Abstract

We demonstrate the utilization of a smartphone camera as a spectrometer that is capable of measuring Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) at biologically-relevant concentrations with the aid of a custom cradle that aligns a diffraction grating and a collimating lens between a light source and the imaging sensor. Two example biomarkers are assayed using conventional ELISA protocols: IL-6, a protein used diagnostically for several types of cancer, and Ara h 1, one of the principle peanut allergens. In addition to the demonstration of limits of detection at medically-relevant concentrations, a screening of various cookies was completed to measure levels of peanut cross-contamination in local bakeries. The results demonstrate the utility of the instrument for quantitatively performing broad classes of homogeneous colorimetric assays, in which the endpoint readout is the color change of a liquid sample.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

Q. Wei, R. Nagi, K. Sadeghi, S. Feng, E. Yan, S. J. Ki, R. Caire, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1121–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

A. F. Coskun, J. Wong, D. Khodadadi, R. Nagi, A. Tey, and A. Ozcan, “A personalized food allergen testing platform on a cellphone,” Lab Chip 13(4), 636–640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Suebsing, J. Kampeera, B. Tookdee, B. Withyachumnarnkul, W. Turner, and W. Kiatpathomchai, “Evaluation of colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for visual detection of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae in tilapia,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 57(4), 317–324 (2013).
[PubMed]

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent Imaging of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses on a Smart Phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Zurzolo, K. J. Allen, S. L. Taylor, W. G. Shreffler, J. L. Baumert, M. L. Tang, L. C. Gurrin, M. L. Mathai, J. A. Nordlee, A. Dunngalvin, and J. O. B. Hourihane, “Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol,” Allergy Asthma Clin. Immunol. 9(1), 35 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Enders, U. Bartelt, F. Knotek, K. Bunn, S. Strobel, K. Dietz, and G. Enders, “Performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG assay in the diagnostic laboratory setting for assessment of immune status,” Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 20(3), 420–426 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

L. Shen, J. A. Hagen, and I. Papautsky, “Point-of-care colorimetric detection with a smartphone,” Lab Chip 12(21), 4240–4243 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Huang, P. Y. Lee, P. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Liu, “Design and implementation of a smartphone-based portable ultrasound pulsed-wave doppler device for blood flow measurement,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(1), 182–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Litster, B. Pressler, A. Volpe, and E. Dubovi, “Accuracy of a point-of-care ELISA test kit for predicting the presence of protective canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus antibody concentrations in dogs,” Vet. J. 193(2), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kai, A. Puntambekar, N. Santiago, S. H. Lee, D. W. Sehy, V. Moore, J. Han, and C. H. Ahn, “A novel microfluidic microplate as the next generation assay platform for enzyme linked immunoassays (ELISA),” Lab Chip 12(21), 4257–4262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

J. Brown, L. Theis, L. Kerr, N. Zakhidova, K. O’Connor, M. Uthman, Z. M. Oden, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A hand-powered, portable, low-cost centrifuge for diagnosing anemia in low-resource settings,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85(2), 327–332 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Mach, J. H. Kim, A. Arshi, S. C. Hur, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated cellular sample preparation using a Centrifuge-on-a-Chip,” Lab Chip 11(17), 2827–2834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Szczepanik, L. Scislo, T. Scully, E. Walewska, M. Siedlar, P. Kolodziejczyk, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska, A. Galas, A. Czupryna, and J. Kulig, “IL-6 serum levels predict postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer patients,” Gastric Cancer 14(3), 266–273 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. L. Taylor, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, M. Morisset, P. Dumont, B. C. Remington, and J. L. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: Risk characterization based upon diagnostic oral challenge of a series of 286 peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 48(3), 814–819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Sicherer, A. Muñoz-Furlong, J. H. Godbold, and H. A. Sampson, “US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 125(6), 1322–1326 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bansal, W. Zhou, P. J. Barlow, P. S. Joshi, H. L. Lo, and Y. K. Chung, “Review of rapid tests available for measuring the quality changes in frying oils and comparison with standard methods,” Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 50(6), 503–514 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cauchon, S. Liu, M. D. Percival, S. E. Rowland, D. Xu, C. Binkert, P. Strickner, and J.-P. Falgueyret, “Development of a homogeneous immunoassay for the detection of angiotensin I in plasma using AlphaLISA acceptor beads technology,” Anal. Biochem. 388(1), 134–139 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. W.-S. Wong, J. Yu, A. S.-L. Cheng, G. L.-H. Wong, H.-Y. Chan, E. S.-H. Chu, E. K.-O. Ng, F. K.-L. Chan, J. J.-Y. Sung, and H. L.-Y. Chan, “High serum interleukin-6 level predicts future hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Int. J. Cancer 124(12), 2766–2770 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kugisaki, M. Sonohata, M. Komine, K. Tsunoda, S. Someya, H. Honke, M. Mawatari, and T. Hotokebuchi, “Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 in patients following unilateral versus bilateral total knee arthroplasty,” J. Orthop. Sci. 14(4), 437–442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Taylor, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, J. Kabourek, and J. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: risk characterization based upon published results from challenges of peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 47(6), 1198–1204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. P. Wong, M. Gupta, S. S. Shevkoplyas, and G. M. Whitesides, “Egg beater as centrifuge: isolating human blood plasma from whole blood in resource-poor settings,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2032–2037 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

F. Poulsen and K. B. Jensen, “A luminescent oxygen channeling immunoassay for the determination of insulin in human plasma,” J. Biomol. Screen. 12(2), 240–247 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Sicherer and H. A. Sampson, “Peanut allergy: emerging concepts and approaches for an apparent epidemic,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 120(3), 491–503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Knüpfer and R. Preiss, “Significance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in breast cancer (review),” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 102(2), 129–135 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Flinterman, E. van Hoffen, C. F. den Hartog Jager, S. Koppelman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, A. C. Knulst, and E. F. Knol, “Children with peanut allergy recognize predominantly Ara h2 and Ara h6, which remains stable over time,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 37(8), 1221–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. E. Flinterman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, Y. Meijer, E. van Hoffen, E. F. Knol, S. L. Hefle, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “Determination of no-observed-adverse-effect levels and eliciting doses in a representative group of peanut-sensitized children,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117(2), 448–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

O. P. Kristiansen and T. Mandrup-Poulsen, “Interleukin-6 and diabetes: the good, the bad, or the indifferent?” Diabetes 54(Suppl 2), S114–S124 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mokart, M. Merlin, A. Sannini, J. P. Brun, J. R. Delpero, G. Houvenaeghel, V. Moutardier, and J. L. Blache, “Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery,” Br. J. Anaesth. 94(6), 767–773 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Lequin, “Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA),” Clin. Chem. 51(12), 2415–2418 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Pomés, R. M. Helm, G. A. Bannon, A. W. Burks, A. Tsay, and M. D. Chapman, “Monitoring peanut allergen in food products by measuring Ara h 1,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111(3), 640–645 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Wensing, A. H. Penninks, S. L. Hefle, S. J. Koppelman, C. A. F. M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “The distribution of individual threshold doses eliciting allergic reactions in a population with peanut allergy,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110(6), 915–920 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. Galli, “Modeling systematic errors: polychromatic sources of Beer-Lambert deviations in HPLC/UV and nonchromatographic spectrophotometric assays,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 25(5-6), 803–809 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measuring agreement in method comparison studies,” Stat. Methods Med. Res. 8(2), 135–160 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. Hobisch, I. E. Eder, T. Putz, W. Horninger, G. Bartsch, H. Klocker, and Z. Culig, “Interleukin-6 regulates prostate-specific protein expression in prostate carcinoma cells by activation of the androgen receptor,” Cancer Res. 58(20), 4640–4645 (1998).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. G. Norkus, J. Maurer, N. A. Schultz, J. D. Stuart, G. A. Robbins, and R. D. Bristol, “Field examination of ground water quality as an indicator of microbiological activity at gasoline contaminated sites,” Chemosphere 33(3), 421–436 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. Y. Blay, S. Negrier, V. Combaret, S. Attali, E. Goillot, Y. Merrouche, A. Mercatello, A. Ravault, J. M. Tourani, and J. F. Moskovtchenko, “Serum level of interleukin 6 as a prognosis factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Res. 52(12), 3317–3322 (1992).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

N. Crofts, W. Maskill, and I. D. Gust, “Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays: a method of data analysis,” J. Virol. Methods 22(1), 51–59 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet 327(8476), 307–310 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, C. H.

