysis in a neonatal care unit in Taiwan,” Pediatr. Neonatol. 50(3), 88–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M.  Garbey, N.  Sun, A.  Merla, I.  Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L.  Zanotti-Cavazzoni, R. P.  Dellinger, “Hemodynamic optimization of sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion,” Crit. Care 10(Suppl 3), S2 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. E.  Lawn, S.  Cousens, J.  ZupanLancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team, “4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why?” Lancet 365(9462), 891–900 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.  Di Giantomasso, C. N.  May, R.  Bellomo, “Vital organ blood flow during hyperdynamic sepsis,” Chest 124(3), 1053–1059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

F.  Stüber, “Effects of genomic polymorphisms on the course of sepsis: is there a concept for gene therapy?” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12(Suppl 17), S60–S64 (2001).
[PubMed]

T.  Koch, S.  Geiger, M. J. R.  Ragaller, “Monitoring of organ dysfunction in sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome: Novel strategies,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12(Suppl 17), S53–S59 (2001).
[PubMed]

D. C.  Angus, W. T.  Linde-Zwirble, J.  Lidicker, G.  Clermont, J.  Carcillo, M. R.  Pinsky, “Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care,” Crit. Care Med. 29(7), 1303–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.  Rivers, B.  Nguyen, S.  Havstad, J.  Ressler, A.  Muzzin, B.  Knoblich, E.  Peterson, M.  TomlanovichEarly Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group, “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1368–1377 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

M.  Odeh, “Sepsis, septicaemia, sepsis syndrome, and septic shock: the correct definition and use,” Postgrad. Med. J. 72(844), 66 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

M. Y.  Rady, P.  Nightingale, R. A.  Little, J. D.  Edwards, “Shock index: a re-evaluation in acute circulatory failure,” Resuscitation 23(3), 227–234 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

K. F. W.  Messmer, “Traumatic shock in polytrauma: Circulatory parameters, biochemistry, and resuscitation,” World J. Surg. 7(1), 26–30 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

T. J.  Love, “Thermography as an indicator of blood perfusion,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 335(1 Thermal Chara), 429–437 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

N.  Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, A. K.

K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, A. K.  Abbas, N.  Heussen, S.  Leonhardt, T.  Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. K.  Abbas, K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, T.  Orlikowsky, S.  Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(1), 93 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abraham, E.

M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aird, W. C.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angus, D.

M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angus, D. C.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C.  Angus, W. T.  Linde-Zwirble, J.  Lidicker, G.  Clermont, J.  Carcillo, M. R.  Pinsky, “Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care,” Crit. Care Med. 29(7), 1303–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beale, R.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belikoff, B.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellomo, R.

D.  Di Giantomasso, C. N.  May, R.  Bellomo, “Vital organ blood flow during hyperdynamic sepsis,” Chest 124(3), 1053–1059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, T.

T.  Berger, J.  Green, T.  Horeczko, Y.  Hagar, N.  Garg, A.  Suarez, E.  Panacek, N.  Shapiro, “Shock index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: Pilot study,” West J. Emerg Med 14(2), 168–174 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, J.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bickenbach, J.

M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biener, I.

M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bion, J.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Black, R. E.

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanco, J.

J.  Villar, J.  Blanco, H.  Zhang, A. S.  Slutsky, “Ventilator-induced lung injury and sepsis: two sides of the same coin?” Minerva Anestesiol. 77(6), 647–653 (2011).
[PubMed]

Bodyak, N.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boswell, M.

G. C.  Wishart, M.  Campisi, M.  Boswell, D.  Chapman, V.  Shackleton, S.  Iddles, A.  Hallett, P. D.  Britton, “The accuracy of digital infrared imaging for breast cancer detection in women undergoing breast biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(6), 535–540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Britton, P. D.

G. C.  Wishart, M.  Campisi, M.  Boswell, D.  Chapman, V.  Shackleton, S.  Iddles, A.  Hallett, P. D.  Britton, “The accuracy of digital infrared imaging for breast cancer detection in women undergoing breast biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(6), 535–540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brun-Buisson, C.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buras, J.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calandra, T.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, H.

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campisi, M.

G. C.  Wishart, M.  Campisi, M.  Boswell, D.  Chapman, V.  Shackleton, S.  Iddles, A.  Hallett, P. D.  Britton, “The accuracy of digital infrared imaging for breast cancer detection in women undergoing breast biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(6), 535–540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carcillo, J.

