Abstract

Subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), a recently recognized lesion associated with progression of age-related macular degeneration, were imaged with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) and optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT). AO-SLO revealed a distinct en face structure of stage 3 SDD, showing a hyporeflective annulus surrounded reflective core packed with hyperreflective dots bearing a superficial similarity to the photoreceptors in the unaffected retina. However, AO-OCT suggested that the speckled appearance over the SDD rendered by AO-SLO was the lesion material itself, rather than photoreceptors. AO-OCT assists proper interpretation and understanding of the SDD structure and the lesions’ impact on surrounding photoreceptors produced by AO-SLO and vice versa.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]

2013 (8)

C. A. Curcio, J. D. Messinger, K. R. Sloan, G. McGwin, N. E. Medeiros, and R. F. Spaide, “Subretinal drusenoid deposits in non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration: morphology, prevalence, topography, and biogenesis model,” Retina33(2), 265–276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xu, A. M. Blonska, N. M. Pumariega, S. Bearelly, M. A. Sohrab, G. S. Hageman, and R. T. Smith, “Reticular macular disease is associated with multilobular geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina33(9), 1850–1862 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Marsiglia, S. Boddu, S. Bearelly, L. Xu, B. E. Breaux, K. B. Freund, L. A. Yannuzzi, and R. T. Smith, “Association between geographic atrophy progression and reticular pseudodrusen in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(12), 7362–7369 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, “Outer retinal atrophy after regression of subretinal drusenoid deposits as a newly recognized form of late age-related macular degeneration,” Retina33(9), 1800–1808 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Querques, M. Srour, N. Massamba, N. Puche, and E. H. Souied, “Reticular pseudodrusen,” Ophthalmology120(4), 872 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mrejen, T. Sato, C. A. Curcio, and R. F. Spaide, “Assessing the Cone Photoreceptor Mosaic in Eyes with Pseudodrusen and Soft Drusen In Vivo Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Ophthalmology121(2), 545–551 (2013).
[PubMed]

N. Ueda-Arakawa, S. Ooto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, A. Oishi, and N. Yoshimura, “Sensitivity and specificity of detecting reticular pseudodrusen in multimodal imaging in Japanese patients,” Retina33(3), 490–497 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Meadway, C. A. Girkin, and Y. Zhang, “A dual-modal retinal imaging system with adaptive optics,” Opt. Express21(24), 29792–29807 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, A. Patel, E. Plumb, N. Iftimia, T. Y. Chui, J. D. Akula, and A. B. Fulton, “Multimodal adaptive optics retinal imager: design and performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A29(12), 2598–2607 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, “Questioning optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology119(11), 2203–2204 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Querques, F. Canouï-Poitrine, F. Coscas, N. Massamba, L. Querques, G. Mimoun, F. Bandello, and E. H. Souied, “Analysis of progression of reticular pseudodrusen by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(3), 1264–1270 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (10)

D. T. Miller, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, and S. Lee, “Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT),” Eye (Lond.)25(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Querques, L. Querques, D. Martinelli, N. Massamba, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, and E. H. Souied, “Pathologic insights from integrated imaging of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina31(3), 518–526 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, F. Alten, J. S. Steinberg, G. J. Jaffe, M. Fleckenstein, B. N. Mukesh, T. C. Hohman, F. G. Holz, and Geographic Atrophy Progression (GAP) Study Group, “Reticular drusen associated with geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 5009–5015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sarks, J. Arnold, I. V. Ho, S. Sarks, and M. Killingsworth, “Evolution of reticular pseudodrusen,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(7), 979–985 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide and C. A. Curcio, “Anatomical correlates to the bands seen in the outer retina by optical coherence tomography: literature review and model,” Retina31(8), 1609–1619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Sohrab, R. T. Smith, H. Salehi-Had, S. R. Sadda, and A. A. Fawzi, “Image registration and multimodal imaging of reticular pseudodrusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5743–5748 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. Lee, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, A. E. Herde, J. C. Derby, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging cone photoreceptors in three dimensions and in time using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 748–763 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. Pilli, S. Balderas-Mata, D. Y. Kim, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Integrated adaptive optics optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope system for simultaneous cellular resolution in vivo retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1674–1686 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, A. Pavaskar, J. Rha, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Spatial and temporal variation of rod photoreceptor reflectance in the human retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(9), 2577–2589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

R. F. Spaide and C. A. Curcio, “Drusen characterization with multimodal imaging,” Retina30(9), 1441–1454 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Zweifel, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Curcio, G. Malek, and Y. Imamura, “Reticular pseudodrusen are subretinal drusenoid deposits,” Ophthalmology117(2), 303–312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, J. S. Steinberg, M. Fleckenstein, S. Visvalingam, C. K. Brinkmann, and F. G. Holz, “Combined confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging of reticular drusen associated with age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1169–1176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, “Applications of adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.87(4), 260–268 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. A. Curcio, M. Johnson, J.-D. Huang, and M. Rudolf, “Aging, age-related macular degeneration, and the Response-to-Retention of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.28(6), 393–422 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Rudolf, G. Malek, J. D. Messinger, M. E. Clark, L. Wang, and C. A. Curcio, “Sub-retinal drusenoid deposits in human retina: organization and composition,” Exp. Eye Res.87(5), 402–408 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, D. H. Sliney, and American National Standards Institute, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1250–1265 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, R. Tumbar, A. E. Elsner, D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Large-field-of-view, modular, stabilized, adaptive-optics-based scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1313–1326 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, S. M. Jones, S. S. Oliver, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography: optimizing visualization of microscopic retinal structures in three dimensions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1373–1383 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Cohen, L. Dubois, R. Tadayoni, C. Delahaye-Mazza, C. Debibie, and G. Quentel, “Prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration with newly diagnosed choroidal neovascularisation,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 354–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Li, M. E. Clark, M. Rudolf, and C. A. Curcio, “Distribution and composition of esterified and unesterified cholesterol in extra-macular drusen,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 192–201 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Huang, J. B. Presley, M. F. Chimento, C. A. Curcio, and M. Johnson, “Age-related changes in human macular Bruch’s membrane as seen by quick-freeze/deep-etch,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 202–218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