J. Kai, A. Puntambekar, N. Santiago, S. H. Lee, D. W. Sehy, V. Moore, J. Han, and C. H. Ahn, “A novel microfluidic microplate as the next generation assay platform for enzyme linked immunoassays (ELISA),” Lab Chip 12(21), 4257–4262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, K. J.

G. A. Zurzolo, K. J. Allen, S. L. Taylor, W. G. Shreffler, J. L. Baumert, M. L. Tang, L. C. Gurrin, M. L. Mathai, J. A. Nordlee, A. Dunngalvin, and J. O. B. Hourihane, “Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol,” Allergy Asthma Clin. Immunol. 9(1), 35 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altman, D. G.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measuring agreement in method comparison studies,” Stat. Methods Med. Res. 8(2), 135–160 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet 327(8476), 307–310 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arshi, A.

A. J. Mach, J. H. Kim, A. Arshi, S. C. Hur, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated cellular sample preparation using a Centrifuge-on-a-Chip,” Lab Chip 11(17), 2827–2834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attali, S.

J. Y. Blay, S. Negrier, V. Combaret, S. Attali, E. Goillot, Y. Merrouche, A. Mercatello, A. Ravault, J. M. Tourani, and J. F. Moskovtchenko, “Serum level of interleukin 6 as a prognosis factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Res. 52(12), 3317–3322 (1992).
[PubMed]

Bannon, G. A.

A. Pomés, R. M. Helm, G. A. Bannon, A. W. Burks, A. Tsay, and M. D. Chapman, “Monitoring peanut allergen in food products by measuring Ara h 1,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111(3), 640–645 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bansal, G.

G. Bansal, W. Zhou, P. J. Barlow, P. S. Joshi, H. L. Lo, and Y. K. Chung, “Review of rapid tests available for measuring the quality changes in frying oils and comparison with standard methods,” Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 50(6), 503–514 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barlow, P. J.

G. Bansal, W. Zhou, P. J. Barlow, P. S. Joshi, H. L. Lo, and Y. K. Chung, “Review of rapid tests available for measuring the quality changes in frying oils and comparison with standard methods,” Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 50(6), 503–514 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartelt, U.

M. Enders, U. Bartelt, F. Knotek, K. Bunn, S. Strobel, K. Dietz, and G. Enders, “Performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG assay in the diagnostic laboratory setting for assessment of immune status,” Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 20(3), 420–426 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartsch, G.

A. Hobisch, I. E. Eder, T. Putz, W. Horninger, G. Bartsch, H. Klocker, and Z. Culig, “Interleukin-6 regulates prostate-specific protein expression in prostate carcinoma cells by activation of the androgen receptor,” Cancer Res. 58(20), 4640–4645 (1998).
[PubMed]

Baumert, J.

S. L. Taylor, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, J. Kabourek, and J. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: risk characterization based upon published results from challenges of peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 47(6), 1198–1204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumert, J. L.

G. A. Zurzolo, K. J. Allen, S. L. Taylor, W. G. Shreffler, J. L. Baumert, M. L. Tang, L. C. Gurrin, M. L. Mathai, J. A. Nordlee, A. Dunngalvin, and J. O. B. Hourihane, “Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol,” Allergy Asthma Clin. Immunol. 9(1), 35 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Taylor, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, M. Morisset, P. Dumont, B. C. Remington, and J. L. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: Risk characterization based upon diagnostic oral challenge of a series of 286 peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 48(3), 814–819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bentolila, L. A.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent Imaging of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses on a Smart Phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binkert, C.

E. Cauchon, S. Liu, M. D. Percival, S. E. Rowland, D. Xu, C. Binkert, P. Strickner, and J.-P. Falgueyret, “Development of a homogeneous immunoassay for the detection of angiotensin I in plasma using AlphaLISA acceptor beads technology,” Anal. Biochem. 388(1), 134–139 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blache, J. L.

D. Mokart, M. Merlin, A. Sannini, J. P. Brun, J. R. Delpero, G. Houvenaeghel, V. Moutardier, and J. L. Blache, “Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery,” Br. J. Anaesth. 94(6), 767–773 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bland, J. M.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measuring agreement in method comparison studies,” Stat. Methods Med. Res. 8(2), 135–160 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet 327(8476), 307–310 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blay, J. Y.

J. Y. Blay, S. Negrier, V. Combaret, S. Attali, E. Goillot, Y. Merrouche, A. Mercatello, A. Ravault, J. M. Tourani, and J. F. Moskovtchenko, “Serum level of interleukin 6 as a prognosis factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Res. 52(12), 3317–3322 (1992).
[PubMed]

Breslauer, D. N.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. G. Norkus, J. Maurer, N. A. Schultz, J. D. Stuart, G. A. Robbins, and R. D. Bristol, “Field examination of ground water quality as an indicator of microbiological activity at gasoline contaminated sites,” Chemosphere 33(3), 421–436 (1996).
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J. Brown, L. Theis, L. Kerr, N. Zakhidova, K. O’Connor, M. Uthman, Z. M. Oden, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A hand-powered, portable, low-cost centrifuge for diagnosing anemia in low-resource settings,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85(2), 327–332 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A.

A. E. Flinterman, E. van Hoffen, C. F. den Hartog Jager, S. Koppelman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, A. C. Knulst, and E. F. Knol, “Children with peanut allergy recognize predominantly Ara h2 and Ara h6, which remains stable over time,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 37(8), 1221–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Flinterman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, Y. Meijer, E. van Hoffen, E. F. Knol, S. L. Hefle, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “Determination of no-observed-adverse-effect levels and eliciting doses in a representative group of peanut-sensitized children,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117(2), 448–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A. F. M.

M. Wensing, A. H. Penninks, S. L. Hefle, S. J. Koppelman, C. A. F. M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “The distribution of individual threshold doses eliciting allergic reactions in a population with peanut allergy,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110(6), 915–920 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brun, J. P.

D. Mokart, M. Merlin, A. Sannini, J. P. Brun, J. R. Delpero, G. Houvenaeghel, V. Moutardier, and J. L. Blache, “Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery,” Br. J. Anaesth. 94(6), 767–773 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunn, K.

M. Enders, U. Bartelt, F. Knotek, K. Bunn, S. Strobel, K. Dietz, and G. Enders, “Performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG assay in the diagnostic laboratory setting for assessment of immune status,” Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 20(3), 420–426 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burks, A. W.

A. Pomés, R. M. Helm, G. A. Bannon, A. W. Burks, A. Tsay, and M. D. Chapman, “Monitoring peanut allergen in food products by measuring Ara h 1,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111(3), 640–645 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caire, R.

Q. Wei, R. Nagi, K. Sadeghi, S. Feng, E. Yan, S. J. Ki, R. Caire, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1121–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cauchon, E.

E. Cauchon, S. Liu, M. D. Percival, S. E. Rowland, D. Xu, C. Binkert, P. Strickner, and J.-P. Falgueyret, “Development of a homogeneous immunoassay for the detection of angiotensin I in plasma using AlphaLISA acceptor beads technology,” Anal. Biochem. 388(1), 134–139 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, F. K.-L.

V. W.-S. Wong, J. Yu, A. S.-L. Cheng, G. L.-H. Wong, H.-Y. Chan, E. S.-H. Chu, E. K.-O. Ng, F. K.-L. Chan, J. J.-Y. Sung, and H. L.-Y. Chan, “High serum interleukin-6 level predicts future hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Int. J. Cancer 124(12), 2766–2770 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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V. W.-S. Wong, J. Yu, A. S.-L. Cheng, G. L.-H. Wong, H.-Y. Chan, E. S.-H. Chu, E. K.-O. Ng, F. K.-L. Chan, J. J.-Y. Sung, and H. L.-Y. Chan, “High serum interleukin-6 level predicts future hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Int. J. Cancer 124(12), 2766–2770 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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V. W.-S. Wong, J. Yu, A. S.-L. Cheng, G. L.-H. Wong, H.-Y. Chan, E. S.-H. Chu, E. K.-O. Ng, F. K.-L. Chan, J. J.-Y. Sung, and H. L.-Y. Chan, “High serum interleukin-6 level predicts future hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Int. J. Cancer 124(12), 2766–2770 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapman, M. D.