D. C.  Angus, W. T.  Linde-Zwirble, J.  Lidicker, G.  Clermont, J.  Carcillo, M. R.  Pinsky, “Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care,” Crit. Care Med. 29(7), 1303–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlet, J.

J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlet, J. M.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmeliet, P.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, D.

G. C.  Wishart, M.  Campisi, M.  Boswell, D.  Chapman, V.  Shackleton, S.  Iddles, A.  Hallett, P. D.  Britton, “The accuracy of digital infrared imaging for breast cancer detection in women undergoing breast biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(6), 535–540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chau, T.

N.  Memarian, A. N.  Venetsanopoulos, T.  Chau, “Infrared thermography as an access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments,” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. 6(1), 11 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheang, M.

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-Y.

J.-H.  Wu, C.-Y.  Chen, P.-N.  Tsao, W.-S.  Hsieh, H.-C.  Chou, “Neonatal sepsis: a 6-year analysis in a neonatal care unit in Taiwan,” Pediatr. Neonatol. 50(3), 88–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, H.-C.

J.-H.  Wu, C.-Y.  Chen, P.-N.  Tsao, W.-S.  Hsieh, H.-C.  Chou, “Neonatal sepsis: a 6-year analysis in a neonatal care unit in Taiwan,” Pediatr. Neonatol. 50(3), 88–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cibulskis, R.

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clermont, G.

D. C.  Angus, W. T.  Linde-Zwirble, J.  Lidicker, G.  Clermont, J.  Carcillo, M. R.  Pinsky, “Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care,” Crit. Care Med. 29(7), 1303–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, J.

M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coller, B.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, D.

M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cousens, S.

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E.  Lawn, S.  Cousens, J.  ZupanLancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team, “4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why?” Lancet 365(9462), 891–900 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czaplik, M.

M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniels, R.

R.  Daniels, “Surviving the first hours in sepsis: getting the basics right (an intensivist’s perspective),” J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 66(Suppl 2), ii11–ii23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dellinger, R. P.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L.  Zanotti-Cavazzoni, R. P.  Dellinger, “Hemodynamic optimization of sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion,” Crit. Care 10(Suppl 3), S2 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dembinski, R.

M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhainaut, J. F.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Giantomasso, D.

D.  Di Giantomasso, C. N.  May, R.  Bellomo, “Vital organ blood flow during hyperdynamic sepsis,” Chest 124(3), 1053–1059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doerschuk, C. M.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durão, M. S.

S. C. P. L.  Shiramizo, A. R.  Marra, M. S.  Durão, Â. T.  Paes, M. B.  Edmond, O. F.  Pavão dos Santos, “Decreasing mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients by implementing a sepsis bundle in a hospital setting,” PLoS ONE 6(11), e26790 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edmond, M. B.

S. C. P. L.  Shiramizo, A. R.  Marra, M. S.  Durão, Â. T.  Paes, M. B.  Edmond, O. F.  Pavão dos Santos, “Decreasing mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients by implementing a sepsis bundle in a hospital setting,” PLoS ONE 6(11), e26790 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, J. D.

M. Y.  Rady, P.  Nightingale, R. A.  Little, J. D.  Edwards, “Shock index: a re-evaluation in acute circulatory failure,” Resuscitation 23(3), 227–234 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esmon, C.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fairchild, K. D.

K. D.  Fairchild, T. M.  O’Shea, “Heart rate characteristics: Physiomarkers for detection of late-onset neonatal sepsis,” Clin. Perinatol. 37(3), 581–598 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feinstein, D.

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, M. P.

M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Floros, J.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gail, D. B.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garbey, M.

M.  Garbey, N.  Sun, A.  Merla, I.  Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garg, N.

T.  Berger, J.  Green, T.  Horeczko, Y.  Hagar, N.  Garg, A.  Suarez, E.  Panacek, N.  Shapiro, “Shock index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: Pilot study,” West J. Emerg Med 14(2), 168–174 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatto, R. G.

G. F.  Lewis, R. G.  Gatto, S. W.  Porges, “A novel method for extracting respiration rate and relative tidal volume from infrared thermography,” Psychophysiology 48(7), 877–887 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geiger, S.

