Abstract

Two-photon spectral resolved imaging was used to image fresh human biopsies of colon tissue and to characterize healthy colon mucosa, adenomatous polyp and adenocarcinoma by means of a morpho-functional analysis. Morphological examination, performed using endogenous tissue fluorescence, discriminated adenomatous and adenocarcinoma tissues from normal mucosa in terms of cellular asymmetry and nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. Good agreement was found between multiphoton images and histological examination performed on the same samples. Further characterization, performed by means of spectral-resolved analysis of NADH and FAD fluorescence, demonstrated an altered metabolic activity in both adenomatous and adenocarcinoma tissues compared to healthy mucosa. This morpho-functional approach may represent a powerful method to be used in combination with endoscopy for in vivo optical diagnosis of colon cancer and may be extended to other tissues.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, “United States Cancer Statistics: 1999–2007 Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report,” Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Cancer Institute (Atlanta, GA, 2010), http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/uscs/ .
  2. P. A. Newcomb, R. G. Norfleet, B. E. Storer, T. S. Surawicz, and P. M. Marcus, “Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.84(20), 1572–1575 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Dekker and P. Fockens, “New imaging techniques at colonoscopy: tissue spectroscopy and narrow band imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.15(4), 703–714 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, S. Bajaj, and V. Backman, “Colonoscopy and optical biopsy: bridging technological advances to clinical practice,” Gastroenterology140(7), 1863–1867 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Gahlen, J. Stern, J. Pressmar, J. Böhm, R. Holle, and C. Herfarth, “Local 5-aminolevulinic acid application for laser light-induced fluorescence diagnosis of early staged colon cancer in rats,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(3), 302–307 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, K. Degitz, E. G. Hahn, and D. Schwab, “Early detection of premalignant conditions in the colon by fluorescence endoscopy using local sensitization with hexaminolevulinate,” Endoscopy40(2), 106–109 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, T. Haider, and D. Schwab, “Hexaminolevulinate-induced fluorescence colonoscopy versus white light endoscopy for diagnosis of neoplastic lesions in the colon,” Endoscopy42(1), 28–33 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. G. Lim, M. Bajbouj, S. von Delius, and A. Meining, “Fluorescein-enhanced autofluorescence imaging for accurate differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a feasibility study,” Endoscopy43(5), 419–424 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, S. Doniga, D. Murawa, M. Strik, and M. Hünerbein, “Ultrastaging of colon cancer by sentinel node biopsy using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 319–324 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel peptide probe,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17384 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(2), 283–290 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. R. Kessler, “Autofluorescence colonoscopy: a green light on the long road to “real-time” histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(2), 291–293 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Imaizumi, Y. Harada, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Yamaoka, H. Konishi, P. Dai, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Dual-wavelength excitation of mucosal autofluorescence for precise detection of diminutive colonic adenomas,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(1), 110–117 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067005 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo identification of hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps in the colon,” Biosens. Bioelectron.30(1), 118–122 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. J. Waldner, S. Wirtz, C. Neufert, C. Becker, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy and narrow-band imaging-aided endoscopy for in vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer in mice,” Nat. Protoc.6(9), 1471–1481 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Humphris, D. Swartz, B. J. Egan, and R. W. L. Leong, “Status of confocal laser endomicroscopy in gastrointestinal disease,” Trop. Gastroenterol.33(1), 9–20 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “Optical biopsy of in vivo human skin: multi-photon excitation microscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci.13(3), 196–203 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. T. C. So, H. Kim, and I. E. Kochevar, “Two-photon deep tissue ex vivo imaging of mouse dermal and subcutaneous structures,” Opt. Express3(9), 339–350 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. C. Malone, A. F. Hood, T. Conley, J. Nürnberger, L. A. Baldridge, J. L. Clendenon, K. W. Dunn, and C. L. Phillips, “Three-dimensional imaging of human skin and mucosa by two-photon laser scanning microscopy,” J. Cutan. Pathol.29(8), 453–458 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. K. Koenig and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 432–439 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.6(1), 95–101 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. Zhuo, J. Yan, G. Chen, J. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Lu, X. Zhu, X. Jiang, and S. Xie, “Label-free monitoring of colonic cancer progression using multiphoton microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(3), 615–619 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. O. Warburg, The Metabolism of Tumors (Constabel, London, 1930).
  33. D. K. Bird, L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells via multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of the coenzyme NADH,” Cancer Res.65(19), 8766–8773 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. R. Cicchi, A. Crisci, A. Cosci, G. Nesi, D. Kapsokalyvas, S. Giancane, M. Carini, and F. S. Pavone, “Time- and spectral-resolved two-photon imaging of healthy bladder mucosa and carcinoma in situ,” Opt. Express18(4), 3840–3849 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. R. Cicchi and F. Saverio Pavone, “Non-linear fluorescence lifetime imaging of biological tissues,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2687–2697 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37962 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, D. Stampouli, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In-vivo tissue imaging using a compact mobile non-linear microscope,” Proc. SPIE7569, 756930, 756930–756939 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  39. L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. C. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. R. Cicchi, D. Massi, S. Sestini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Multidimensional non-linear laser imaging of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Opt. Express15(16), 10135–10148 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. Paoli, M. Smedh, A. M. Wennberg, and M. B. Ericson, “Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy on non-melanoma skin cancer: morphologic features for future non-invasive diagnostics,” J. Invest. Dermatol.128(5), 1248–1255 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, S. Doniga, D. Murawa, M. Strik, and M. Hünerbein, “Ultrastaging of colon cancer by sentinel node biopsy using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 319–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Imaizumi, Y. Harada, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Yamaoka, H. Konishi, P. Dai, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Dual-wavelength excitation of mucosal autofluorescence for precise detection of diminutive colonic adenomas,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(1), 110–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Humphris, D. Swartz, B. J. Egan, and R. W. L. Leong, “Status of confocal laser endomicroscopy in gastrointestinal disease,” Trop. Gastroenterol.33(1), 9–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37962 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (10)