V. Luibl, J. M. Isas, R. Kayed, C. G. Glabe, R. Langen, and J. Chen, “Drusen deposits associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain nonfibrillar amyloid oligomers,” J. Clin. Invest.116(2), 378–385 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope using a micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE6138, 61380Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “AOSLO: from benchtop to clinic,” Proc. SPIE6306, 63060V (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, “Retinal motion estimation in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express14(2), 487–497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1268–1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(10), 4380–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1997 (2)

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Mullins, L. V. Johnson, D. H. Anderson, and G. S. Hageman, “Characterization of drusen-associated glycoconjugates,” Ophthalmology104(2), 288–294 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. Mimoun, G. Soubrane, and G. Coscas, “[Macular drusen],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol.13(10), 511–530 (1990).
[PubMed]

1980 (1)

S. H. Sarks, D. Van Driel, L. Maxwell, and M. Killingsworth, “Softening of drusen and subretinal neovascularization,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.100(3), 414–422 (1980).
[PubMed]

Akula, J. D.

Alten, F.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, F. Alten, J. S. Steinberg, G. J. Jaffe, M. Fleckenstein, B. N. Mukesh, T. C. Hohman, F. G. Holz, and Geographic Atrophy Progression (GAP) Study Group, “Reticular drusen associated with geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 5009–5015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. H.

R. F. Mullins, L. V. Johnson, D. H. Anderson, and G. S. Hageman, “Characterization of drusen-associated glycoconjugates,” Ophthalmology104(2), 288–294 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arathorn, D. W.

Arnold, J.

J. Sarks, J. Arnold, I. V. Ho, S. Sarks, and M. Killingsworth, “Evolution of reticular pseudodrusen,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(7), 979–985 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balderas-Mata, S.

Bandello, F.

G. Querques, F. Canouï-Poitrine, F. Coscas, N. Massamba, L. Querques, G. Mimoun, F. Bandello, and E. H. Souied, “Analysis of progression of reticular pseudodrusen by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(3), 1264–1270 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bearelly, S.

M. Marsiglia, S. Boddu, S. Bearelly, L. Xu, B. E. Breaux, K. B. Freund, L. A. Yannuzzi, and R. T. Smith, “Association between geographic atrophy progression and reticular pseudodrusen in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(12), 7362–7369 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xu, A. M. Blonska, N. M. Pumariega, S. Bearelly, M. A. Sohrab, G. S. Hageman, and R. T. Smith, “Reticular macular disease is associated with multilobular geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina33(9), 1850–1862 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanco, E. R.

Y. Zhang, X. Wang, E. R. Blanco, M. E. Clark, C. D. Witherspoon, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Girkin, C. Owsley, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. (In review).

Blonska, A. M.

L. Xu, A. M. Blonska, N. M. Pumariega, S. Bearelly, M. A. Sohrab, G. S. Hageman, and R. T. Smith, “Reticular macular disease is associated with multilobular geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina33(9), 1850–1862 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boddu, S.

M. Marsiglia, S. Boddu, S. Bearelly, L. Xu, B. E. Breaux, K. B. Freund, L. A. Yannuzzi, and R. T. Smith, “Association between geographic atrophy progression and reticular pseudodrusen in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(12), 7362–7369 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bower, B. A.

Breaux, B. E.

M. Marsiglia, S. Boddu, S. Bearelly, L. Xu, B. E. Breaux, K. B. Freund, L. A. Yannuzzi, and R. T. Smith, “Association between geographic atrophy progression and reticular pseudodrusen in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(12), 7362–7369 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brinkmann, C. K.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, J. S. Steinberg, M. Fleckenstein, S. Visvalingam, C. K. Brinkmann, and F. G. Holz, “Combined confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging of reticular drusen associated with age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1169–1176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M.

Canouï-Poitrine, F.

G. Querques, F. Canouï-Poitrine, F. Coscas, N. Massamba, L. Querques, G. Mimoun, F. Bandello, and E. H. Souied, “Analysis of progression of reticular pseudodrusen by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(3), 1264–1270 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, J.

Cense, B.

Chen, J.

V. Luibl, J. M. Isas, R. Kayed, C. G. Glabe, R. Langen, and J. Chen, “Drusen deposits associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain nonfibrillar amyloid oligomers,” J. Clin. Invest.116(2), 378–385 (2006).
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Chimento, M. F.

J. D. Huang, J. B. Presley, M. F. Chimento, C. A. Curcio, and M. Johnson, “Age-related changes in human macular Bruch’s membrane as seen by quick-freeze/deep-etch,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 202–218 (2007).
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Choi, S.

Choi, S. S.

Chui, T. Y.

Clark, M. E.

M. Rudolf, G. Malek, J. D. Messinger, M. E. Clark, L. Wang, and C. A. Curcio, “Sub-retinal drusenoid deposits in human retina: organization and composition,” Exp. Eye Res.87(5), 402–408 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Li, M. E. Clark, M. Rudolf, and C. A. Curcio, “Distribution and composition of esterified and unesterified cholesterol in extra-macular drusen,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 192–201 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, X. Wang, E. R. Blanco, M. E. Clark, C. D. Witherspoon, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Girkin, C. Owsley, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. (In review).

Cohen, S. Y.

S. Y. Cohen, L. Dubois, R. Tadayoni, C. Delahaye-Mazza, C. Debibie, and G. Quentel, “Prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration with newly diagnosed choroidal neovascularisation,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 354–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, R. F.

Coscas, F.

G. Querques, F. Canouï-Poitrine, F. Coscas, N. Massamba, L. Querques, G. Mimoun, F. Bandello, and E. H. Souied, “Analysis of progression of reticular pseudodrusen by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(3), 1264–1270 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coscas, G.

