Abstract

Minimally invasive imaging of upper airway obstructions in children and adults is needed to improve clinical decision-making. Toward this goal, we demonstrate an anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system delivered via a small-bore, flexible endoscope to quantify the upper airway lumen geometry. Helical scans were obtained from a proximally-scanned fiber-optic catheter of 820 μm outer diameter and >2 mm focal length. Coupled with a long coherence length wavelength-swept light source, the system exhibited an SNR roll-off of < 10 dB over a 10 mm range. Operating at 10 rotations/s, the average accuracy of segmented cross-sectional areas was found to be −1.4 ± 1.0%. To demonstrate the capability of this system, aOCT was performed on a pediatric airway phantom and on ex vivo swine trachea. The ability for quantitative endoscopy afforded by this system can aid in diagnosis, medical and surgical decision making, and predictive modeling of upper airway obstructive disorders.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (6)

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. King, N. S. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech.46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Stefano, H. G. Bezerra, E. Mehanna, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, W. Wang, G. Attizzani, D. Chamié, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Unrestricted utilization of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in coronary interventions,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging29(4), 741–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 026002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Wijesundara, N. V. Iftimia, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Design of a swept-source, anatomical OCT system for pediatric bronchoscopy,” Proc. SPIE8571, 85713K (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett.38(5), 673–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. O. Ahsen, Y. K. Tao, B. M. Potsaid, Y. Sheikine, J. Jiang, I. Grulkowski, T.-H. Tsai, V. Jayaraman, M. F. Kraus, J. L. Connolly, J. Hornegger, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a 1310 nm VCSEL light source,” Opt. Express21(15), 18021–18033 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

B. Y. Yeo, R. A. McLaughlin, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, “Enabling freehand lateral scanning of optical coherence tomography needle probes with a magnetic tracking system,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1565–1578 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, C. Burgner, D. John, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “Rapidly swept, ultra-widely-tunable 1060 nm MEMS-VCSELs,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1331–1333 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, P. R. Eastwood, J. P. Williamson, and D. D. Sin, “Phenotyping airway disease with optical coherence tomography,” Respirology16(1), 34–43 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.-H. Dhalla and J. A. Izatt, “Complete complex conjugate resolved heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography using a dispersive optical delay line,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(5), 1218–1232 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

B. Lau, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, D. K. Gerstmann, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging true 3D endoscopic anatomy by incorporating magnetic tracking with optical coherence tomography: proof-of-principle for airways,” Opt. Express18(26), 27173–27180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Delacrétaz, E. Shaffer, N. Pavillon, J. Kuhn, F. Lang, and C. Depeursinge, “Endoscopic low-coherence topography measurement for upper airways and hollow samples,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yu, G. Liu, M. Rubinstein, A. Saidi, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Office-based dynamic imaging of vocal cords in awake patients with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 06402 (2009).

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest J.136(1), 272–276 (2009).

H. O. Coxson, J. Mayo, S. Lam, G. Santyr, G. Parraga, and D. D. Sin, “New and current clinical imaging techniques to study chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.180(7), 588–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Abramson, S. Susarla, M. Troulis, and L. Kaban, “Age-related changes of the upper airway assessed by 3-dimensional computed tomography,” J. Craniofac. Surg.20(5Suppl 1), 657–663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, A. Jain, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Respiratory gating of anatomical optical coherence tomography images of the human airway,” Opt. Express17(8), 6568–6577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. AlGhanim, V. R. Comondore, J. Fleetham, C. A. Marra, and N. T. Ayas, “The economic impact of obstructive sleep apnea,” Lung186(1), 7–12 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mihaescu, S. Murugappan, E. Gutmark, L. F. Donnelly, and M. Kalra, “Computational modeling of upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea,” Laryngoscope118(2), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Daniel, “The upper airway: congenital malformations,” Paediatr. Respir. Rev.7(Suppl 1), S260–S263 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, M. E. Hernandez, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Linear dimensions of the upper airway structure during development: assessment by magnetic resonance imaging,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.165(1), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramson, Z.