T.  Koch, S.  Geiger, M. J. R.  Ragaller, “Monitoring of organ dysfunction in sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome: Novel strategies,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12(Suppl 17), S53–S59 (2001).
[PubMed]

Gerlach, H.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gimbrone, M. A.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, J.

T.  Berger, J.  Green, T.  Horeczko, Y.  Hagar, N.  Garg, A.  Suarez, E.  Panacek, N.  Shapiro, “Shock index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: Pilot study,” West J. Emerg Med 14(2), 168–174 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenther, B. D.

R. B.  Knobel, B. D.  Guenther, H. E.  Rice, “Thermoregulation and thermography in neonatal physiology and disease,” Biol. Res. Nurs. 13(3), 274–282 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurka, D.

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagar, Y.

T.  Berger, J.  Green, T.  Horeczko, Y.  Hagar, N.  Garg, A.  Suarez, E.  Panacek, N.  Shapiro, “Shock index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: Pilot study,” West J. Emerg Med 14(2), 168–174 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hallett, A.

G. C.  Wishart, M.  Campisi, M.  Boswell, D.  Chapman, V.  Shackleton, S.  Iddles, A.  Hallett, P. D.  Britton, “The accuracy of digital infrared imaging for breast cancer detection in women undergoing breast biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(6), 535–540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harabin, A. L.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, M.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Havstad, S.

E.  Rivers, B.  Nguyen, S.  Havstad, J.  Ressler, A.  Muzzin, B.  Knoblich, E.  Peterson, M.  TomlanovichEarly Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group, “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1368–1377 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heimann, K.

K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, A. K.  Abbas, N.  Heussen, S.  Leonhardt, T.  Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. K.  Abbas, K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, T.  Orlikowsky, S.  Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(1), 93 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heussen, N.

K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, A. K.  Abbas, N.  Heussen, S.  Leonhardt, T.  Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hoffman, E.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horeczko, T.

T.  Berger, J.  Green, T.  Horeczko, Y.  Hagar, N.  Garg, A.  Suarez, E.  Panacek, N.  Shapiro, “Shock index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: Pilot study,” West J. Emerg Med 14(2), 168–174 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, W.-S.

J.-H.  Wu, C.-Y.  Chen, P.-N.  Tsao, W.-S.  Hsieh, H.-C.  Chou, “Neonatal sepsis: a 6-year analysis in a neonatal care unit in Taiwan,” Pediatr. Neonatol. 50(3), 88–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubmayr, R. D.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iddles, S.

G. C.  Wishart, M.  Campisi, M.  Boswell, D.  Chapman, V.  Shackleton, S.  Iddles, A.  Hallett, P. D.  Britton, “The accuracy of digital infrared imaging for breast cancer detection in women undergoing breast biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(6), 535–540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaeschke, R.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jergus, K.

K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, A. K.  Abbas, N.  Heussen, S.  Leonhardt, T.  Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. K.  Abbas, K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, T.  Orlikowsky, S.  Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(1), 93 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, H. L.

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, A.

E. F. J.  Ring, H.  McEvoy, A.  Jung, J.  Zuber, G.  Machin, “New standards for devices used for the measurement of human body temperature,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34(4), 249–253 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, P. M.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karumanchi, S. A.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khemani, R. G.

Y.  Yasaka, R. G.  Khemani, B. P.  Markovitz, “Is shock index associated with outcome in children with sepsis/septic shock?*,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 14(8), e372–e379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knobel, R. B.

R. B.  Knobel, B. D.  Guenther, H. E.  Rice, “Thermoregulation and thermography in neonatal physiology and disease,” Biol. Res. Nurs. 13(3), 274–282 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoblich, B.

E.  Rivers, B.  Nguyen, S.  Havstad, J.  Ressler, A.  Muzzin, B.  Knoblich, E.  Peterson, M.  TomlanovichEarly Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group, “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1368–1377 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, T.

T.  Koch, S.  Geiger, M. J. R.  Ragaller, “Monitoring of organ dysfunction in sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome: Novel strategies,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12(Suppl 17), S53–S59 (2001).
[PubMed]

Kumar, A.

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawn, J. E.

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E.  Lawn, S.  Cousens, J.  ZupanLancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team, “4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why?” Lancet 365(9462), 891–900 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gall, J.-R.

J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, S.

K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, A. K.  Abbas, N.  Heussen, S.  Leonhardt, T.  Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K.  Abbas, K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, T.  Orlikowsky, S.  Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(1), 93 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leppert, M.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, M. M.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, G. F.