G. Querques, L. Querques, D. Martinelli, N. Massamba, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, and E. H. Souied, “Pathologic insights from integrated imaging of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina31(3), 518–526 (2011).
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G. Mimoun, G. Soubrane, and G. Coscas, “[Macular drusen],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol.13(10), 511–530 (1990).
[PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

S. Mrejen, T. Sato, C. A. Curcio, and R. F. Spaide, “Assessing the Cone Photoreceptor Mosaic in Eyes with Pseudodrusen and Soft Drusen In Vivo Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Ophthalmology121(2), 545–551 (2013).
[PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, J. D. Messinger, K. R. Sloan, G. McGwin, N. E. Medeiros, and R. F. Spaide, “Subretinal drusenoid deposits in non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration: morphology, prevalence, topography, and biogenesis model,” Retina33(2), 265–276 (2013).
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R. F. Spaide and C. A. Curcio, “Anatomical correlates to the bands seen in the outer retina by optical coherence tomography: literature review and model,” Retina31(8), 1609–1619 (2011).
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R. F. Spaide and C. A. Curcio, “Drusen characterization with multimodal imaging,” Retina30(9), 1441–1454 (2010).
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S. A. Zweifel, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Curcio, G. Malek, and Y. Imamura, “Reticular pseudodrusen are subretinal drusenoid deposits,” Ophthalmology117(2), 303–312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, M. Johnson, J.-D. Huang, and M. Rudolf, “Aging, age-related macular degeneration, and the Response-to-Retention of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.28(6), 393–422 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rudolf, G. Malek, J. D. Messinger, M. E. Clark, L. Wang, and C. A. Curcio, “Sub-retinal drusenoid deposits in human retina: organization and composition,” Exp. Eye Res.87(5), 402–408 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Li, M. E. Clark, M. Rudolf, and C. A. Curcio, “Distribution and composition of esterified and unesterified cholesterol in extra-macular drusen,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 192–201 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Huang, J. B. Presley, M. F. Chimento, C. A. Curcio, and M. Johnson, “Age-related changes in human macular Bruch’s membrane as seen by quick-freeze/deep-etch,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 202–218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, J. B. Presley, C. L. Millican, and N. E. Medeiros, “Basal deposits and drusen in eyes with age-related maculopathy: evidence for solid lipid particles,” Exp. Eye Res.80(6), 761–775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, X. Wang, E. R. Blanco, M. E. Clark, C. D. Witherspoon, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Girkin, C. Owsley, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. (In review).

Debibie, C.

S. Y. Cohen, L. Dubois, R. Tadayoni, C. Delahaye-Mazza, C. Debibie, and G. Quentel, “Prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration with newly diagnosed choroidal neovascularisation,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 354–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delahaye-Mazza, C.

S. Y. Cohen, L. Dubois, R. Tadayoni, C. Delahaye-Mazza, C. Debibie, and G. Quentel, “Prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration with newly diagnosed choroidal neovascularisation,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 354–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

Derby, J. C.

Donnelly, W.

Dubis, A. M.

Dubois, L.

S. Y. Cohen, L. Dubois, R. Tadayoni, C. Delahaye-Mazza, C. Debibie, and G. Quentel, “Prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration with newly diagnosed choroidal neovascularisation,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 354–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Elsner, A. E.

Fawzi, A. A.

M. A. Sohrab, R. T. Smith, H. Salehi-Had, S. R. Sadda, and A. A. Fawzi, “Image registration and multimodal imaging of reticular pseudodrusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5743–5748 (2011).
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Ferguson, R. D.

Fleckenstein, M.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, F. Alten, J. S. Steinberg, G. J. Jaffe, M. Fleckenstein, B. N. Mukesh, T. C. Hohman, F. G. Holz, and Geographic Atrophy Progression (GAP) Study Group, “Reticular drusen associated with geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 5009–5015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, J. S. Steinberg, M. Fleckenstein, S. Visvalingam, C. K. Brinkmann, and F. G. Holz, “Combined confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging of reticular drusen associated with age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1169–1176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freund, K. B.

M. Marsiglia, S. Boddu, S. Bearelly, L. Xu, B. E. Breaux, K. B. Freund, L. A. Yannuzzi, and R. T. Smith, “Association between geographic atrophy progression and reticular pseudodrusen in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(12), 7362–7369 (2013).
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Fulton, A. B.

Gao, W.

Girkin, C. A.

A. Meadway, C. A. Girkin, and Y. Zhang, “A dual-modal retinal imaging system with adaptive optics,” Opt. Express21(24), 29792–29807 (2013).
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Y. Zhang, X. Wang, E. R. Blanco, M. E. Clark, C. D. Witherspoon, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Girkin, C. Owsley, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. (In review).

Glabe, C. G.

V. Luibl, J. M. Isas, R. Kayed, C. G. Glabe, R. Langen, and J. Chen, “Drusen deposits associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain nonfibrillar amyloid oligomers,” J. Clin. Invest.116(2), 378–385 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hageman, G. S.

L. Xu, A. M. Blonska, N. M. Pumariega, S. Bearelly, M. A. Sohrab, G. S. Hageman, and R. T. Smith, “Reticular macular disease is associated with multilobular geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina33(9), 1850–1862 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Mullins, L. V. Johnson, D. H. Anderson, and G. S. Hageman, “Characterization of drusen-associated glycoconjugates,” Ophthalmology104(2), 288–294 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hebert, T.

Herde, A. E.

Ho, I. V.

J. Sarks, J. Arnold, I. V. Ho, S. Sarks, and M. Killingsworth, “Evolution of reticular pseudodrusen,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(7), 979–985 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
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S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, F. Alten, J. S. Steinberg, G. J. Jaffe, M. Fleckenstein, B. N. Mukesh, T. C. Hohman, F. G. Holz, and Geographic Atrophy Progression (GAP) Study Group, “Reticular drusen associated with geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 5009–5015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holz, F. G.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, F. Alten, J. S. Steinberg, G. J. Jaffe, M. Fleckenstein, B. N. Mukesh, T. C. Hohman, F. G. Holz, and Geographic Atrophy Progression (GAP) Study Group, “Reticular drusen associated with geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 5009–5015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, J. S. Steinberg, M. Fleckenstein, S. Visvalingam, C. K. Brinkmann, and F. G. Holz, “Combined confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging of reticular drusen associated with age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1169–1176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. D.