Z. Abramson, S. Susarla, M. Troulis, and L. Kaban, “Age-related changes of the upper airway assessed by 3-dimensional computed tomography,” J. Craniofac. Surg.20(5Suppl 1), 657–663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahsen, O. O.

Alexandrov, S. A.

AlGhanim, N.

N. AlGhanim, V. R. Comondore, J. Fleetham, C. A. Marra, and N. T. Ayas, “The economic impact of obstructive sleep apnea,” Lung186(1), 7–12 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arens, R.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, M. E. Hernandez, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Linear dimensions of the upper airway structure during development: assessment by magnetic resonance imaging,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.165(1), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest J.136(1), 272–276 (2009).

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, A. Jain, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Respiratory gating of anatomical optical coherence tomography images of the human airway,” Opt. Express17(8), 6568–6577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attizzani, G.

G. T. Stefano, H. G. Bezerra, E. Mehanna, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, W. Wang, G. Attizzani, D. Chamié, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Unrestricted utilization of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in coronary interventions,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging29(4), 741–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayas, N. T.

N. AlGhanim, V. R. Comondore, J. Fleetham, C. A. Marra, and N. T. Ayas, “The economic impact of obstructive sleep apnea,” Lung186(1), 7–12 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, V. A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, S.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest J.136(1), 272–276 (2009).

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, A. Jain, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Respiratory gating of anatomical optical coherence tomography images of the human airway,” Opt. Express17(8), 6568–6577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bezerra, H. G.

G. T. Stefano, H. G. Bezerra, E. Mehanna, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, W. Wang, G. Attizzani, D. Chamié, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Unrestricted utilization of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in coronary interventions,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging29(4), 741–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Brenner, M.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgner, C.

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, C. Burgner, D. John, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “Rapidly swept, ultra-widely-tunable 1060 nm MEMS-VCSELs,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1331–1333 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Chamié, D.

G. T. Stefano, H. G. Bezerra, E. Mehanna, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, W. Wang, G. Attizzani, D. Chamié, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Unrestricted utilization of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in coronary interventions,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging29(4), 741–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yu, G. Liu, M. Rubinstein, A. Saidi, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Office-based dynamic imaging of vocal cords in awake patients with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 06402 (2009).

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M.

Cisonni, J.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. King, N. S. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech.46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, G. D.

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, C. Burgner, D. John, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “Rapidly swept, ultra-widely-tunable 1060 nm MEMS-VCSELs,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1331–1333 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comondore, V. R.

N. AlGhanim, V. R. Comondore, J. Fleetham, C. A. Marra, and N. T. Ayas, “The economic impact of obstructive sleep apnea,” Lung186(1), 7–12 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connolly, J. L.

Corbin, A. M.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, M. E. Hernandez, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Linear dimensions of the upper airway structure during development: assessment by magnetic resonance imaging,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.165(1), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costa, M. A.

G. T. Stefano, H. G. Bezerra, E. Mehanna, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, W. Wang, G. Attizzani, D. Chamié, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Unrestricted utilization of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in coronary interventions,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging29(4), 741–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coxson, H. O.

H. O. Coxson, P. R. Eastwood, J. P. Williamson, and D. D. Sin, “Phenotyping airway disease with optical coherence tomography,” Respirology16(1), 34–43 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, J. Mayo, S. Lam, G. Santyr, G. Parraga, and D. D. Sin, “New and current clinical imaging techniques to study chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.180(7), 588–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lau, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, D. K. Gerstmann, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging true 3D endoscopic anatomy by incorporating magnetic tracking with optical coherence tomography: proof-of-principle for airways,” Opt. Express18(26), 27173–27180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniel, S. J.

S. J. Daniel, “The upper airway: congenital malformations,” Paediatr. Respir. Rev.7(Suppl 1), S260–S263 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delacrétaz, Y.

Y. Delacrétaz, E. Shaffer, N. Pavillon, J. Kuhn, F. Lang, and C. Depeursinge, “Endoscopic low-coherence topography measurement for upper airways and hollow samples,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Y. Delacrétaz, E. Shaffer, N. Pavillon, J. Kuhn, F. Lang, and C. Depeursinge, “Endoscopic low-coherence topography measurement for upper airways and hollow samples,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhalla, A.-H.