G. F.  Lewis, R. G.  Gatto, S. W.  Porges, “A novel method for extracting respiration rate and relative tidal volume from infrared thermography,” Psychophysiology 48(7), 877–887 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liaw, P. C.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lidicker, J.

D. C.  Angus, W. T.  Linde-Zwirble, J.  Lidicker, G.  Clermont, J.  Carcillo, M. R.  Pinsky, “Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care,” Crit. Care Med. 29(7), 1303–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Light, B.

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linde-Zwirble, W. T.

D. C.  Angus, W. T.  Linde-Zwirble, J.  Lidicker, G.  Clermont, J.  Carcillo, M. R.  Pinsky, “Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care,” Crit. Care Med. 29(7), 1303–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, R. A.

M. Y.  Rady, P.  Nightingale, R. A.  Little, J. D.  Edwards, “Shock index: a re-evaluation in acute circulatory failure,” Resuscitation 23(3), 227–234 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Love, T. J.

T. J.  Love, “Thermography as an indicator of blood perfusion,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 335(1 Thermal Chara), 429–437 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machin, G.

E. F. J.  Ring, H.  McEvoy, A.  Jung, J.  Zuber, G.  Machin, “New standards for devices used for the measurement of human body temperature,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34(4), 249–253 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marini, J. J.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markovitz, B. P.

Y.  Yasaka, R. G.  Khemani, B. P.  Markovitz, “Is shock index associated with outcome in children with sepsis/septic shock?*,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 14(8), e372–e379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marra, A. R.

S. C. P. L.  Shiramizo, A. R.  Marra, M. S.  Durão, Â. T.  Paes, M. B.  Edmond, O. F.  Pavão dos Santos, “Decreasing mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients by implementing a sepsis bundle in a hospital setting,” PLoS ONE 6(11), e26790 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, J.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, J. C.

M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marx, G.

M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matalon, S.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathers, C.

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthay, M. A.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

May, C. N.

D.  Di Giantomasso, C. N.  May, R.  Bellomo, “Vital organ blood flow during hyperdynamic sepsis,” Chest 124(3), 1053–1059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McEvoy, H.

E. F. J.  Ring, H.  McEvoy, A.  Jung, J.  Zuber, G.  Machin, “New standards for devices used for the measurement of human body temperature,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34(4), 249–253 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Memarian, N.

N.  Memarian, A. N.  Venetsanopoulos, T.  Chau, “Infrared thermography as an access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments,” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. 6(1), 11 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merla, A.

M.  Garbey, N.  Sun, A.  Merla, I.  Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messmer, K. F. W.

K. F. W.  Messmer, “Traumatic shock in polytrauma: Circulatory parameters, biochemistry, and resuscitation,” World J. Surg. 7(1), 26–30 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizgerd, J. P.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, R.

J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullington, J. M.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munford, R.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muzzin, A.

E.  Rivers, B.  Nguyen, S.  Havstad, J.  Ressler, A.  Muzzin, B.  Knoblich, E.  Peterson, M.  TomlanovichEarly Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group, “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1368–1377 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, B.

E.  Rivers, B.  Nguyen, S.  Havstad, J.  Ressler, A.  Muzzin, B.  Knoblich, E.  Peterson, M.  TomlanovichEarly Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group, “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1368–1377 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nightingale, P.

M. Y.  Rady, P.  Nightingale, R. A.  Little, J. D.  Edwards, “Shock index: a re-evaluation in acute circulatory failure,” Resuscitation 23(3), 227–234 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Shea, T. M.

K. D.  Fairchild, T. M.  O’Shea, “Heart rate characteristics: Physiomarkers for detection of late-onset neonatal sepsis,” Clin. Perinatol. 37(3), 581–598 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odeh, M.

M.  Odeh, “Sepsis, septicaemia, sepsis syndrome, and septic shock: the correct definition and use,” Postgrad. Med. J. 72(844), 66 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okada, H.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opal, S. M.

M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orlikowsky, T.

K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, A. K.  Abbas, N.  Heussen, S.  Leonhardt, T.  Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. K.  Abbas, K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, T.  Orlikowsky, S.  Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(1), 93 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otsu, N.