J. D. Huang, J. B. Presley, M. F. Chimento, C. A. Curcio, and M. Johnson, “Age-related changes in human macular Bruch’s membrane as seen by quick-freeze/deep-etch,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 202–218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.-D.

C. A. Curcio, M. Johnson, J.-D. Huang, and M. Rudolf, “Aging, age-related macular degeneration, and the Response-to-Retention of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.28(6), 393–422 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Imamura, Y.

S. A. Zweifel, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Curcio, G. Malek, and Y. Imamura, “Reticular pseudodrusen are subretinal drusenoid deposits,” Ophthalmology117(2), 303–312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isas, J. M.

V. Luibl, J. M. Isas, R. Kayed, C. G. Glabe, R. Langen, and J. Chen, “Drusen deposits associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain nonfibrillar amyloid oligomers,” J. Clin. Invest.116(2), 378–385 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jaffe, G. J.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, F. Alten, J. S. Steinberg, G. J. Jaffe, M. Fleckenstein, B. N. Mukesh, T. C. Hohman, F. G. Holz, and Geographic Atrophy Progression (GAP) Study Group, “Reticular drusen associated with geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 5009–5015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, L. V.

R. F. Mullins, L. V. Johnson, D. H. Anderson, and G. S. Hageman, “Characterization of drusen-associated glycoconjugates,” Ophthalmology104(2), 288–294 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, M.

C. A. Curcio, M. Johnson, J.-D. Huang, and M. Rudolf, “Aging, age-related macular degeneration, and the Response-to-Retention of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.28(6), 393–422 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Huang, J. B. Presley, M. F. Chimento, C. A. Curcio, and M. Johnson, “Age-related changes in human macular Bruch’s membrane as seen by quick-freeze/deep-etch,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 202–218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, S.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R.

Jonnal, R. S.

Kayed, R.

V. Luibl, J. M. Isas, R. Kayed, C. G. Glabe, R. Langen, and J. Chen, “Drusen deposits associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain nonfibrillar amyloid oligomers,” J. Clin. Invest.116(2), 378–385 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Killingsworth, M.

J. Sarks, J. Arnold, I. V. Ho, S. Sarks, and M. Killingsworth, “Evolution of reticular pseudodrusen,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(7), 979–985 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Sarks, D. Van Driel, L. Maxwell, and M. Killingsworth, “Softening of drusen and subretinal neovascularization,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.100(3), 414–422 (1980).
[PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Langen, R.

V. Luibl, J. M. Isas, R. Kayed, C. G. Glabe, R. Langen, and J. Chen, “Drusen deposits associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain nonfibrillar amyloid oligomers,” J. Clin. Invest.116(2), 378–385 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laut, S.

Lee, S.

Li, C. M.

C. M. Li, M. E. Clark, M. Rudolf, and C. A. Curcio, “Distribution and composition of esterified and unesterified cholesterol in extra-macular drusen,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 192–201 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Luibl, V.

V. Luibl, J. M. Isas, R. Kayed, C. G. Glabe, R. Langen, and J. Chen, “Drusen deposits associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain nonfibrillar amyloid oligomers,” J. Clin. Invest.116(2), 378–385 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malek, G.

S. A. Zweifel, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Curcio, G. Malek, and Y. Imamura, “Reticular pseudodrusen are subretinal drusenoid deposits,” Ophthalmology117(2), 303–312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rudolf, G. Malek, J. D. Messinger, M. E. Clark, L. Wang, and C. A. Curcio, “Sub-retinal drusenoid deposits in human retina: organization and composition,” Exp. Eye Res.87(5), 402–408 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marsiglia, M.

M. Marsiglia, S. Boddu, S. Bearelly, L. Xu, B. E. Breaux, K. B. Freund, L. A. Yannuzzi, and R. T. Smith, “Association between geographic atrophy progression and reticular pseudodrusen in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(12), 7362–7369 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinelli, D.

G. Querques, L. Querques, D. Martinelli, N. Massamba, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, and E. H. Souied, “Pathologic insights from integrated imaging of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina31(3), 518–526 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massamba, N.

G. Querques, M. Srour, N. Massamba, N. Puche, and E. H. Souied, “Reticular pseudodrusen,” Ophthalmology120(4), 872 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Querques, F. Canouï-Poitrine, F. Coscas, N. Massamba, L. Querques, G. Mimoun, F. Bandello, and E. H. Souied, “Analysis of progression of reticular pseudodrusen by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(3), 1264–1270 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Querques, L. Querques, D. Martinelli, N. Massamba, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, and E. H. Souied, “Pathologic insights from integrated imaging of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina31(3), 518–526 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maxwell, L.

S. H. Sarks, D. Van Driel, L. Maxwell, and M. Killingsworth, “Softening of drusen and subretinal neovascularization,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.100(3), 414–422 (1980).
[PubMed]

McGwin, G.

C. A. Curcio, J. D. Messinger, K. R. Sloan, G. McGwin, N. E. Medeiros, and R. F. Spaide, “Subretinal drusenoid deposits in non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration: morphology, prevalence, topography, and biogenesis model,” Retina33(2), 265–276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meadway, A.

Medeiros, N. E.

C. A. Curcio, J. D. Messinger, K. R. Sloan, G. McGwin, N. E. Medeiros, and R. F. Spaide, “Subretinal drusenoid deposits in non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration: morphology, prevalence, topography, and biogenesis model,” Retina33(2), 265–276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, J. B. Presley, C. L. Millican, and N. E. Medeiros, “Basal deposits and drusen in eyes with age-related maculopathy: evidence for solid lipid particles,” Exp. Eye Res.80(6), 761–775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messinger, J. D.

C. A. Curcio, J. D. Messinger, K. R. Sloan, G. McGwin, N. E. Medeiros, and R. F. Spaide, “Subretinal drusenoid deposits in non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration: morphology, prevalence, topography, and biogenesis model,” Retina33(2), 265–276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rudolf, G. Malek, J. D. Messinger, M. E. Clark, L. Wang, and C. A. Curcio, “Sub-retinal drusenoid deposits in human retina: organization and composition,” Exp. Eye Res.87(5), 402–408 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D.