Donnelly, L. F.

M. Mihaescu, S. Murugappan, E. Gutmark, L. F. Donnelly, and M. Kalra, “Computational modeling of upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea,” Laryngoscope118(2), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eastwood, P. R.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. King, N. S. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech.46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, P. R. Eastwood, J. P. Williamson, and D. D. Sin, “Phenotyping airway disease with optical coherence tomography,” Respirology16(1), 34–43 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest J.136(1), 272–276 (2009).

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, A. Jain, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Respiratory gating of anatomical optical coherence tomography images of the human airway,” Opt. Express17(8), 6568–6577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elliott, N. S.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. King, N. S. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech.46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleetham, J.

N. AlGhanim, V. R. Comondore, J. Fleetham, C. A. Marra, and N. T. Ayas, “The economic impact of obstructive sleep apnea,” Lung186(1), 7–12 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fujino, Y.

G. T. Stefano, H. G. Bezerra, E. Mehanna, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, W. Wang, G. Attizzani, D. Chamié, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Unrestricted utilization of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in coronary interventions,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging29(4), 741–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerstmann, D. K.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Gutmark, E.

M. Mihaescu, S. Murugappan, E. Gutmark, L. F. Donnelly, and M. Kalra, “Computational modeling of upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea,” Laryngoscope118(2), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hernandez, M. E.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, M. E. Hernandez, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Linear dimensions of the upper airway structure during development: assessment by magnetic resonance imaging,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.165(1), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, D. R.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. King, N. S. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech.46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest J.136(1), 272–276 (2009).

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, A. Jain, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Respiratory gating of anatomical optical coherence tomography images of the human airway,” Opt. Express17(8), 6568–6577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

K. C. Wijesundara, N. V. Iftimia, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Design of a swept-source, anatomical OCT system for pediatric bronchoscopy,” Proc. SPIE8571, 85713K (2013).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Jain, A.

James, A. L.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jayaraman, V.

Jian, Y.

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 026002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jing, J.

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, D.

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, C. Burgner, D. John, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “Rapidly swept, ultra-widely-tunable 1060 nm MEMS-VCSELs,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1331–1333 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaban, L.

Z. Abramson, S. Susarla, M. Troulis, and L. Kaban, “Age-related changes of the upper airway assessed by 3-dimensional computed tomography,” J. Craniofac. Surg.20(5Suppl 1), 657–663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalra, M.

M. Mihaescu, S. Murugappan, E. Gutmark, L. F. Donnelly, and M. Kalra, “Computational modeling of upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea,” Laryngoscope118(2), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, A. J.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. King, N. S. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech.46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirk, R. W.

Kraus, M. F.

Kuhn, J.

Y. Delacrétaz, E. Shaffer, N. Pavillon, J. Kuhn, F. Lang, and C. Depeursinge, “Endoscopic low-coherence topography measurement for upper airways and hollow samples,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

H. O. Coxson, J. Mayo, S. Lam, G. Santyr, G. Parraga, and D. D. Sin, “New and current clinical imaging techniques to study chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.180(7), 588–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, F.

Y. Delacrétaz, E. Shaffer, N. Pavillon, J. Kuhn, F. Lang, and C. Depeursinge, “Endoscopic low-coherence topography measurement for upper airways and hollow samples,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lau, B.

Leigh, M. S.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yu, G. Liu, M. Rubinstein, A. Saidi, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Office-based dynamic imaging of vocal cords in awake patients with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 06402 (2009).

Liu, J. J.

Loy, A. C.

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucey, A. D.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. King, N. S. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech.46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahon, S.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maislin, G.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, M. E. Hernandez, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Linear dimensions of the upper airway structure during development: assessment by magnetic resonance imaging,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.165(1), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

Marks, G. B.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marra, C. A.

N. AlGhanim, V. R. Comondore, J. Fleetham, C. A. Marra, and N. T. Ayas, “The economic impact of obstructive sleep apnea,” Lung186(1), 7–12 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayo, J.