N.  Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Paes, Â. T.

S. C. P. L.  Shiramizo, A. R.  Marra, M. S.  Durão, Â. T.  Paes, M. B.  Edmond, O. F.  Pavão dos Santos, “Decreasing mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients by implementing a sepsis bundle in a hospital setting,” PLoS ONE 6(11), e26790 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panacek, E.

T.  Berger, J.  Green, T.  Horeczko, Y.  Hagar, N.  Garg, A.  Suarez, E.  Panacek, N.  Shapiro, “Shock index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: Pilot study,” West J. Emerg Med 14(2), 168–174 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, M. M.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parrillo, J. E.

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parsons, P.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavão dos Santos, O. F.

S. C. P. L.  Shiramizo, A. R.  Marra, M. S.  Durão, Â. T.  Paes, M. B.  Edmond, O. F.  Pavão dos Santos, “Decreasing mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients by implementing a sepsis bundle in a hospital setting,” PLoS ONE 6(11), e26790 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlidis, I.

M.  Garbey, N.  Sun, A.  Merla, I.  Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payen, D.

J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelosi, P.

M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perin, J.

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, E.

E.  Rivers, B.  Nguyen, S.  Havstad, J.  Ressler, A.  Muzzin, B.  Knoblich, E.  Peterson, M.  TomlanovichEarly Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group, “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1368–1377 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinsky, M. R.

D. C.  Angus, W. T.  Linde-Zwirble, J.  Lidicker, G.  Clermont, J.  Carcillo, M. R.  Pinsky, “Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care,” Crit. Care Med. 29(7), 1303–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porges, S. W.

G. F.  Lewis, R. G.  Gatto, S. W.  Porges, “A novel method for extracting respiration rate and relative tidal volume from infrared thermography,” Psychophysiology 48(7), 877–887 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rady, M. Y.

M. Y.  Rady, P.  Nightingale, R. A.  Little, J. D.  Edwards, “Shock index: a re-evaluation in acute circulatory failure,” Resuscitation 23(3), 227–234 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ragaller, M. J. R.

T.  Koch, S.  Geiger, M. J. R.  Ragaller, “Monitoring of organ dysfunction in sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome: Novel strategies,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12(Suppl 17), S53–S59 (2001).
[PubMed]

Ramsay, G.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranieri, M.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranieri, V. M.

J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhart, K.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ressler, J.

E.  Rivers, B.  Nguyen, S.  Havstad, J.  Ressler, A.  Muzzin, B.  Knoblich, E.  Peterson, M.  TomlanovichEarly Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group, “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1368–1377 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, H. E.

R. B.  Knobel, B. D.  Guenther, H. E.  Rice, “Thermoregulation and thermography in neonatal physiology and disease,” Biol. Res. Nurs. 13(3), 274–282 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ring, E. F. J.

E. F. J.  Ring, H.  McEvoy, A.  Jung, J.  Zuber, G.  Machin, “New standards for devices used for the measurement of human body temperature,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34(4), 249–253 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivers, E.

E.  Rivers, B.  Nguyen, S.  Havstad, J.  Ressler, A.  Muzzin, B.  Knoblich, E.  Peterson, M.  TomlanovichEarly Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group, “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1368–1377 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, D.

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossaint, R.

M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudan, I.

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakr, Y.

J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, W.

M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, S.

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevransky, J.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shackleton, V.

G. C.  Wishart, M.  Campisi, M.  Boswell, D.  Chapman, V.  Shackleton, S.  Iddles, A.  Hallett, P. D.  Britton, “The accuracy of digital infrared imaging for breast cancer detection in women undergoing breast biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(6), 535–540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, N.

T.  Berger, J.  Green, T.  Horeczko, Y.  Hagar, N.  Garg, A.  Suarez, E.  Panacek, N.  Shapiro, “Shock index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: Pilot study,” West J. Emerg Med 14(2), 168–174 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, S.

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, S.-C.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiramizo, S. C. P. L.

S. C. P. L.  Shiramizo, A. R.  Marra, M. S.  Durão, Â. T.  Paes, M. B.  Edmond, O. F.  Pavão dos Santos, “Decreasing mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients by implementing a sepsis bundle in a hospital setting,” PLoS ONE 6(11), e26790 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simms, B. T.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slutsky, A. S.

J.  Villar, J.  Blanco, H.  Zhang, A. S.  Slutsky, “Ventilator-induced lung injury and sepsis: two sides of the same coin?” Minerva Anestesiol. 77(6), 647–653 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soodt, T.