A. Pomés, R. M. Helm, G. A. Bannon, A. W. Burks, A. Tsay, and M. D. Chapman, “Monitoring peanut allergen in food products by measuring Ara h 1,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111(3), 640–645 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P. Y.

C. C. Huang, P. Y. Lee, P. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Liu, “Design and implementation of a smartphone-based portable ultrasound pulsed-wave doppler device for blood flow measurement,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(1), 182–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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V. W.-S. Wong, J. Yu, A. S.-L. Cheng, G. L.-H. Wong, H.-Y. Chan, E. S.-H. Chu, E. K.-O. Ng, F. K.-L. Chan, J. J.-Y. Sung, and H. L.-Y. Chan, “High serum interleukin-6 level predicts future hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Int. J. Cancer 124(12), 2766–2770 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, E. S.-H.

V. W.-S. Wong, J. Yu, A. S.-L. Cheng, G. L.-H. Wong, H.-Y. Chan, E. S.-H. Chu, E. K.-O. Ng, F. K.-L. Chan, J. J.-Y. Sung, and H. L.-Y. Chan, “High serum interleukin-6 level predicts future hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Int. J. Cancer 124(12), 2766–2770 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, Y. K.

G. Bansal, W. Zhou, P. J. Barlow, P. S. Joshi, H. L. Lo, and Y. K. Chung, “Review of rapid tests available for measuring the quality changes in frying oils and comparison with standard methods,” Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 50(6), 503–514 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, P. P.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Combaret, V.

J. Y. Blay, S. Negrier, V. Combaret, S. Attali, E. Goillot, Y. Merrouche, A. Mercatello, A. Ravault, J. M. Tourani, and J. F. Moskovtchenko, “Serum level of interleukin 6 as a prognosis factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Res. 52(12), 3317–3322 (1992).
[PubMed]

Coskun, A. F.

A. F. Coskun, J. Wong, D. Khodadadi, R. Nagi, A. Tey, and A. Ozcan, “A personalized food allergen testing platform on a cellphone,” Lab Chip 13(4), 636–640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crevel, R. W.

S. L. Taylor, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, M. Morisset, P. Dumont, B. C. Remington, and J. L. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: Risk characterization based upon diagnostic oral challenge of a series of 286 peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 48(3), 814–819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Taylor, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, J. Kabourek, and J. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: risk characterization based upon published results from challenges of peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 47(6), 1198–1204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crofts, N.

N. Crofts, W. Maskill, and I. D. Gust, “Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays: a method of data analysis,” J. Virol. Methods 22(1), 51–59 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Culig, Z.

A. Hobisch, I. E. Eder, T. Putz, W. Horninger, G. Bartsch, H. Klocker, and Z. Culig, “Interleukin-6 regulates prostate-specific protein expression in prostate carcinoma cells by activation of the androgen receptor,” Cancer Res. 58(20), 4640–4645 (1998).
[PubMed]

Cunningham, B. T.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czupryna, A.

A. M. Szczepanik, L. Scislo, T. Scully, E. Walewska, M. Siedlar, P. Kolodziejczyk, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska, A. Galas, A. Czupryna, and J. Kulig, “IL-6 serum levels predict postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer patients,” Gastric Cancer 14(3), 266–273 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delpero, J. R.

D. Mokart, M. Merlin, A. Sannini, J. P. Brun, J. R. Delpero, G. Houvenaeghel, V. Moutardier, and J. L. Blache, “Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery,” Br. J. Anaesth. 94(6), 767–773 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

den Hartog Jager, C. F.

A. E. Flinterman, E. van Hoffen, C. F. den Hartog Jager, S. Koppelman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, A. C. Knulst, and E. F. Knol, “Children with peanut allergy recognize predominantly Ara h2 and Ara h6, which remains stable over time,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 37(8), 1221–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Carlo, D.

A. J. Mach, J. H. Kim, A. Arshi, S. C. Hur, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated cellular sample preparation using a Centrifuge-on-a-Chip,” Lab Chip 11(17), 2827–2834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dietz, K.

M. Enders, U. Bartelt, F. Knotek, K. Bunn, S. Strobel, K. Dietz, and G. Enders, “Performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG assay in the diagnostic laboratory setting for assessment of immune status,” Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 20(3), 420–426 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubovi, E.

A. L. Litster, B. Pressler, A. Volpe, and E. Dubovi, “Accuracy of a point-of-care ELISA test kit for predicting the presence of protective canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus antibody concentrations in dogs,” Vet. J. 193(2), 363–366 (2012).
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Dumont, P.

S. L. Taylor, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, M. Morisset, P. Dumont, B. C. Remington, and J. L. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: Risk characterization based upon diagnostic oral challenge of a series of 286 peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 48(3), 814–819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunngalvin, A.

G. A. Zurzolo, K. J. Allen, S. L. Taylor, W. G. Shreffler, J. L. Baumert, M. L. Tang, L. C. Gurrin, M. L. Mathai, J. A. Nordlee, A. Dunngalvin, and J. O. B. Hourihane, “Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol,” Allergy Asthma Clin. Immunol. 9(1), 35 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eder, I. E.

A. Hobisch, I. E. Eder, T. Putz, W. Horninger, G. Bartsch, H. Klocker, and Z. Culig, “Interleukin-6 regulates prostate-specific protein expression in prostate carcinoma cells by activation of the androgen receptor,” Cancer Res. 58(20), 4640–4645 (1998).
[PubMed]

Enders, G.

M. Enders, U. Bartelt, F. Knotek, K. Bunn, S. Strobel, K. Dietz, and G. Enders, “Performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG assay in the diagnostic laboratory setting for assessment of immune status,” Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 20(3), 420–426 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enders, M.

M. Enders, U. Bartelt, F. Knotek, K. Bunn, S. Strobel, K. Dietz, and G. Enders, “Performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG assay in the diagnostic laboratory setting for assessment of immune status,” Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 20(3), 420–426 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falgueyret, J.-P.

E. Cauchon, S. Liu, M. D. Percival, S. E. Rowland, D. Xu, C. Binkert, P. Strickner, and J.-P. Falgueyret, “Development of a homogeneous immunoassay for the detection of angiotensin I in plasma using AlphaLISA acceptor beads technology,” Anal. Biochem. 388(1), 134–139 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

Q. Wei, R. Nagi, K. Sadeghi, S. Feng, E. Yan, S. J. Ki, R. Caire, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1121–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fletcher, D. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flinterman, A. E.

A. E. Flinterman, E. van Hoffen, C. F. den Hartog Jager, S. Koppelman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, A. C. Knulst, and E. F. Knol, “Children with peanut allergy recognize predominantly Ara h2 and Ara h6, which remains stable over time,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 37(8), 1221–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Flinterman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, Y. Meijer, E. van Hoffen, E. F. Knol, S. L. Hefle, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “Determination of no-observed-adverse-effect levels and eliciting doses in a representative group of peanut-sensitized children,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117(2), 448–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galas, A.

A. M. Szczepanik, L. Scislo, T. Scully, E. Walewska, M. Siedlar, P. Kolodziejczyk, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska, A. Galas, A. Czupryna, and J. Kulig, “IL-6 serum levels predict postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer patients,” Gastric Cancer 14(3), 266–273 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallegos, D.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Galli, “Modeling systematic errors: polychromatic sources of Beer-Lambert deviations in HPLC/UV and nonchromatographic spectrophotometric assays,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 25(5-6), 803–809 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, S.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Godbold, J. H.

S. H. Sicherer, A. Muñoz-Furlong, J. H. Godbold, and H. A. Sampson, “US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 125(6), 1322–1326 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goillot, E.

J. Y. Blay, S. Negrier, V. Combaret, S. Attali, E. Goillot, Y. Merrouche, A. Mercatello, A. Ravault, J. M. Tourani, and J. F. Moskovtchenko, “Serum level of interleukin 6 as a prognosis factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Res. 52(12), 3317–3322 (1992).
[PubMed]

Göröcs, Z.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent Imaging of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses on a Smart Phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, M.

A. P. Wong, M. Gupta, S. S. Shevkoplyas, and G. M. Whitesides, “Egg beater as centrifuge: isolating human blood plasma from whole blood in resource-poor settings,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2032–2037 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurrin, L. C.