Miller, D. T.

Millican, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, J. B. Presley, C. L. Millican, and N. E. Medeiros, “Basal deposits and drusen in eyes with age-related maculopathy: evidence for solid lipid particles,” Exp. Eye Res.80(6), 761–775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mimoun, G.

G. Querques, F. Canouï-Poitrine, F. Coscas, N. Massamba, L. Querques, G. Mimoun, F. Bandello, and E. H. Souied, “Analysis of progression of reticular pseudodrusen by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(3), 1264–1270 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mimoun, G. Soubrane, and G. Coscas, “[Macular drusen],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol.13(10), 511–530 (1990).
[PubMed]

Mrejen, S.

S. Mrejen, T. Sato, C. A. Curcio, and R. F. Spaide, “Assessing the Cone Photoreceptor Mosaic in Eyes with Pseudodrusen and Soft Drusen In Vivo Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Ophthalmology121(2), 545–551 (2013).
[PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Mukesh, B. N.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, F. Alten, J. S. Steinberg, G. J. Jaffe, M. Fleckenstein, B. N. Mukesh, T. C. Hohman, F. G. Holz, and Geographic Atrophy Progression (GAP) Study Group, “Reticular drusen associated with geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 5009–5015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullins, R. F.

R. F. Mullins, L. V. Johnson, D. H. Anderson, and G. S. Hageman, “Characterization of drusen-associated glycoconjugates,” Ophthalmology104(2), 288–294 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Oishi, A.

N. Ueda-Arakawa, S. Ooto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, A. Oishi, and N. Yoshimura, “Sensitivity and specificity of detecting reticular pseudodrusen in multimodal imaging in Japanese patients,” Retina33(3), 490–497 (2013).
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Olivier, S.

Olivier, S. S.

Ooto, S.

N. Ueda-Arakawa, S. Ooto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, A. Oishi, and N. Yoshimura, “Sensitivity and specificity of detecting reticular pseudodrusen in multimodal imaging in Japanese patients,” Retina33(3), 490–497 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owsley, C.

Y. Zhang, X. Wang, E. R. Blanco, M. E. Clark, C. D. Witherspoon, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Girkin, C. Owsley, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. (In review).

Pallikaris, A.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, A.

Patel, A.

Pavaskar, A.

Pilli, S.

Plumb, E.

Poonja, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope using a micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE6138, 61380Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1268–1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “AOSLO: from benchtop to clinic,” Proc. SPIE6306, 63060V (2006).
[CrossRef]

Presley, J. B.

J. D. Huang, J. B. Presley, M. F. Chimento, C. A. Curcio, and M. Johnson, “Age-related changes in human macular Bruch’s membrane as seen by quick-freeze/deep-etch,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 202–218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, J. B. Presley, C. L. Millican, and N. E. Medeiros, “Basal deposits and drusen in eyes with age-related maculopathy: evidence for solid lipid particles,” Exp. Eye Res.80(6), 761–775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puche, N.

G. Querques, M. Srour, N. Massamba, N. Puche, and E. H. Souied, “Reticular pseudodrusen,” Ophthalmology120(4), 872 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pumariega, N. M.

L. Xu, A. M. Blonska, N. M. Pumariega, S. Bearelly, M. A. Sohrab, G. S. Hageman, and R. T. Smith, “Reticular macular disease is associated with multilobular geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina33(9), 1850–1862 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queener, H.

Quentel, G.

S. Y. Cohen, L. Dubois, R. Tadayoni, C. Delahaye-Mazza, C. Debibie, and G. Quentel, “Prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration with newly diagnosed choroidal neovascularisation,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 354–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Querques, G.

G. Querques, M. Srour, N. Massamba, N. Puche, and E. H. Souied, “Reticular pseudodrusen,” Ophthalmology120(4), 872 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Querques, F. Canouï-Poitrine, F. Coscas, N. Massamba, L. Querques, G. Mimoun, F. Bandello, and E. H. Souied, “Analysis of progression of reticular pseudodrusen by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(3), 1264–1270 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Querques, L. Querques, D. Martinelli, N. Massamba, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, and E. H. Souied, “Pathologic insights from integrated imaging of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina31(3), 518–526 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Querques, L.

G. Querques, F. Canouï-Poitrine, F. Coscas, N. Massamba, L. Querques, G. Mimoun, F. Bandello, and E. H. Souied, “Analysis of progression of reticular pseudodrusen by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(3), 1264–1270 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Querques, L. Querques, D. Martinelli, N. Massamba, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, and E. H. Souied, “Pathologic insights from integrated imaging of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina31(3), 518–526 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

A. Roorda, “Applications of adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.87(4), 260–268 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope using a micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE6138, 61380Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “AOSLO: from benchtop to clinic,” Proc. SPIE6306, 63060V (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1268–1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, “Retinal motion estimation in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express14(2), 487–497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. Hebert, and M. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express10(9), 405–412 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudolf, M.

C. A. Curcio, M. Johnson, J.-D. Huang, and M. Rudolf, “Aging, age-related macular degeneration, and the Response-to-Retention of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.28(6), 393–422 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rudolf, G. Malek, J. D. Messinger, M. E. Clark, L. Wang, and C. A. Curcio, “Sub-retinal drusenoid deposits in human retina: organization and composition,” Exp. Eye Res.87(5), 402–408 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Li, M. E. Clark, M. Rudolf, and C. A. Curcio, “Distribution and composition of esterified and unesterified cholesterol in extra-macular drusen,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 192–201 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadda, S. R.

M. A. Sohrab, R. T. Smith, H. Salehi-Had, S. R. Sadda, and A. A. Fawzi, “Image registration and multimodal imaging of reticular pseudodrusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5743–5748 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salehi-Had, H.

M. A. Sohrab, R. T. Smith, H. Salehi-Had, S. R. Sadda, and A. A. Fawzi, “Image registration and multimodal imaging of reticular pseudodrusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5743–5748 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarks, J.

J. Sarks, J. Arnold, I. V. Ho, S. Sarks, and M. Killingsworth, “Evolution of reticular pseudodrusen,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(7), 979–985 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarks, S.