M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprung, C. L.

J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stüber, F.

F.  Stüber, “Effects of genomic polymorphisms on the course of sepsis: is there a concept for gene therapy?” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12(Suppl 17), S60–S64 (2001).
[PubMed]

Suarez, A.

T.  Berger, J.  Green, T.  Horeczko, Y.  Hagar, N.  Garg, A.  Suarez, E.  Panacek, N.  Shapiro, “Shock index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: Pilot study,” West J. Emerg Med 14(2), 168–174 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, N.

M.  Garbey, N.  Sun, A.  Merla, I.  Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suppes, R.

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taiberg, L.

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, B. T.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toltl, L.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlanovich, M.

E.  Rivers, B.  Nguyen, S.  Havstad, J.  Ressler, A.  Muzzin, B.  Knoblich, E.  Peterson, M.  TomlanovichEarly Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group, “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1368–1377 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townsend, S.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tracey, K. J.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsao, P.-N.

J.-H.  Wu, C.-Y.  Chen, P.-N.  Tsao, W.-S.  Hsieh, H.-C.  Chou, “Neonatal sepsis: a 6-year analysis in a neonatal care unit in Taiwan,” Pediatr. Neonatol. 50(3), 88–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vender, J. S.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venetsanopoulos, A. N.

N.  Memarian, A. N.  Venetsanopoulos, T.  Chau, “Infrared thermography as an access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments,” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. 6(1), 11 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villar, J.

J.  Villar, J.  Blanco, H.  Zhang, A. S.  Slutsky, “Ventilator-induced lung injury and sepsis: two sides of the same coin?” Minerva Anestesiol. 77(6), 647–653 (2011).
[PubMed]

Vincent, J. L.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincent, J.-L.

J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, P.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wishart, G. C.

G. C.  Wishart, M.  Campisi, M.  Boswell, D.  Chapman, V.  Shackleton, S.  Iddles, A.  Hallett, P. D.  Britton, “The accuracy of digital infrared imaging for breast cancer detection in women undergoing breast biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(6), 535–540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, K. E.

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.-H.

J.-H.  Wu, C.-Y.  Chen, P.-N.  Tsao, W.-S.  Hsieh, H.-C.  Chou, “Neonatal sepsis: a 6-year analysis in a neonatal care unit in Taiwan,” Pediatr. Neonatol. 50(3), 88–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yano, K.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasaka, Y.

Y.  Yasaka, R. G.  Khemani, B. P.  Markovitz, “Is shock index associated with outcome in children with sepsis/septic shock?*,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 14(8), e372–e379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanotti, S.

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanotti-Cavazzoni, S. L.

S. L.  Zanotti-Cavazzoni, R. P.  Dellinger, “Hemodynamic optimization of sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion,” Crit. Care 10(Suppl 3), S2 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

J.  Villar, J.  Blanco, H.  Zhang, A. S.  Slutsky, “Ventilator-induced lung injury and sepsis: two sides of the same coin?” Minerva Anestesiol. 77(6), 647–653 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zimmerman, G. A.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmerman, J. L.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuber, J.

E. F. J.  Ring, H.  McEvoy, A.  Jung, J.  Zuber, G.  Machin, “New standards for devices used for the measurement of human body temperature,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34(4), 249–253 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zupan, J.

J. E.  Lawn, S.  Cousens, J.  ZupanLancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team, “4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why?” Lancet 365(9462), 891–900 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.

M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.

T. J.  Love, “Thermography as an indicator of blood perfusion,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 335(1 Thermal Chara), 429–437 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biol. Res. Nurs.

R. B.  Knobel, B. D.  Guenther, H. E.  Rice, “Thermoregulation and thermography in neonatal physiology and disease,” Biol. Res. Nurs. 13(3), 274–282 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Eng. Online

A. K.  Abbas, K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, T.  Orlikowsky, S.  Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(1), 93 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chest

D.  Di Giantomasso, C. N.  May, R.  Bellomo, “Vital organ blood flow during hyperdynamic sepsis,” Chest 124(3), 1053–1059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Perinatol.

K. D.  Fairchild, T. M.  O’Shea, “Heart rate characteristics: Physiomarkers for detection of late-onset neonatal sepsis,” Clin. Perinatol. 37(3), 581–598 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crit. Care

S. L.  Zanotti-Cavazzoni, R. P.  Dellinger, “Hemodynamic optimization of sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion,” Crit. Care 10(Suppl 3), S2 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crit. Care Med.