G. A. Zurzolo, K. J. Allen, S. L. Taylor, W. G. Shreffler, J. L. Baumert, M. L. Tang, L. C. Gurrin, M. L. Mathai, J. A. Nordlee, A. Dunngalvin, and J. O. B. Hourihane, “Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol,” Allergy Asthma Clin. Immunol. 9(1), 35 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gust, I. D.

N. Crofts, W. Maskill, and I. D. Gust, “Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays: a method of data analysis,” J. Virol. Methods 22(1), 51–59 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagen, J. A.

L. Shen, J. A. Hagen, and I. Papautsky, “Point-of-care colorimetric detection with a smartphone,” Lab Chip 12(21), 4240–4243 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

J. Kai, A. Puntambekar, N. Santiago, S. H. Lee, D. W. Sehy, V. Moore, J. Han, and C. H. Ahn, “A novel microfluidic microplate as the next generation assay platform for enzyme linked immunoassays (ELISA),” Lab Chip 12(21), 4257–4262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hefle, S. L.

A. E. Flinterman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, Y. Meijer, E. van Hoffen, E. F. Knol, S. L. Hefle, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “Determination of no-observed-adverse-effect levels and eliciting doses in a representative group of peanut-sensitized children,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117(2), 448–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wensing, A. H. Penninks, S. L. Hefle, S. J. Koppelman, C. A. F. M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “The distribution of individual threshold doses eliciting allergic reactions in a population with peanut allergy,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110(6), 915–920 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helm, R. M.

A. Pomés, R. M. Helm, G. A. Bannon, A. W. Burks, A. Tsay, and M. D. Chapman, “Monitoring peanut allergen in food products by measuring Ara h 1,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111(3), 640–645 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hobisch, A.

A. Hobisch, I. E. Eder, T. Putz, W. Horninger, G. Bartsch, H. Klocker, and Z. Culig, “Interleukin-6 regulates prostate-specific protein expression in prostate carcinoma cells by activation of the androgen receptor,” Cancer Res. 58(20), 4640–4645 (1998).
[PubMed]

Hoekstra, M. O.

A. E. Flinterman, E. van Hoffen, C. F. den Hartog Jager, S. Koppelman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, A. C. Knulst, and E. F. Knol, “Children with peanut allergy recognize predominantly Ara h2 and Ara h6, which remains stable over time,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 37(8), 1221–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Flinterman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, Y. Meijer, E. van Hoffen, E. F. Knol, S. L. Hefle, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “Determination of no-observed-adverse-effect levels and eliciting doses in a representative group of peanut-sensitized children,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117(2), 448–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honke, H.

H. Kugisaki, M. Sonohata, M. Komine, K. Tsunoda, S. Someya, H. Honke, M. Mawatari, and T. Hotokebuchi, “Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 in patients following unilateral versus bilateral total knee arthroplasty,” J. Orthop. Sci. 14(4), 437–442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horninger, W.

A. Hobisch, I. E. Eder, T. Putz, W. Horninger, G. Bartsch, H. Klocker, and Z. Culig, “Interleukin-6 regulates prostate-specific protein expression in prostate carcinoma cells by activation of the androgen receptor,” Cancer Res. 58(20), 4640–4645 (1998).
[PubMed]

Hotokebuchi, T.

H. Kugisaki, M. Sonohata, M. Komine, K. Tsunoda, S. Someya, H. Honke, M. Mawatari, and T. Hotokebuchi, “Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 in patients following unilateral versus bilateral total knee arthroplasty,” J. Orthop. Sci. 14(4), 437–442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hourihane, J. O. B.

G. A. Zurzolo, K. J. Allen, S. L. Taylor, W. G. Shreffler, J. L. Baumert, M. L. Tang, L. C. Gurrin, M. L. Mathai, J. A. Nordlee, A. Dunngalvin, and J. O. B. Hourihane, “Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol,” Allergy Asthma Clin. Immunol. 9(1), 35 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houvenaeghel, G.

D. Mokart, M. Merlin, A. Sannini, J. P. Brun, J. R. Delpero, G. Houvenaeghel, V. Moutardier, and J. L. Blache, “Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery,” Br. J. Anaesth. 94(6), 767–773 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. C.

C. C. Huang, P. Y. Lee, P. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Liu, “Design and implementation of a smartphone-based portable ultrasound pulsed-wave doppler device for blood flow measurement,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(1), 182–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hur, S. C.

A. J. Mach, J. H. Kim, A. Arshi, S. C. Hur, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated cellular sample preparation using a Centrifuge-on-a-Chip,” Lab Chip 11(17), 2827–2834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. Poulsen and K. B. Jensen, “A luminescent oxygen channeling immunoassay for the determination of insulin in human plasma,” J. Biomol. Screen. 12(2), 240–247 (2007).
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G. Bansal, W. Zhou, P. J. Barlow, P. S. Joshi, H. L. Lo, and Y. K. Chung, “Review of rapid tests available for measuring the quality changes in frying oils and comparison with standard methods,” Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 50(6), 503–514 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kabourek, J.

S. L. Taylor, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, J. Kabourek, and J. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: risk characterization based upon published results from challenges of peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 47(6), 1198–1204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kai, J.

J. Kai, A. Puntambekar, N. Santiago, S. H. Lee, D. W. Sehy, V. Moore, J. Han, and C. H. Ahn, “A novel microfluidic microplate as the next generation assay platform for enzyme linked immunoassays (ELISA),” Lab Chip 12(21), 4257–4262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kampeera, J.

R. Suebsing, J. Kampeera, B. Tookdee, B. Withyachumnarnkul, W. Turner, and W. Kiatpathomchai, “Evaluation of colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for visual detection of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae in tilapia,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 57(4), 317–324 (2013).
[PubMed]

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J. Brown, L. Theis, L. Kerr, N. Zakhidova, K. O’Connor, M. Uthman, Z. M. Oden, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A hand-powered, portable, low-cost centrifuge for diagnosing anemia in low-resource settings,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85(2), 327–332 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khodadadi, D.

A. F. Coskun, J. Wong, D. Khodadadi, R. Nagi, A. Tey, and A. Ozcan, “A personalized food allergen testing platform on a cellphone,” Lab Chip 13(4), 636–640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ki, S. J.

Q. Wei, R. Nagi, K. Sadeghi, S. Feng, E. Yan, S. J. Ki, R. Caire, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1121–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent Imaging of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses on a Smart Phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. Suebsing, J. Kampeera, B. Tookdee, B. Withyachumnarnkul, W. Turner, and W. Kiatpathomchai, “Evaluation of colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for visual detection of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae in tilapia,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 57(4), 317–324 (2013).
[PubMed]

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A. J. Mach, J. H. Kim, A. Arshi, S. C. Hur, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated cellular sample preparation using a Centrifuge-on-a-Chip,” Lab Chip 11(17), 2827–2834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klocker, H.

A. Hobisch, I. E. Eder, T. Putz, W. Horninger, G. Bartsch, H. Klocker, and Z. Culig, “Interleukin-6 regulates prostate-specific protein expression in prostate carcinoma cells by activation of the androgen receptor,” Cancer Res. 58(20), 4640–4645 (1998).
[PubMed]

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A. E. Flinterman, E. van Hoffen, C. F. den Hartog Jager, S. Koppelman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, A. C. Knulst, and E. F. Knol, “Children with peanut allergy recognize predominantly Ara h2 and Ara h6, which remains stable over time,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 37(8), 1221–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Flinterman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, Y. Meijer, E. van Hoffen, E. F. Knol, S. L. Hefle, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “Determination of no-observed-adverse-effect levels and eliciting doses in a representative group of peanut-sensitized children,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117(2), 448–454 (2006).
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M. Enders, U. Bartelt, F. Knotek, K. Bunn, S. Strobel, K. Dietz, and G. Enders, “Performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG assay in the diagnostic laboratory setting for assessment of immune status,” Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 20(3), 420–426 (2013).
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A. E. Flinterman, E. van Hoffen, C. F. den Hartog Jager, S. Koppelman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, A. C. Knulst, and E. F. Knol, “Children with peanut allergy recognize predominantly Ara h2 and Ara h6, which remains stable over time,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 37(8), 1221–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Flinterman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, Y. Meijer, E. van Hoffen, E. F. Knol, S. L. Hefle, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “Determination of no-observed-adverse-effect levels and eliciting doses in a representative group of peanut-sensitized children,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117(2), 448–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wensing, A. H. Penninks, S. L. Hefle, S. J. Koppelman, C. A. F. M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “The distribution of individual threshold doses eliciting allergic reactions in a population with peanut allergy,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110(6), 915–920 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Knüpfer and R. Preiss, “Significance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in breast cancer (review),” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 102(2), 129–135 (2007).
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A. M. Szczepanik, L. Scislo, T. Scully, E. Walewska, M. Siedlar, P. Kolodziejczyk, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska, A. Galas, A. Czupryna, and J. Kulig, “IL-6 serum levels predict postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer patients,” Gastric Cancer 14(3), 266–273 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komine, M.