J. Sarks, J. Arnold, I. V. Ho, S. Sarks, and M. Killingsworth, “Evolution of reticular pseudodrusen,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(7), 979–985 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarks, S. H.

S. H. Sarks, D. Van Driel, L. Maxwell, and M. Killingsworth, “Softening of drusen and subretinal neovascularization,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.100(3), 414–422 (1980).
[PubMed]

Sato, T.

S. Mrejen, T. Sato, C. A. Curcio, and R. F. Spaide, “Assessing the Cone Photoreceptor Mosaic in Eyes with Pseudodrusen and Soft Drusen In Vivo Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Ophthalmology121(2), 545–551 (2013).
[PubMed]

Schmitz-Valckenberg, S.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, F. Alten, J. S. Steinberg, G. J. Jaffe, M. Fleckenstein, B. N. Mukesh, T. C. Hohman, F. G. Holz, and Geographic Atrophy Progression (GAP) Study Group, “Reticular drusen associated with geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 5009–5015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, J. S. Steinberg, M. Fleckenstein, S. Visvalingam, C. K. Brinkmann, and F. G. Holz, “Combined confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging of reticular drusen associated with age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1169–1176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sliney, D. H.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, J. D. Messinger, K. R. Sloan, G. McGwin, N. E. Medeiros, and R. F. Spaide, “Subretinal drusenoid deposits in non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration: morphology, prevalence, topography, and biogenesis model,” Retina33(2), 265–276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. T.

M. Marsiglia, S. Boddu, S. Bearelly, L. Xu, B. E. Breaux, K. B. Freund, L. A. Yannuzzi, and R. T. Smith, “Association between geographic atrophy progression and reticular pseudodrusen in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(12), 7362–7369 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xu, A. M. Blonska, N. M. Pumariega, S. Bearelly, M. A. Sohrab, G. S. Hageman, and R. T. Smith, “Reticular macular disease is associated with multilobular geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina33(9), 1850–1862 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Sohrab, R. T. Smith, H. Salehi-Had, S. R. Sadda, and A. A. Fawzi, “Image registration and multimodal imaging of reticular pseudodrusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5743–5748 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohrab, M. A.

L. Xu, A. M. Blonska, N. M. Pumariega, S. Bearelly, M. A. Sohrab, G. S. Hageman, and R. T. Smith, “Reticular macular disease is associated with multilobular geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina33(9), 1850–1862 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Sohrab, R. T. Smith, H. Salehi-Had, S. R. Sadda, and A. A. Fawzi, “Image registration and multimodal imaging of reticular pseudodrusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5743–5748 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soubrane, G.

G. Querques, L. Querques, D. Martinelli, N. Massamba, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, and E. H. Souied, “Pathologic insights from integrated imaging of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina31(3), 518–526 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mimoun, G. Soubrane, and G. Coscas, “[Macular drusen],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol.13(10), 511–530 (1990).
[PubMed]

Souied, E. H.

G. Querques, M. Srour, N. Massamba, N. Puche, and E. H. Souied, “Reticular pseudodrusen,” Ophthalmology120(4), 872 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Querques, F. Canouï-Poitrine, F. Coscas, N. Massamba, L. Querques, G. Mimoun, F. Bandello, and E. H. Souied, “Analysis of progression of reticular pseudodrusen by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(3), 1264–1270 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Querques, L. Querques, D. Martinelli, N. Massamba, G. Coscas, G. Soubrane, and E. H. Souied, “Pathologic insights from integrated imaging of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina31(3), 518–526 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spaide, R. F.

C. A. Curcio, J. D. Messinger, K. R. Sloan, G. McGwin, N. E. Medeiros, and R. F. Spaide, “Subretinal drusenoid deposits in non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration: morphology, prevalence, topography, and biogenesis model,” Retina33(2), 265–276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, “Outer retinal atrophy after regression of subretinal drusenoid deposits as a newly recognized form of late age-related macular degeneration,” Retina33(9), 1800–1808 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mrejen, T. Sato, C. A. Curcio, and R. F. Spaide, “Assessing the Cone Photoreceptor Mosaic in Eyes with Pseudodrusen and Soft Drusen In Vivo Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Ophthalmology121(2), 545–551 (2013).
[PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, “Questioning optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology119(11), 2203–2204 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide and C. A. Curcio, “Anatomical correlates to the bands seen in the outer retina by optical coherence tomography: literature review and model,” Retina31(8), 1609–1619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide and C. A. Curcio, “Drusen characterization with multimodal imaging,” Retina30(9), 1441–1454 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Zweifel, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Curcio, G. Malek, and Y. Imamura, “Reticular pseudodrusen are subretinal drusenoid deposits,” Ophthalmology117(2), 303–312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, X. Wang, E. R. Blanco, M. E. Clark, C. D. Witherspoon, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Girkin, C. Owsley, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. (In review).

Srour, M.

G. Querques, M. Srour, N. Massamba, N. Puche, and E. H. Souied, “Reticular pseudodrusen,” Ophthalmology120(4), 872 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinberg, J. S.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, F. Alten, J. S. Steinberg, G. J. Jaffe, M. Fleckenstein, B. N. Mukesh, T. C. Hohman, F. G. Holz, and Geographic Atrophy Progression (GAP) Study Group, “Reticular drusen associated with geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 5009–5015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, J. S. Steinberg, M. Fleckenstein, S. Visvalingam, C. K. Brinkmann, and F. G. Holz, “Combined confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging of reticular drusen associated with age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1169–1176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sulai, Y.

Tadayoni, R.

S. Y. Cohen, L. Dubois, R. Tadayoni, C. Delahaye-Mazza, C. Debibie, and G. Quentel, “Prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration with newly diagnosed choroidal neovascularisation,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 354–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsujikawa, A.

N. Ueda-Arakawa, S. Ooto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, A. Oishi, and N. Yoshimura, “Sensitivity and specificity of detecting reticular pseudodrusen in multimodal imaging in Japanese patients,” Retina33(3), 490–497 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tumbar, R.

Ueda-Arakawa, N.