D. C.  Angus, W. T.  Linde-Zwirble, J.  Lidicker, G.  Clermont, J.  Carcillo, M. R.  Pinsky, “Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care,” Crit. Care Med. 29(7), 1303–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.

G. C.  Wishart, M.  Campisi, M.  Boswell, D.  Chapman, V.  Shackleton, S.  Iddles, A.  Hallett, P. D.  Britton, “The accuracy of digital infrared imaging for breast cancer detection in women undergoing breast biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(6), 535–540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

M.  Garbey, N.  Sun, A.  Merla, I.  Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.

N.  Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Intensive Care Med.

R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.

T.  Koch, S.  Geiger, M. J. R.  Ragaller, “Monitoring of organ dysfunction in sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome: Novel strategies,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12(Suppl 17), S53–S59 (2001).
[PubMed]

F.  Stüber, “Effects of genomic polymorphisms on the course of sepsis: is there a concept for gene therapy?” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12(Suppl 17), S60–S64 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Antimicrob. Chemother.

R.  Daniels, “Surviving the first hours in sepsis: getting the basics right (an intensivist’s perspective),” J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 66(Suppl 2), ii11–ii23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Med.

K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Med. Eng. Technol.

E. F. J.  Ring, H.  McEvoy, A.  Jung, J.  Zuber, G.  Machin, “New standards for devices used for the measurement of human body temperature,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34(4), 249–253 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neuroeng. Rehabil.

N.  Memarian, A. N.  Venetsanopoulos, T.  Chau, “Infrared thermography as an access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments,” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. 6(1), 11 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Perinat. Med.

K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, A. K.  Abbas, N.  Heussen, S.  Leonhardt, T.  Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lancet

L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E.  Lawn, S.  Cousens, J.  ZupanLancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team, “4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why?” Lancet 365(9462), 891–900 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minerva Anestesiol.

J.  Villar, J.  Blanco, H.  Zhang, A. S.  Slutsky, “Ventilator-induced lung injury and sepsis: two sides of the same coin?” Minerva Anestesiol. 77(6), 647–653 (2011).
[PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med.

E.  Rivers, B.  Nguyen, S.  Havstad, J.  Ressler, A.  Muzzin, B.  Knoblich, E.  Peterson, M.  TomlanovichEarly Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group, “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1368–1377 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.

Y.  Yasaka, R. G.  Khemani, B. P.  Markovitz, “Is shock index associated with outcome in children with sepsis/septic shock?*,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 14(8), e372–e379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pediatr. Neonatol.

J.-H.  Wu, C.-Y.  Chen, P.-N.  Tsao, W.-S.  Hsieh, H.-C.  Chou, “Neonatal sepsis: a 6-year analysis in a neonatal care unit in Taiwan,” Pediatr. Neonatol. 50(3), 88–95 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE

S. C. P. L.  Shiramizo, A. R.  Marra, M. S.  Durão, Â. T.  Paes, M. B.  Edmond, O. F.  Pavão dos Santos, “Decreasing mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients by implementing a sepsis bundle in a hospital setting,” PLoS ONE 6(11), e26790 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Postgrad. Med. J.

M.  Odeh, “Sepsis, septicaemia, sepsis syndrome, and septic shock: the correct definition and use,” Postgrad. Med. J. 72(844), 66 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psychophysiology

G. F.  Lewis, R. G.  Gatto, S. W.  Porges, “A novel method for extracting respiration rate and relative tidal volume from infrared thermography,” Psychophysiology 48(7), 877–887 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol.

M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Resuscitation

M. Y.  Rady, P.  Nightingale, R. A.  Little, J. D.  Edwards, “Shock index: a re-evaluation in acute circulatory failure,” Resuscitation 23(3), 227–234 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West J. Emerg Med

T.  Berger, J.  Green, T.  Horeczko, Y.  Hagar, N.  Garg, A.  Suarez, E.  Panacek, N.  Shapiro, “Shock index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: Pilot study,” West J. Emerg Med 14(2), 168–174 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

World J. Surg.