H. Kugisaki, M. Sonohata, M. Komine, K. Tsunoda, S. Someya, H. Honke, M. Mawatari, and T. Hotokebuchi, “Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 in patients following unilateral versus bilateral total knee arthroplasty,” J. Orthop. Sci. 14(4), 437–442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. E. Flinterman, E. van Hoffen, C. F. den Hartog Jager, S. Koppelman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, A. C. Knulst, and E. F. Knol, “Children with peanut allergy recognize predominantly Ara h2 and Ara h6, which remains stable over time,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 37(8), 1221–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koppelman, S. J.

M. Wensing, A. H. Penninks, S. L. Hefle, S. J. Koppelman, C. A. F. M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “The distribution of individual threshold doses eliciting allergic reactions in a population with peanut allergy,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110(6), 915–920 (2002).
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O. P. Kristiansen and T. Mandrup-Poulsen, “Interleukin-6 and diabetes: the good, the bad, or the indifferent?” Diabetes 54(Suppl 2), S114–S124 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kugisaki, H.

H. Kugisaki, M. Sonohata, M. Komine, K. Tsunoda, S. Someya, H. Honke, M. Mawatari, and T. Hotokebuchi, “Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 in patients following unilateral versus bilateral total knee arthroplasty,” J. Orthop. Sci. 14(4), 437–442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulig, J.

A. M. Szczepanik, L. Scislo, T. Scully, E. Walewska, M. Siedlar, P. Kolodziejczyk, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska, A. Galas, A. Czupryna, and J. Kulig, “IL-6 serum levels predict postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer patients,” Gastric Cancer 14(3), 266–273 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, W. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
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Lee, P. Y.

C. C. Huang, P. Y. Lee, P. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Liu, “Design and implementation of a smartphone-based portable ultrasound pulsed-wave doppler device for blood flow measurement,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(1), 182–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

J. Kai, A. Puntambekar, N. Santiago, S. H. Lee, D. W. Sehy, V. Moore, J. Han, and C. H. Ahn, “A novel microfluidic microplate as the next generation assay platform for enzyme linked immunoassays (ELISA),” Lab Chip 12(21), 4257–4262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenart, M.

A. M. Szczepanik, L. Scislo, T. Scully, E. Walewska, M. Siedlar, P. Kolodziejczyk, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska, A. Galas, A. Czupryna, and J. Kulig, “IL-6 serum levels predict postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer patients,” Gastric Cancer 14(3), 266–273 (2011).
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R. M. Lequin, “Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA),” Clin. Chem. 51(12), 2415–2418 (2005).
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D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
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A. L. Litster, B. Pressler, A. Volpe, and E. Dubovi, “Accuracy of a point-of-care ELISA test kit for predicting the presence of protective canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus antibody concentrations in dogs,” Vet. J. 193(2), 363–366 (2012).
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E. Cauchon, S. Liu, M. D. Percival, S. E. Rowland, D. Xu, C. Binkert, P. Strickner, and J.-P. Falgueyret, “Development of a homogeneous immunoassay for the detection of angiotensin I in plasma using AlphaLISA acceptor beads technology,” Anal. Biochem. 388(1), 134–139 (2009).
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Liu, T. Y.

C. C. Huang, P. Y. Lee, P. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Liu, “Design and implementation of a smartphone-based portable ultrasound pulsed-wave doppler device for blood flow measurement,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(1), 182–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, H. L.

G. Bansal, W. Zhou, P. J. Barlow, P. S. Joshi, H. L. Lo, and Y. K. Chung, “Review of rapid tests available for measuring the quality changes in frying oils and comparison with standard methods,” Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 50(6), 503–514 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, K. D.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, W.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent Imaging of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses on a Smart Phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maamari, R. N.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mach, A. J.

A. J. Mach, J. H. Kim, A. Arshi, S. C. Hur, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated cellular sample preparation using a Centrifuge-on-a-Chip,” Lab Chip 11(17), 2827–2834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandrup-Poulsen, T.

O. P. Kristiansen and T. Mandrup-Poulsen, “Interleukin-6 and diabetes: the good, the bad, or the indifferent?” Diabetes 54(Suppl 2), S114–S124 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Crofts, W. Maskill, and I. D. Gust, “Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays: a method of data analysis,” J. Virol. Methods 22(1), 51–59 (1988).
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G. A. Zurzolo, K. J. Allen, S. L. Taylor, W. G. Shreffler, J. L. Baumert, M. L. Tang, L. C. Gurrin, M. L. Mathai, J. A. Nordlee, A. Dunngalvin, and J. O. B. Hourihane, “Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol,” Allergy Asthma Clin. Immunol. 9(1), 35 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maurer, J.

R. G. Norkus, J. Maurer, N. A. Schultz, J. D. Stuart, G. A. Robbins, and R. D. Bristol, “Field examination of ground water quality as an indicator of microbiological activity at gasoline contaminated sites,” Chemosphere 33(3), 421–436 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mawatari, M.

H. Kugisaki, M. Sonohata, M. Komine, K. Tsunoda, S. Someya, H. Honke, M. Mawatari, and T. Hotokebuchi, “Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 in patients following unilateral versus bilateral total knee arthroplasty,” J. Orthop. Sci. 14(4), 437–442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meijer, Y.

A. E. Flinterman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, Y. Meijer, E. van Hoffen, E. F. Knol, S. L. Hefle, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “Determination of no-observed-adverse-effect levels and eliciting doses in a representative group of peanut-sensitized children,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117(2), 448–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mercatello, A.

J. Y. Blay, S. Negrier, V. Combaret, S. Attali, E. Goillot, Y. Merrouche, A. Mercatello, A. Ravault, J. M. Tourani, and J. F. Moskovtchenko, “Serum level of interleukin 6 as a prognosis factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Res. 52(12), 3317–3322 (1992).
[PubMed]

Merlin, M.

D. Mokart, M. Merlin, A. Sannini, J. P. Brun, J. R. Delpero, G. Houvenaeghel, V. Moutardier, and J. L. Blache, “Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery,” Br. J. Anaesth. 94(6), 767–773 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merrouche, Y.

J. Y. Blay, S. Negrier, V. Combaret, S. Attali, E. Goillot, Y. Merrouche, A. Mercatello, A. Ravault, J. M. Tourani, and J. F. Moskovtchenko, “Serum level of interleukin 6 as a prognosis factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Res. 52(12), 3317–3322 (1992).
[PubMed]

Mokart, D.

D. Mokart, M. Merlin, A. Sannini, J. P. Brun, J. R. Delpero, G. Houvenaeghel, V. Moutardier, and J. L. Blache, “Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery,” Br. J. Anaesth. 94(6), 767–773 (2005).
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Moneret-Vautrin, D. A.

S. L. Taylor, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, M. Morisset, P. Dumont, B. C. Remington, and J. L. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: Risk characterization based upon diagnostic oral challenge of a series of 286 peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 48(3), 814–819 (2010).
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Moore, V.

J. Kai, A. Puntambekar, N. Santiago, S. H. Lee, D. W. Sehy, V. Moore, J. Han, and C. H. Ahn, “A novel microfluidic microplate as the next generation assay platform for enzyme linked immunoassays (ELISA),” Lab Chip 12(21), 4257–4262 (2012).
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Morisset, M.

S. L. Taylor, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, M. Morisset, P. Dumont, B. C. Remington, and J. L. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: Risk characterization based upon diagnostic oral challenge of a series of 286 peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 48(3), 814–819 (2010).
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Moskovtchenko, J. F.

J. Y. Blay, S. Negrier, V. Combaret, S. Attali, E. Goillot, Y. Merrouche, A. Mercatello, A. Ravault, J. M. Tourani, and J. F. Moskovtchenko, “Serum level of interleukin 6 as a prognosis factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Res. 52(12), 3317–3322 (1992).
[PubMed]

Moutardier, V.