N. Ueda-Arakawa, S. Ooto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, A. Oishi, and N. Yoshimura, “Sensitivity and specificity of detecting reticular pseudodrusen in multimodal imaging in Japanese patients,” Retina33(3), 490–497 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Driel, D.

S. H. Sarks, D. Van Driel, L. Maxwell, and M. Killingsworth, “Softening of drusen and subretinal neovascularization,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K.100(3), 414–422 (1980).
[PubMed]

Visvalingam, S.

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, J. S. Steinberg, M. Fleckenstein, S. Visvalingam, C. K. Brinkmann, and F. G. Holz, “Combined confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging of reticular drusen associated with age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology117(6), 1169–1176 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, C. R.

Wang, L.

M. Rudolf, G. Malek, J. D. Messinger, M. E. Clark, L. Wang, and C. A. Curcio, “Sub-retinal drusenoid deposits in human retina: organization and composition,” Exp. Eye Res.87(5), 402–408 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, X.

Y. Zhang, X. Wang, E. R. Blanco, M. E. Clark, C. D. Witherspoon, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Girkin, C. Owsley, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. (In review).

Webb, R. H.

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

Witherspoon, C. D.

Y. Zhang, X. Wang, E. R. Blanco, M. E. Clark, C. D. Witherspoon, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Girkin, C. Owsley, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. (In review).

Xu, L.

L. Xu, A. M. Blonska, N. M. Pumariega, S. Bearelly, M. A. Sohrab, G. S. Hageman, and R. T. Smith, “Reticular macular disease is associated with multilobular geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina33(9), 1850–1862 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Marsiglia, S. Boddu, S. Bearelly, L. Xu, B. E. Breaux, K. B. Freund, L. A. Yannuzzi, and R. T. Smith, “Association between geographic atrophy progression and reticular pseudodrusen in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(12), 7362–7369 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashiro, K.

N. Ueda-Arakawa, S. Ooto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, A. Oishi, and N. Yoshimura, “Sensitivity and specificity of detecting reticular pseudodrusen in multimodal imaging in Japanese patients,” Retina33(3), 490–497 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yannuzzi, L. A.

M. Marsiglia, S. Boddu, S. Bearelly, L. Xu, B. E. Breaux, K. B. Freund, L. A. Yannuzzi, and R. T. Smith, “Association between geographic atrophy progression and reticular pseudodrusen in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(12), 7362–7369 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimura, N.

N. Ueda-Arakawa, S. Ooto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, A. Oishi, and N. Yoshimura, “Sensitivity and specificity of detecting reticular pseudodrusen in multimodal imaging in Japanese patients,” Retina33(3), 490–497 (2013).
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Zhang, Y.

A. Meadway, C. A. Girkin, and Y. Zhang, “A dual-modal retinal imaging system with adaptive optics,” Opt. Express21(24), 29792–29807 (2013).
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R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
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Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(10), 4380–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “AOSLO: from benchtop to clinic,” Proc. SPIE6306, 63060V (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1268–1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope using a micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE6138, 61380Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, X. Wang, E. R. Blanco, M. E. Clark, C. D. Witherspoon, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Girkin, C. Owsley, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. (In review).

Zhao, M.

Zweifel, S. A.

S. A. Zweifel, R. F. Spaide, C. A. Curcio, G. Malek, and Y. Imamura, “Reticular pseudodrusen are subretinal drusenoid deposits,” Ophthalmology117(2), 303–312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. Sarks, J. Arnold, I. V. Ho, S. Sarks, and M. Killingsworth, “Evolution of reticular pseudodrusen,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.95(7), 979–985 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Cohen, L. Dubois, R. Tadayoni, C. Delahaye-Mazza, C. Debibie, and G. Quentel, “Prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration with newly diagnosed choroidal neovascularisation,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.91(3), 354–359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (4)

M. Rudolf, G. Malek, J. D. Messinger, M. E. Clark, L. Wang, and C. A. Curcio, “Sub-retinal drusenoid deposits in human retina: organization and composition,” Exp. Eye Res.87(5), 402–408 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, J. B. Presley, C. L. Millican, and N. E. Medeiros, “Basal deposits and drusen in eyes with age-related maculopathy: evidence for solid lipid particles,” Exp. Eye Res.80(6), 761–775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Huang, J. B. Presley, M. F. Chimento, C. A. Curcio, and M. Johnson, “Age-related changes in human macular Bruch’s membrane as seen by quick-freeze/deep-etch,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 202–218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Li, M. E. Clark, M. Rudolf, and C. A. Curcio, “Distribution and composition of esterified and unesterified cholesterol in extra-macular drusen,” Exp. Eye Res.85(2), 192–201 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

D. T. Miller, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, and S. Lee, “Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT),” Eye (Lond.)25(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (5)

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Sohrab, R. T. Smith, H. Salehi-Had, S. R. Sadda, and A. A. Fawzi, “Image registration and multimodal imaging of reticular pseudodrusen,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5743–5748 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Marsiglia, S. Boddu, S. Bearelly, L. Xu, B. E. Breaux, K. B. Freund, L. A. Yannuzzi, and R. T. Smith, “Association between geographic atrophy progression and reticular pseudodrusen in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.54(12), 7362–7369 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schmitz-Valckenberg, F. Alten, J. S. Steinberg, G. J. Jaffe, M. Fleckenstein, B. N. Mukesh, T. C. Hohman, F. G. Holz, and Geographic Atrophy Progression (GAP) Study Group, “Reticular drusen associated with geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(9), 5009–5015 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Querques, F. Canouï-Poitrine, F. Coscas, N. Massamba, L. Querques, G. Mimoun, F. Bandello, and E. H. Souied, “Analysis of progression of reticular pseudodrusen by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53(3), 1264–1270 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Invest. (1)

V. Luibl, J. M. Isas, R. Kayed, C. G. Glabe, R. Langen, and J. Chen, “Drusen deposits associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain nonfibrillar amyloid oligomers,” J. Clin. Invest.116(2), 378–385 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fr. Ophtalmol. (1)

G. Mimoun, G. Soubrane, and G. Coscas, “[Macular drusen],” J. Fr. Ophtalmol.13(10), 511–530 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