K. F. W.  Messmer, “Traumatic shock in polytrauma: Circulatory parameters, biochemistry, and resuscitation,” World J. Surg. 7(1), 26–30 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. L. Weinberg and S. K. Abramowitz, Statistics using SPSS: An integrative approach (Cambridge University Press, 2008).

A. Merla and G. L. Romani, “Functional infrared imaging in medicine: A quantitative diagnostic approach,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 224–227.

L. B. Rowell, Human Circulation: Regulation during Physical Stress (Oxford University Press, 1986).

O. J. Garden, A. W. Bradbury, J. L. R. Forsythe, and R. W. Parks, Principles and Practice of Surgery (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012).

M. D. Menger, B. Vollmar, and K. Messmer, “Sepsis and nutritional blood flow,” in Sepsis, P. D. K. Reinhart, P. D. K. Eyrich, and P. D. C. Sprung, ed. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, 1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photography of the experimental setup (1: anesthetized animal; 2: infrared camera; 3: laptop; 4: patient monitoring system (Philips IntelliVue MP 70, Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven, Netherlands); 5: Ventilator (Siemens 300A Servo Ventilator, Siemens Healthcare, Munich, Germany) and 6: Syringe pumps).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chronogram representing all the measurement time points (B: Baseline; PL: Post-lavage; ALI: acute lung injury).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental setup used in the animal trial.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Thermogram with temperature profile. (b) Graphic representation of the temperature profile (Dash-dot line - blue) as well as of the fitting curve (solid line - gray). ΔT/Δx correspond to the slope of the fitting curve (ΔT/Δx = 0.1160).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Original thermograms at six differing points of time [(a) Baseline, (d) ALI 1, (g) ALI 7, (j) ALI 13, (m) ALI 19, (p) ALI 25]. Thermograms representing ROIs after pre-processing [(b) Baseline, (e) ALI 1, (h) ALI 7, (k) ALI 13, (n) ALI 19, (q) ALI 25]. Histograms representing the relative skin temperature distribution of the ROIs (head, superior limbs and trunk) [(c) Baseline, (f) ALI 1, (i) ALI 7, (l) ALI 13, (o) ALI 19, (r) ALI 25]. Regarding the white frames (e, n, q), they identify regions that were not properly extracted. The blue frame (q) defines a region that was wrongly considered as background.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Boxplots describing the course of (a) Skewness and (b) Kurtosis over the measurement points. The outliers are identified with the number of the corresponding animal (“o” and “*” stand for mild (between 1.5 and 3x interquartile range) and extreme (>3x interquartile range) outliers, respectively).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Boxplots describing the course of (a) Shock index (SI), (b) mean arterial pressure (MAP), (c) standard deviation (SD) and (d) ΔT/Δx over the fifteen measurement points [B (baseline), PL (post-lavage), ALI 1, ALI 3, ALI 5, ALI 7, ALI 9, ALI 11, ALI 13, ALI 15, ALI 17, ALI 19, ALI 21, ALI 23 and ALI 25]. Difference between groups are significant for ΔT/Δx (p<0.0005) and SD (p<0.0005). The outliers are identified with the number of the corresponding animal (“o” and “*” stand for mild (between 1.5 and 3x interquartile range) and extreme (>3x interquartile range) outliers, respectively).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Boxplots describing the course of (a) PF ratio and (b) PaO2 over the fifteen measurement points. Difference between groups are significant for PaO2 (p=0.006) and PF ratio (p=0.002). The outliers are identified with the number of the corresponding animal (“o” and “*” stand for mild (between 1.5 and 3x interquartile range) and extreme (>3x interquartile range) outliers, respectively).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Pearson product moment correlations between SD, ΔT/Δx, SI and SI, MAP, PaO2 and PF ratio

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T * =arg max 0TL { σ bcv 2 (T) } .
σ bcv 2 (T)= σ 2 (T) σ wcv 2 (T),
σ wcv 2 (T)= ω B (T) σ B 2 (T)+ ω F (T) σ F 2 (T),
ω B (T)= i=0 T1 p(i) ,
ω F (T)= i=T L1 p(i) .
p(i)=n(i)/N.
σ bcv 2 (T)= ω B (T) [ μ B (T)μ ] 2 + ω F (T) [ μ F (T)μ ] 2 ,
μ(T)= i=0 L1 ip(i) ,
μ B (T)= i=0 T1 ip(i) / ω B (T) ,
μ F (T)= i=T L1 ip(i) / ω F (T) .

Metrics