D. Mokart, M. Merlin, A. Sannini, J. P. Brun, J. R. Delpero, G. Houvenaeghel, V. Moutardier, and J. L. Blache, “Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery,” Br. J. Anaesth. 94(6), 767–773 (2005).
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Muñoz-Furlong, A.

S. H. Sicherer, A. Muñoz-Furlong, J. H. Godbold, and H. A. Sampson, “US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 125(6), 1322–1326 (2010).
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Nagi, R.

Q. Wei, R. Nagi, K. Sadeghi, S. Feng, E. Yan, S. J. Ki, R. Caire, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1121–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Coskun, J. Wong, D. Khodadadi, R. Nagi, A. Tey, and A. Ozcan, “A personalized food allergen testing platform on a cellphone,” Lab Chip 13(4), 636–640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nath, P.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Negrier, S.

J. Y. Blay, S. Negrier, V. Combaret, S. Attali, E. Goillot, Y. Merrouche, A. Mercatello, A. Ravault, J. M. Tourani, and J. F. Moskovtchenko, “Serum level of interleukin 6 as a prognosis factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Res. 52(12), 3317–3322 (1992).
[PubMed]

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V. W.-S. Wong, J. Yu, A. S.-L. Cheng, G. L.-H. Wong, H.-Y. Chan, E. S.-H. Chu, E. K.-O. Ng, F. K.-L. Chan, J. J.-Y. Sung, and H. L.-Y. Chan, “High serum interleukin-6 level predicts future hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Int. J. Cancer 124(12), 2766–2770 (2009).
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Nordlee, J. A.

G. A. Zurzolo, K. J. Allen, S. L. Taylor, W. G. Shreffler, J. L. Baumert, M. L. Tang, L. C. Gurrin, M. L. Mathai, J. A. Nordlee, A. Dunngalvin, and J. O. B. Hourihane, “Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol,” Allergy Asthma Clin. Immunol. 9(1), 35 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norkus, R. G.

R. G. Norkus, J. Maurer, N. A. Schultz, J. D. Stuart, G. A. Robbins, and R. D. Bristol, “Field examination of ground water quality as an indicator of microbiological activity at gasoline contaminated sites,” Chemosphere 33(3), 421–436 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Connor, K.

J. Brown, L. Theis, L. Kerr, N. Zakhidova, K. O’Connor, M. Uthman, Z. M. Oden, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A hand-powered, portable, low-cost centrifuge for diagnosing anemia in low-resource settings,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85(2), 327–332 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oden, Z. M.

J. Brown, L. Theis, L. Kerr, N. Zakhidova, K. O’Connor, M. Uthman, Z. M. Oden, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A hand-powered, portable, low-cost centrifuge for diagnosing anemia in low-resource settings,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85(2), 327–332 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozcan, A.

Q. Wei, R. Nagi, K. Sadeghi, S. Feng, E. Yan, S. J. Ki, R. Caire, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1121–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Coskun, J. Wong, D. Khodadadi, R. Nagi, A. Tey, and A. Ozcan, “A personalized food allergen testing platform on a cellphone,” Lab Chip 13(4), 636–640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent Imaging of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses on a Smart Phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papautsky, I.

L. Shen, J. A. Hagen, and I. Papautsky, “Point-of-care colorimetric detection with a smartphone,” Lab Chip 12(21), 4240–4243 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pasmans, S. G.

A. E. Flinterman, E. van Hoffen, C. F. den Hartog Jager, S. Koppelman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, A. C. Knulst, and E. F. Knol, “Children with peanut allergy recognize predominantly Ara h2 and Ara h6, which remains stable over time,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 37(8), 1221–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Flinterman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, Y. Meijer, E. van Hoffen, E. F. Knol, S. L. Hefle, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “Determination of no-observed-adverse-effect levels and eliciting doses in a representative group of peanut-sensitized children,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117(2), 448–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Penninks, A. H.

M. Wensing, A. H. Penninks, S. L. Hefle, S. J. Koppelman, C. A. F. M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “The distribution of individual threshold doses eliciting allergic reactions in a population with peanut allergy,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110(6), 915–920 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Percival, M. D.

E. Cauchon, S. Liu, M. D. Percival, S. E. Rowland, D. Xu, C. Binkert, P. Strickner, and J.-P. Falgueyret, “Development of a homogeneous immunoassay for the detection of angiotensin I in plasma using AlphaLISA acceptor beads technology,” Anal. Biochem. 388(1), 134–139 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pomés, A.

A. Pomés, R. M. Helm, G. A. Bannon, A. W. Burks, A. Tsay, and M. D. Chapman, “Monitoring peanut allergen in food products by measuring Ara h 1,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111(3), 640–645 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poulsen, F.

F. Poulsen and K. B. Jensen, “A luminescent oxygen channeling immunoassay for the determination of insulin in human plasma,” J. Biomol. Screen. 12(2), 240–247 (2007).
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Preiss, R.

H. Knüpfer and R. Preiss, “Significance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in breast cancer (review),” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 102(2), 129–135 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pressler, B.

A. L. Litster, B. Pressler, A. Volpe, and E. Dubovi, “Accuracy of a point-of-care ELISA test kit for predicting the presence of protective canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus antibody concentrations in dogs,” Vet. J. 193(2), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puntambekar, A.

J. Kai, A. Puntambekar, N. Santiago, S. H. Lee, D. W. Sehy, V. Moore, J. Han, and C. H. Ahn, “A novel microfluidic microplate as the next generation assay platform for enzyme linked immunoassays (ELISA),” Lab Chip 12(21), 4257–4262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Putz, T.

A. Hobisch, I. E. Eder, T. Putz, W. Horninger, G. Bartsch, H. Klocker, and Z. Culig, “Interleukin-6 regulates prostate-specific protein expression in prostate carcinoma cells by activation of the androgen receptor,” Cancer Res. 58(20), 4640–4645 (1998).
[PubMed]

Qi, H.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent Imaging of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses on a Smart Phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ravault, A.

J. Y. Blay, S. Negrier, V. Combaret, S. Attali, E. Goillot, Y. Merrouche, A. Mercatello, A. Ravault, J. M. Tourani, and J. F. Moskovtchenko, “Serum level of interleukin 6 as a prognosis factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Res. 52(12), 3317–3322 (1992).
[PubMed]

Remington, B. C.

S. L. Taylor, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, M. Morisset, P. Dumont, B. C. Remington, and J. L. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: Risk characterization based upon diagnostic oral challenge of a series of 286 peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 48(3), 814–819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

J. Brown, L. Theis, L. Kerr, N. Zakhidova, K. O’Connor, M. Uthman, Z. M. Oden, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A hand-powered, portable, low-cost centrifuge for diagnosing anemia in low-resource settings,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85(2), 327–332 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robbins, G. A.

R. G. Norkus, J. Maurer, N. A. Schultz, J. D. Stuart, G. A. Robbins, and R. D. Bristol, “Field examination of ground water quality as an indicator of microbiological activity at gasoline contaminated sites,” Chemosphere 33(3), 421–436 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rowland, S. E.

E. Cauchon, S. Liu, M. D. Percival, S. E. Rowland, D. Xu, C. Binkert, P. Strickner, and J.-P. Falgueyret, “Development of a homogeneous immunoassay for the detection of angiotensin I in plasma using AlphaLISA acceptor beads technology,” Anal. Biochem. 388(1), 134–139 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rutkowska, M.

A. M. Szczepanik, L. Scislo, T. Scully, E. Walewska, M. Siedlar, P. Kolodziejczyk, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska, A. Galas, A. Czupryna, and J. Kulig, “IL-6 serum levels predict postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer patients,” Gastric Cancer 14(3), 266–273 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadeghi, K.

Q. Wei, R. Nagi, K. Sadeghi, S. Feng, E. Yan, S. J. Ki, R. Caire, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1121–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, H. A.

S. H. Sicherer, A. Muñoz-Furlong, J. H. Godbold, and H. A. Sampson, “US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 125(6), 1322–1326 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Sicherer and H. A. Sampson, “Peanut allergy: emerging concepts and approaches for an apparent epidemic,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 120(3), 491–503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sannini, A.