R. Cicchi and F. Saverio Pavone, “Non-linear fluorescence lifetime imaging of biological tissues,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2687–2697 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhuo, J. Yan, G. Chen, J. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Lu, X. Zhu, X. Jiang, and S. Xie, “Label-free monitoring of colonic cancer progression using multiphoton microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(3), 615–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo identification of hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps in the colon,” Biosens. Bioelectron.30(1), 118–122 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Waldner, S. Wirtz, C. Neufert, C. Becker, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy and narrow-band imaging-aided endoscopy for in vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer in mice,” Nat. Protoc.6(9), 1471–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel peptide probe,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, S. Bajaj, and V. Backman, “Colonoscopy and optical biopsy: bridging technological advances to clinical practice,” Gastroenterology140(7), 1863–1867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Lim, M. Bajbouj, S. von Delius, and A. Meining, “Fluorescein-enhanced autofluorescence imaging for accurate differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a feasibility study,” Endoscopy43(5), 419–424 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, T. Haider, and D. Schwab, “Hexaminolevulinate-induced fluorescence colonoscopy versus white light endoscopy for diagnosis of neoplastic lesions in the colon,” Endoscopy42(1), 28–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, A. Crisci, A. Cosci, G. Nesi, D. Kapsokalyvas, S. Giancane, M. Carini, and F. S. Pavone, “Time- and spectral-resolved two-photon imaging of healthy bladder mucosa and carcinoma in situ,” Opt. Express18(4), 3840–3849 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, D. Stampouli, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In-vivo tissue imaging using a compact mobile non-linear microscope,” Proc. SPIE7569, 756930, 756930–756939 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, K. Degitz, E. G. Hahn, and D. Schwab, “Early detection of premalignant conditions in the colon by fluorescence endoscopy using local sensitization with hexaminolevulinate,” Endoscopy40(2), 106–109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(2), 283–290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Kessler, “Autofluorescence colonoscopy: a green light on the long road to “real-time” histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(2), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Paoli, M. Smedh, A. M. Wennberg, and M. B. Ericson, “Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy on non-melanoma skin cancer: morphologic features for future non-invasive diagnostics,” J. Invest. Dermatol.128(5), 1248–1255 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

R. Cicchi, D. Massi, S. Sestini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Multidimensional non-linear laser imaging of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Opt. Express15(16), 10135–10148 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. C. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Bird, L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells via multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of the coenzyme NADH,” Cancer Res.65(19), 8766–8773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dekker and P. Fockens, “New imaging techniques at colonoscopy: tissue spectroscopy and narrow band imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.15(4), 703–714 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Koenig and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 432–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. C. Malone, A. F. Hood, T. Conley, J. Nürnberger, L. A. Baldridge, J. L. Clendenon, K. W. Dunn, and C. L. Phillips, “Three-dimensional imaging of human skin and mucosa by two-photon laser scanning microscopy,” J. Cutan. Pathol.29(8), 453–458 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. Gahlen, J. Stern, J. Pressmar, J. Böhm, R. Holle, and C. Herfarth, “Local 5-aminolevulinic acid application for laser light-induced fluorescence diagnosis of early staged colon cancer in rats,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(3), 302–307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “Optical biopsy of in vivo human skin: multi-photon excitation microscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci.13(3), 196–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. T. C. So, H. Kim, and I. E. Kochevar, “Two-photon deep tissue ex vivo imaging of mouse dermal and subcutaneous structures,” Opt. Express3(9), 339–350 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

P. A. Newcomb, R. G. Norfleet, B. E. Storer, T. S. Surawicz, and P. M. Marcus, “Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.84(20), 1572–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnen, D. J.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aslanian, H.