H. O. Coxson, J. Mayo, S. Lam, G. Santyr, G. Parraga, and D. D. Sin, “New and current clinical imaging techniques to study chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.180(7), 588–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonough, J. M.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, M. E. Hernandez, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Linear dimensions of the upper airway structure during development: assessment by magnetic resonance imaging,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.165(1), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

B. Y. Yeo, R. A. McLaughlin, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, “Enabling freehand lateral scanning of optical coherence tomography needle probes with a magnetic tracking system,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1565–1578 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lau, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, D. K. Gerstmann, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging true 3D endoscopic anatomy by incorporating magnetic tracking with optical coherence tomography: proof-of-principle for airways,” Opt. Express18(26), 27173–27180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, A. Jain, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Respiratory gating of anatomical optical coherence tomography images of the human airway,” Opt. Express17(8), 6568–6577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest J.136(1), 272–276 (2009).

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehanna, E.

G. T. Stefano, H. G. Bezerra, E. Mehanna, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, W. Wang, G. Attizzani, D. Chamié, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Unrestricted utilization of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in coronary interventions,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging29(4), 741–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihaescu, M.

M. Mihaescu, S. Murugappan, E. Gutmark, L. F. Donnelly, and M. Kalra, “Computational modeling of upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea,” Laryngoscope118(2), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, H. W.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, D.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murugappan, S.

M. Mihaescu, S. Murugappan, E. Gutmark, L. F. Donnelly, and M. Kalra, “Computational modeling of upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea,” Laryngoscope118(2), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noble, P. B.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noffsinger, W. J.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

K. C. Wijesundara, N. V. Iftimia, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Design of a swept-source, anatomical OCT system for pediatric bronchoscopy,” Proc. SPIE8571, 85713K (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, and S. A. Boppart, “Autofocus algorithm for dispersion correction in optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt.42(16), 3038–3046 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pack, A. I.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, M. E. Hernandez, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Linear dimensions of the upper airway structure during development: assessment by magnetic resonance imaging,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.165(1), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parraga, G.

H. O. Coxson, J. Mayo, S. Lam, G. Santyr, G. Parraga, and D. D. Sin, “New and current clinical imaging techniques to study chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.180(7), 588–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavillon, N.

Y. Delacrétaz, E. Shaffer, N. Pavillon, J. Kuhn, F. Lang, and C. Depeursinge, “Endoscopic low-coherence topography measurement for upper airways and hollow samples,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, M. J.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest J.136(1), 272–276 (2009).

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Potsaid, B. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regli, A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, J. J.

Robertson, M.

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, C. Burgner, D. John, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “Rapidly swept, ultra-widely-tunable 1060 nm MEMS-VCSELs,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1331–1333 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinstein, M.

L. Yu, G. Liu, M. Rubinstein, A. Saidi, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Office-based dynamic imaging of vocal cords in awake patients with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 06402 (2009).

Saidi, A.

L. Yu, G. Liu, M. Rubinstein, A. Saidi, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Office-based dynamic imaging of vocal cords in awake patients with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 06402 (2009).

Sampson, D. D.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. King, N. S. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech.46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Y. Yeo, R. A. McLaughlin, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, “Enabling freehand lateral scanning of optical coherence tomography needle probes with a magnetic tracking system,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1565–1578 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lau, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, D. K. Gerstmann, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging true 3D endoscopic anatomy by incorporating magnetic tracking with optical coherence tomography: proof-of-principle for airways,” Opt. Express18(26), 27173–27180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, A. Jain, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Respiratory gating of anatomical optical coherence tomography images of the human airway,” Opt. Express17(8), 6568–6577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest J.136(1), 272–276 (2009).

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santyr, G.

H. O. Coxson, J. Mayo, S. Lam, G. Santyr, G. Parraga, and D. D. Sin, “New and current clinical imaging techniques to study chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.180(7), 588–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.

Sarunic, M. V.

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 026002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwab, R. J.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, M. E. Hernandez, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Linear dimensions of the upper airway structure during development: assessment by magnetic resonance imaging,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.165(1), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwer, S.