D. Mokart, M. Merlin, A. Sannini, J. P. Brun, J. R. Delpero, G. Houvenaeghel, V. Moutardier, and J. L. Blache, “Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery,” Br. J. Anaesth. 94(6), 767–773 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santiago, N.

J. Kai, A. Puntambekar, N. Santiago, S. H. Lee, D. W. Sehy, V. Moore, J. Han, and C. H. Ahn, “A novel microfluidic microplate as the next generation assay platform for enzyme linked immunoassays (ELISA),” Lab Chip 12(21), 4257–4262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultz, N. A.

R. G. Norkus, J. Maurer, N. A. Schultz, J. D. Stuart, G. A. Robbins, and R. D. Bristol, “Field examination of ground water quality as an indicator of microbiological activity at gasoline contaminated sites,” Chemosphere 33(3), 421–436 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scislo, L.

A. M. Szczepanik, L. Scislo, T. Scully, E. Walewska, M. Siedlar, P. Kolodziejczyk, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska, A. Galas, A. Czupryna, and J. Kulig, “IL-6 serum levels predict postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer patients,” Gastric Cancer 14(3), 266–273 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scully, T.

A. M. Szczepanik, L. Scislo, T. Scully, E. Walewska, M. Siedlar, P. Kolodziejczyk, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska, A. Galas, A. Czupryna, and J. Kulig, “IL-6 serum levels predict postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer patients,” Gastric Cancer 14(3), 266–273 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sehy, D. W.

J. Kai, A. Puntambekar, N. Santiago, S. H. Lee, D. W. Sehy, V. Moore, J. Han, and C. H. Ahn, “A novel microfluidic microplate as the next generation assay platform for enzyme linked immunoassays (ELISA),” Lab Chip 12(21), 4257–4262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheffield, D.

S. L. Taylor, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, M. Morisset, P. Dumont, B. C. Remington, and J. L. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: Risk characterization based upon diagnostic oral challenge of a series of 286 peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 48(3), 814–819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Taylor, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, J. Kabourek, and J. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: risk characterization based upon published results from challenges of peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 47(6), 1198–1204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, L.

L. Shen, J. A. Hagen, and I. Papautsky, “Point-of-care colorimetric detection with a smartphone,” Lab Chip 12(21), 4240–4243 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shevkoplyas, S. S.

A. P. Wong, M. Gupta, S. S. Shevkoplyas, and G. M. Whitesides, “Egg beater as centrifuge: isolating human blood plasma from whole blood in resource-poor settings,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2032–2037 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shreffler, W. G.

G. A. Zurzolo, K. J. Allen, S. L. Taylor, W. G. Shreffler, J. L. Baumert, M. L. Tang, L. C. Gurrin, M. L. Mathai, J. A. Nordlee, A. Dunngalvin, and J. O. B. Hourihane, “Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol,” Allergy Asthma Clin. Immunol. 9(1), 35 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sicherer, S. H.

S. H. Sicherer, A. Muñoz-Furlong, J. H. Godbold, and H. A. Sampson, “US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 125(6), 1322–1326 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Sicherer and H. A. Sampson, “Peanut allergy: emerging concepts and approaches for an apparent epidemic,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 120(3), 491–503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siedlar, M.

A. M. Szczepanik, L. Scislo, T. Scully, E. Walewska, M. Siedlar, P. Kolodziejczyk, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska, A. Galas, A. Czupryna, and J. Kulig, “IL-6 serum levels predict postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer patients,” Gastric Cancer 14(3), 266–273 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Someya, S.

H. Kugisaki, M. Sonohata, M. Komine, K. Tsunoda, S. Someya, H. Honke, M. Mawatari, and T. Hotokebuchi, “Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 in patients following unilateral versus bilateral total knee arthroplasty,” J. Orthop. Sci. 14(4), 437–442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonohata, M.

H. Kugisaki, M. Sonohata, M. Komine, K. Tsunoda, S. Someya, H. Honke, M. Mawatari, and T. Hotokebuchi, “Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 in patients following unilateral versus bilateral total knee arthroplasty,” J. Orthop. Sci. 14(4), 437–442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strickner, P.

E. Cauchon, S. Liu, M. D. Percival, S. E. Rowland, D. Xu, C. Binkert, P. Strickner, and J.-P. Falgueyret, “Development of a homogeneous immunoassay for the detection of angiotensin I in plasma using AlphaLISA acceptor beads technology,” Anal. Biochem. 388(1), 134–139 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strobel, S.

M. Enders, U. Bartelt, F. Knotek, K. Bunn, S. Strobel, K. Dietz, and G. Enders, “Performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG assay in the diagnostic laboratory setting for assessment of immune status,” Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 20(3), 420–426 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stuart, J. D.

R. G. Norkus, J. Maurer, N. A. Schultz, J. D. Stuart, G. A. Robbins, and R. D. Bristol, “Field examination of ground water quality as an indicator of microbiological activity at gasoline contaminated sites,” Chemosphere 33(3), 421–436 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suebsing, R.

R. Suebsing, J. Kampeera, B. Tookdee, B. Withyachumnarnkul, W. Turner, and W. Kiatpathomchai, “Evaluation of colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for visual detection of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae in tilapia,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 57(4), 317–324 (2013).
[PubMed]

Sun, R.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent Imaging of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses on a Smart Phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, J. J.-Y.

V. W.-S. Wong, J. Yu, A. S.-L. Cheng, G. L.-H. Wong, H.-Y. Chan, E. S.-H. Chu, E. K.-O. Ng, F. K.-L. Chan, J. J.-Y. Sung, and H. L.-Y. Chan, “High serum interleukin-6 level predicts future hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Int. J. Cancer 124(12), 2766–2770 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Switz, N. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szczepanik, A. M.

A. M. Szczepanik, L. Scislo, T. Scully, E. Walewska, M. Siedlar, P. Kolodziejczyk, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska, A. Galas, A. Czupryna, and J. Kulig, “IL-6 serum levels predict postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer patients,” Gastric Cancer 14(3), 266–273 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, M. L.

G. A. Zurzolo, K. J. Allen, S. L. Taylor, W. G. Shreffler, J. L. Baumert, M. L. Tang, L. C. Gurrin, M. L. Mathai, J. A. Nordlee, A. Dunngalvin, and J. O. B. Hourihane, “Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol,” Allergy Asthma Clin. Immunol. 9(1), 35 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, S. L.

G. A. Zurzolo, K. J. Allen, S. L. Taylor, W. G. Shreffler, J. L. Baumert, M. L. Tang, L. C. Gurrin, M. L. Mathai, J. A. Nordlee, A. Dunngalvin, and J. O. B. Hourihane, “Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol,” Allergy Asthma Clin. Immunol. 9(1), 35 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Taylor, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, M. Morisset, P. Dumont, B. C. Remington, and J. L. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: Risk characterization based upon diagnostic oral challenge of a series of 286 peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 48(3), 814–819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Taylor, R. W. Crevel, D. Sheffield, J. Kabourek, and J. Baumert, “Threshold dose for peanut: risk characterization based upon published results from challenges of peanut-allergic individuals,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 47(6), 1198–1204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tey, A.

A. F. Coskun, J. Wong, D. Khodadadi, R. Nagi, A. Tey, and A. Ozcan, “A personalized food allergen testing platform on a cellphone,” Lab Chip 13(4), 636–640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theis, L.

J. Brown, L. Theis, L. Kerr, N. Zakhidova, K. O’Connor, M. Uthman, Z. M. Oden, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A hand-powered, portable, low-cost centrifuge for diagnosing anemia in low-resource settings,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85(2), 327–332 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tookdee, B.

R. Suebsing, J. Kampeera, B. Tookdee, B. Withyachumnarnkul, W. Turner, and W. Kiatpathomchai, “Evaluation of colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for visual detection of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae in tilapia,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 57(4), 317–324 (2013).
[PubMed]

Tourani, J. M.

J. Y. Blay, S. Negrier, V. Combaret, S. Attali, E. Goillot, Y. Merrouche, A. Mercatello, A. Ravault, J. M. Tourani, and J. F. Moskovtchenko, “Serum level of interleukin 6 as a prognosis factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Res. 52(12), 3317–3322 (1992).
[PubMed]

Tsay, A.