Ophthalmology (6)

R. F. Mullins, L. V. Johnson, D. H. Anderson, and G. S. Hageman, “Characterization of drusen-associated glycoconjugates,” Ophthalmology104(2), 288–294 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mrejen, T. Sato, C. A. Curcio, and R. F. Spaide, “Assessing the Cone Photoreceptor Mosaic in Eyes with Pseudodrusen and Soft Drusen In Vivo Using Adaptive Optics Imaging,” Ophthalmology121(2), 545–551 (2013).
[PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A healthy retina imaged by AO-SLO and SD-OCT. The subject is a 54-year-old man (white non-Hispanic). (a) The high resolution retinal image montage (gray image) taken with the AO-SLO is overlaid on color fundus photograph. (b) AO-SLO image contained in the box of panel a reveals clear photoreceptor mosaic. The bright spots are cones. The dark bands are the shadow of retinal capillaries. (c) SD-OCT taken through the green arrow-line in panel a.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Healthy retina images. (a) AO-OCT. (b) AO-SLO. The green arrow line on the AO-SLO image shows the approximate scan position of the AO-OCT. The dark band in the AO-SLO image is the shadow of a retinal capillary. The blood vessel and its shadow (indicated by yellow arrowheads) were used as reference landmarks. The bright spots in the AO-SLO images are cone photoreceptors. The retinal layers are marked in the AO-OCT image, RNFL; retinal nerve fibre layer, GCL; ganglion cell layer, IPL; inner plexiform layer, INL; inner nuclear layer, OPL; outer plexiform layer, ONL; outer nuclear layer, ELM; external limiting membrane, EZ; ellipsoid zone, IZ; interdigitation zone; RPE-BrM; retinal pigment epithelium – Bruch’s membrane complex. The AO-OCT image is in linear grey scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Multimodal imaging of SDD. The subject (AMD-022) is an 84-year-old woman (white non-Hispanic). AMD severity is graded as 7 (intermediate stage) using the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) grading system and the Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) is 20/20. (a) – (d) are color photograph, IR, RF, and AF images of the macula with a 30 degree field of view, respectively. The retinal areas contained in the boxes in panels (a) – (d) are magnified digitally by 5.4 X. The green arrow-line in panel b indicates where the SD-OCT in panel e was taken. (e) The SD-OCT taken through the line in panel b. Color arrows and arrowheads point to the corresponding SDD rendered with different imaging modalities. These SDD are classified as stage 3. (f) Magnified SDD marked in panel e. (g) The AO-SLO image of the retina indicated by the yellow box in the excision of panel b, revealing the distinctive annular structure of the stage 3 SDD. The reflective spots between the hyporeflective annuluses are photoreceptors. Note the superficial similarity between the reflective texture surrounded by the hyporeflective annulus and the photoreceptors in the area away from SDD.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Multimodal imaging of SDD. The subject (AMD-63) is an 83-year-old man (white non-Hispanic) with non-neovascular AMD. The AREDS grade is 7 and the BCVA is 20/30. (a) - (d) are color photograph, IR, RF, and AF images of the macula with a 30 degree field of view, respectively. (a1) and (a2), (b1) and (b2), (c1) and (c2), (d1) and (d2), are magnification of the areas contained in the blue and yellow boxes in panels a to d, respectively. The green arrow-lines in panel b indicate where the SD-OCT B-scans in panel e and f were taken. (e) and (f) are SD-OCT taken through the lines in panel b. Color arrowheads point to the corresponding SDD imaged in different imaging modalities.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AO-SLO image of SDD. (a) AO-SLO image of the retina indicated by the blue boxes in Figs. 4(a)-4(d). The reflective spots between the hyporeflective annuluses are photoreceptors. The dark band is the shadow of a retinal capillary. (b) Magnified SD-OCT B-scan of the two SDD in Fig. 4(e). Color arrowheads point to corresponding SDD.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The AO-SLO image of the retinal area indicated by the yellow boxes in Figs. 4(a)-4(d), a big solitary SDD is imaged. The SDD shows a distinctive hyporeflective annulus surrounding a hyperreflective core. The bright spots outside the hyporeflective annulus are cone photoreceptors. The dark band is the shadow of a retinal capillary. The red arrow line marks where the AO-OCT shown in Fig. 8(a) was taken, whereas the green arrow indicates where the SD-OCT shown in Fig. 8(b) was taken. Red markers with numbers (1, 2, 3) indicate where the center-to-center spacing of the cones surrounding the SDD and the texture of the SDD was assessed

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

AO-SLO video of ‘flying focus-through’ retina (Media 1). The SDD shown in Fig. 6 was imaged. Note that the AO-SLO real time images are vertically flipped compared to the standard funduscopy shown in Figs. 4(a)-4(c) due to scanning optics configuration. The frames have been registered. Image distortion caused by nonlinear scanning of the resonant scanner and by eye movements was eliminated by customized software [36].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

AO-OCT and SD-OCT of SDD. (a) AO-OCT scanned vertically across the SDD, as indicated by the red arrow line in Fig. 6. The red arrow points to the left side of panel a. (b) SD-OCT B-scan taken along the green arrow-line in Fig. 6. Both images show that this SDD has broken the EZ(IS/OS) band and expanded into the ELM band. The scale bar in panel b applies to both panels. SD-OCT is shown with logarithmic grey scale, whereas AO-OCT scan has a linear grey scale. AO-OCT scan is orthogonal to SD-OCT scan.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

AO-SLO and AO-OCT imaging of SDD. The subject (AMD-062) is an 81-year-old man (white non-Hispanic) with non-neovascular AMD. The AREDS grade is 6 and the BCVA is 20/20. (a), Digital colour fundus photograph of 30° field of view. The yellow box (b) is with a size of 200 μm (~0.67°) on a side, which is digitally magnified by 15 times, encloses a solitary SDD. (b), The AO-SLO image of the retina contained in the yellow box in panel a, the image is an average of 20 frames. The green arrow line indicates where the AO-OCT scan was taken, pointing to the left side of panel c. (c), AO-OCT image, an average of 10 frames. Panel b and c are with the same scale. The AO-OCT has a linear grey scale.

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