Shaffer, E.

Y. Delacrétaz, E. Shaffer, N. Pavillon, J. Kuhn, F. Lang, and C. Depeursinge, “Endoscopic low-coherence topography measurement for upper airways and hollow samples,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheikine, Y.

Shepherd, K. L.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, D. I.

G. T. Stefano, H. G. Bezerra, E. Mehanna, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, W. Wang, G. Attizzani, D. Chamié, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Unrestricted utilization of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in coronary interventions,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging29(4), 741–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sin, D. D.

H. O. Coxson, P. R. Eastwood, J. P. Williamson, and D. D. Sin, “Phenotyping airway disease with optical coherence tomography,” Respirology16(1), 34–43 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, J. Mayo, S. Lam, G. Santyr, G. Parraga, and D. D. Sin, “New and current clinical imaging techniques to study chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.180(7), 588–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefano, G. T.

G. T. Stefano, H. G. Bezerra, E. Mehanna, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, W. Wang, G. Attizzani, D. Chamié, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Unrestricted utilization of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in coronary interventions,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging29(4), 741–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Susarla, S.

Z. Abramson, S. Susarla, M. Troulis, and L. Kaban, “Age-related changes of the upper airway assessed by 3-dimensional computed tomography,” J. Craniofac. Surg.20(5Suppl 1), 657–663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

Troulis, M.

Z. Abramson, S. Susarla, M. Troulis, and L. Kaban, “Age-related changes of the upper airway assessed by 3-dimensional computed tomography,” J. Craniofac. Surg.20(5Suppl 1), 657–663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T.-H.

Uddin, A.

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, C. Burgner, D. John, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “Rapidly swept, ultra-widely-tunable 1060 nm MEMS-VCSELs,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1331–1333 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. H.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. King, N. S. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech.46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest J.136(1), 272–276 (2009).

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, A. Jain, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Respiratory gating of anatomical optical coherence tomography images of the human airway,” Opt. Express17(8), 6568–6577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walton, I. D.

Wang, W.

G. T. Stefano, H. G. Bezerra, E. Mehanna, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, W. Wang, G. Attizzani, D. Chamié, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Unrestricted utilization of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in coronary interventions,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging29(4), 741–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, A. R.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wijesundara, K. C.

K. C. Wijesundara, N. V. Iftimia, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Design of a swept-source, anatomical OCT system for pediatric bronchoscopy,” Proc. SPIE8571, 85713K (2013).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, J. P.

H. O. Coxson, P. R. Eastwood, J. P. Williamson, and D. D. Sin, “Phenotyping airway disease with optical coherence tomography,” Respirology16(1), 34–43 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest J.136(1), 272–276 (2009).

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, B. J.

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, B. J. F.

L. Yu, G. Liu, M. Rubinstein, A. Saidi, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Office-based dynamic imaging of vocal cords in awake patients with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 06402 (2009).

Wong, K.

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 026002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, H.

G. T. Stefano, H. G. Bezerra, E. Mehanna, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, W. Wang, G. Attizzani, D. Chamié, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Unrestricted utilization of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in coronary interventions,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging29(4), 741–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yeo, B. Y.

Yin, J.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yu, G. Liu, M. Rubinstein, A. Saidi, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Office-based dynamic imaging of vocal cords in awake patients with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 06402 (2009).

Zhang, J.

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zvyagin, A. V.

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (4)

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, M. E. Hernandez, G. Maislin, R. J. Schwab, and A. I. Pack, “Linear dimensions of the upper airway structure during development: assessment by magnetic resonance imaging,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.165(1), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, J. Mayo, S. Lam, G. Santyr, G. Parraga, and D. D. Sin, “New and current clinical imaging techniques to study chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.180(7), 588–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Chest J. (1)

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest J.136(1), 272–276 (2009).