A. Pomés, R. M. Helm, G. A. Bannon, A. W. Burks, A. Tsay, and M. D. Chapman, “Monitoring peanut allergen in food products by measuring Ara h 1,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111(3), 640–645 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, D.

Q. Wei, R. Nagi, K. Sadeghi, S. Feng, E. Yan, S. J. Ki, R. Caire, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1121–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent Imaging of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses on a Smart Phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsunoda, K.

H. Kugisaki, M. Sonohata, M. Komine, K. Tsunoda, S. Someya, H. Honke, M. Mawatari, and T. Hotokebuchi, “Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 in patients following unilateral versus bilateral total knee arthroplasty,” J. Orthop. Sci. 14(4), 437–442 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, W.

R. Suebsing, J. Kampeera, B. Tookdee, B. Withyachumnarnkul, W. Turner, and W. Kiatpathomchai, “Evaluation of colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for visual detection of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae in tilapia,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 57(4), 317–324 (2013).
[PubMed]

Uthman, M.

J. Brown, L. Theis, L. Kerr, N. Zakhidova, K. O’Connor, M. Uthman, Z. M. Oden, and R. Richards-Kortum, “A hand-powered, portable, low-cost centrifuge for diagnosing anemia in low-resource settings,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85(2), 327–332 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Hoffen, E.

A. E. Flinterman, E. van Hoffen, C. F. den Hartog Jager, S. Koppelman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, A. C. Knulst, and E. F. Knol, “Children with peanut allergy recognize predominantly Ara h2 and Ara h6, which remains stable over time,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 37(8), 1221–1228 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Flinterman, S. G. Pasmans, M. O. Hoekstra, Y. Meijer, E. van Hoffen, E. F. Knol, S. L. Hefle, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “Determination of no-observed-adverse-effect levels and eliciting doses in a representative group of peanut-sensitized children,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117(2), 448–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volpe, A.

A. L. Litster, B. Pressler, A. Volpe, and E. Dubovi, “Accuracy of a point-of-care ELISA test kit for predicting the presence of protective canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus antibody concentrations in dogs,” Vet. J. 193(2), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walewska, E.

A. M. Szczepanik, L. Scislo, T. Scully, E. Walewska, M. Siedlar, P. Kolodziejczyk, M. Lenart, M. Rutkowska, A. Galas, A. Czupryna, and J. Kulig, “IL-6 serum levels predict postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer patients,” Gastric Cancer 14(3), 266–273 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, Z.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent Imaging of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses on a Smart Phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, Q.

Q. Wei, R. Nagi, K. Sadeghi, S. Feng, E. Yan, S. J. Ki, R. Caire, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1121–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent Imaging of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses on a Smart Phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wensing, M.

M. Wensing, A. H. Penninks, S. L. Hefle, S. J. Koppelman, C. A. F. M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and A. C. Knulst, “The distribution of individual threshold doses eliciting allergic reactions in a population with peanut allergy,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110(6), 915–920 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

A. P. Wong, M. Gupta, S. S. Shevkoplyas, and G. M. Whitesides, “Egg beater as centrifuge: isolating human blood plasma from whole blood in resource-poor settings,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2032–2037 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withyachumnarnkul, B.

R. Suebsing, J. Kampeera, B. Tookdee, B. Withyachumnarnkul, W. Turner, and W. Kiatpathomchai, “Evaluation of colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for visual detection of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae in tilapia,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 57(4), 317–324 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wong, A. P.

A. P. Wong, M. Gupta, S. S. Shevkoplyas, and G. M. Whitesides, “Egg beater as centrifuge: isolating human blood plasma from whole blood in resource-poor settings,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2032–2037 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, G. L.-H.

V. W.-S. Wong, J. Yu, A. S.-L. Cheng, G. L.-H. Wong, H.-Y. Chan, E. S.-H. Chu, E. K.-O. Ng, F. K.-L. Chan, J. J.-Y. Sung, and H. L.-Y. Chan, “High serum interleukin-6 level predicts future hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Int. J. Cancer 124(12), 2766–2770 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, J.

A. F. Coskun, J. Wong, D. Khodadadi, R. Nagi, A. Tey, and A. Ozcan, “A personalized food allergen testing platform on a cellphone,” Lab Chip 13(4), 636–640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, V. W.-S.

V. W.-S. Wong, J. Yu, A. S.-L. Cheng, G. L.-H. Wong, H.-Y. Chan, E. S.-H. Chu, E. K.-O. Ng, F. K.-L. Chan, J. J.-Y. Sung, and H. L.-Y. Chan, “High serum interleukin-6 level predicts future hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Int. J. Cancer 124(12), 2766–2770 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, T.-T.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T.-T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent Imaging of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses on a Smart Phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D.

E. Cauchon, S. Liu, M. D. Percival, S. E. Rowland, D. Xu, C. Binkert, P. Strickner, and J.-P. Falgueyret, “Development of a homogeneous immunoassay for the detection of angiotensin I in plasma using AlphaLISA acceptor beads technology,” Anal. Biochem. 388(1), 134–139 (2009).
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Yan, E.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the smartphone-based absorption detection system. A broadband light source illuminates a cuvette containing a sample solution (food coloring dye, biological molecule). The solution absorbs specific wavelengths in the visible range. The transmitted light emerges from the cuvette passes through a 0.1 mm diameter pinhole and enters the isolated optical cradle. The light is then collimated, focused into a line, and passed through a diffraction grating before being collected by the on-board CMOS sensor of the smartphone.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raw images of broadband (A), and laser illumination (B) collected on the smartphone system. C. Spectra from the two lasers and a broadband light source measured by a spectrometer D. The processed spectra of the lasers and broadband spectrum from the smartphone used for pixel-wavelength calibration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of Wavelength-Normalized Spectra Generated from Camera Images with Peanut Allergen Ara h 1. Five independent smartphone images were averaged, then normalized to a blank. Using lasers of known wavelength, images were converted to wavelength-dependent spectral absorbances. Five concentrations of peanut allergen Ara h 1 are present to illustrate the difference in absorption characteristics. The dashed line at λ = 450 nm represents the single wavelength at which conventional ELISA measurements are taken using a microplate reader.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral analysis of food coloring dyes. A). Red, green, and blue food coloring dyes were diluted 100 x-10,000 x and measured using the smartphone instrument. Dark bands in the characteristic ‘rainbow’ band correspond to wavelengths of light absorbed by the dyes, and B) are easily identifiable once converted to one-dimensional vectors of spectral intensity (bottom).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Concentration Dependence of Human IL-6. Samples were measured by an ELISA microplate reader, and then transferred to cuvettes to be measured by the smartphone instrument. Concentrations ranging from 2.0 pg/mL to 125 pg/mL were measured (n = 2) along with a 0 pg/mL control (n = 3). Calculations of the data collected by the smartphone were completed both at 450 nm, so as to be directly comparable to conventional ELISA data, and as the integrative absorption from 410 <λ< 500 nm. Limits of detection were calculated as three standard deviations above the 0 concentration measurement average.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Concentration Dependence of Ara h 1. Samples were measured by an ELISA microplate reader, and then transferred to cuvettes to be measured by the smartphone instrument. Concentrations ranging from 2.5 ppm to 20 ppm were measured along with a 0 ppm control (n = 3). Calculations of the data collected by the smartphone were completed both at 450 nm, so as to be directly comparable to the output of the ELISA microplate reader data, and as the integrative absorption from 410 to 500 nm. Limits of detection were calculated as three standard deviations above the 0 concentration measurement average.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Quantification of Ara h 1 in Cookie Samples from Two Local Bakeries. Sample cookies were collected and contained separately in plastic to avoid cross-contamination. Samples were measured, ground, and proteins were extracted following manufacturer protocol. Vanilla Oreo® samples (n = 3) and Schnuck’s cookie samples (n = 2) were assayed with data in Fig. 6, and Insomnia cookies were assayed with data from a similar experiment (data not shown). As the cookies were run on two different assays, only the higher LOD is shown. * Peanut Butter cookies had concentrations of Ara h 1 higher than the maximum assayed standard concentration, so significant dilution would be required for accurate quantification.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Bland-Altman Analysis of smartphone instrument with traditional microplate reader.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of detection limits of the Ara h 1 ELISA microplate reader, smartphone absorption at λ = 450nm, and smartphone integrative absorption.

Equations (1)

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F(x)=D+ AD 1+ ( x C ) B

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