Electron. Lett. (1)

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, C. Burgner, D. John, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “Rapidly swept, ultra-widely-tunable 1060 nm MEMS-VCSELs,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1331–1333 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Respir. J. (1)

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J.35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging (1)

G. T. Stefano, H. G. Bezerra, E. Mehanna, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, W. Wang, G. Attizzani, D. Chamié, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Unrestricted utilization of frequency domain optical coherence tomography in coronary interventions,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging29(4), 741–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomech. (1)

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. King, N. S. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech.46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(11), 110507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yu, G. Liu, M. Rubinstein, A. Saidi, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Office-based dynamic imaging of vocal cords in awake patients with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 06402 (2009).

Y. Delacrétaz, E. Shaffer, N. Pavillon, J. Kuhn, F. Lang, and C. Depeursinge, “Endoscopic low-coherence topography measurement for upper airways and hollow samples,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 066014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 026002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Craniofac. Surg. (1)

Z. Abramson, S. Susarla, M. Troulis, and L. Kaban, “Age-related changes of the upper airway assessed by 3-dimensional computed tomography,” J. Craniofac. Surg.20(5Suppl 1), 657–663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laryngoscope (1)

M. Mihaescu, S. Murugappan, E. Gutmark, L. F. Donnelly, and M. Kalra, “Computational modeling of upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea,” Laryngoscope118(2), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lung (1)

N. AlGhanim, V. R. Comondore, J. Fleetham, C. A. Marra, and N. T. Ayas, “The economic impact of obstructive sleep apnea,” Lung186(1), 7–12 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, A. Jain, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Respiratory gating of anatomical optical coherence tomography images of the human airway,” Opt. Express17(8), 6568–6577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Anatomical OCT system diagram. The collimator and retro reflector act as the reference arm while the sample arm consists of a fiber optic catheter probe that has been inserted into the side port of the endoscope. The ball lens tip of the fiber optic catheter is inside a protective plastic sheath with an outer diameter of 820 μm, which is inserted into a laryngoscope (see photograph) for pediatric airway imaging. The ball lens tip of the fiber optic catheter provides a sideways-directed beam that rotates during pullback translations, resulting in a helical scan pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Axial point spread function without and with digital dispersion compensation demonstrating an axial resolution of 25.7 μm. (B) Signal to noise ratio (SNR) computed as described in operational SNR Eq. (1) as a function of imaging depth. The inset displays representative M-mode images from a mirror without (left) and with (right) dispersion compensation at a depth of z = 4.2 mm. (C) Beam width variation as a function of the distance away from the catheter tip. Inset: representative image of a point-like scatterer used in these measurements (distance of 4.4 mm)). (D) Representative Gaussian-fitted profile of the normalized intensity of the transverse point spread function at an axial distance of 4.4 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Determining the accuracy of CSA in aOCT from images of tubes of varying diameters. Top left: example aOCT image of a 15.9 mm diameter tube. Top right: corresponding close-up, where the segmentation line has been overlaid in blue. Bottom: Plot of accuracy versus true tube CSA (3 measurements per tube). The gray region represents the < ± 1 standard deviation region expected based upon the axial resolution of the aOCT system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Airway phantom derived from a CT scan of a 10 year old boy. Left: Phantom composed of interlocking segments. Right: Close-up of segments A and B which were imaged by aOCT in this study.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

aOCT of the pediatric upper airway phantom, (segment A of Fig. 4). Left column: aOCT image slices obtained every 3.5 mm in translation, working from the top down (top of velopharynx to the laryngeal inlet). Right column: Corresponding airway segments obtained from the stereolithography data reveal that aOCT obtains qualitatively similar shape and size.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3D reconstruction of aOCT of segment B displayed at 3 different viewing angles (a)-(c). Anatomical features including the esophageal opening (yellow arrows) and anterior laryngeal “knee” (blue arrows) are part of phantom segment B as shown in Fig. 4. The x, y, and z scale bars represent 8 mm, 8 mm, and 4 mm, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a)-(c) aOCT images of a swine trachea displayed in three different viewing angles. (d)-(f): corresponding CT images. (g): photograph of the swine airway; the region that was imaged is indicated by the dotted square. The x, y, and z scale bars each represent 3 mm.

Equations (1)

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SNR(z)=20 log 10 ( P 0 ( z ) P( z ) S( z ) N( z ) )

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