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, S. Bajaj, and V. Backman, “Colonoscopy and optical biopsy: bridging technological advances to clinical practice,” Gastroenterology140(7), 1863–1867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajaj, S.

H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, S. Bajaj, and V. Backman, “Colonoscopy and optical biopsy: bridging technological advances to clinical practice,” Gastroenterology140(7), 1863–1867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajbouj, M.

L. G. Lim, M. Bajbouj, S. von Delius, and A. Meining, “Fluorescein-enhanced autofluorescence imaging for accurate differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a feasibility study,” Endoscopy43(5), 419–424 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldridge, L. A.

J. C. Malone, A. F. Hood, T. Conley, J. Nürnberger, L. A. Baldridge, J. L. Clendenon, K. W. Dunn, and C. L. Phillips, “Three-dimensional imaging of human skin and mucosa by two-photon laser scanning microscopy,” J. Cutan. Pathol.29(8), 453–458 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, C.

M. J. Waldner, S. Wirtz, C. Neufert, C. Becker, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy and narrow-band imaging-aided endoscopy for in vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer in mice,” Nat. Protoc.6(9), 1471–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bird, D. K.

D. K. Bird, L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells via multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of the coenzyme NADH,” Cancer Res.65(19), 8766–8773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Böhm, J.

J. Gahlen, J. Stern, J. Pressmar, J. Böhm, R. Holle, and C. Herfarth, “Local 5-aminolevulinic acid application for laser light-induced fluorescence diagnosis of early staged colon cancer in rats,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(3), 302–307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bond, J. H.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, C. M.

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byeon, J. S.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carini, M.

Carli, P.

Chejfec, G.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

Chen, J.

Christie, R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cicchi, R.

R. Cicchi and F. Saverio Pavone, “Non-linear fluorescence lifetime imaging of biological tissues,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2687–2697 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, D. Stampouli, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In-vivo tissue imaging using a compact mobile non-linear microscope,” Proc. SPIE7569, 756930, 756930–756939 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Cicchi, A. Crisci, A. Cosci, G. Nesi, D. Kapsokalyvas, S. Giancane, M. Carini, and F. S. Pavone, “Time- and spectral-resolved two-photon imaging of healthy bladder mucosa and carcinoma in situ,” Opt. Express18(4), 3840–3849 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, D. Massi, S. Sestini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Multidimensional non-linear laser imaging of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Opt. Express15(16), 10135–10148 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clendenon, J. L.

J. C. Malone, A. F. Hood, T. Conley, J. Nürnberger, L. A. Baldridge, J. L. Clendenon, K. W. Dunn, and C. L. Phillips, “Three-dimensional imaging of human skin and mucosa by two-photon laser scanning microscopy,” J. Cutan. Pathol.29(8), 453–458 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, J. F.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conley, T.

J. C. Malone, A. F. Hood, T. Conley, J. Nürnberger, L. A. Baldridge, J. L. Clendenon, K. W. Dunn, and C. L. Phillips, “Three-dimensional imaging of human skin and mucosa by two-photon laser scanning microscopy,” J. Cutan. Pathol.29(8), 453–458 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corless, C. L.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cosci, A.

Crisci, A.

Dai, P.

K. Imaizumi, Y. Harada, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Yamaoka, H. Konishi, P. Dai, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Dual-wavelength excitation of mucosal autofluorescence for precise detection of diminutive colonic adenomas,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(1), 110–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Giorgi, V.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, D. Stampouli, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In-vivo tissue imaging using a compact mobile non-linear microscope,” Proc. SPIE7569, 756930, 756930–756939 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Cicchi, D. Massi, S. Sestini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Multidimensional non-linear laser imaging of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Opt. Express15(16), 10135–10148 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degitz, K.

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, K. Degitz, E. G. Hahn, and D. Schwab, “Early detection of premalignant conditions in the colon by fluorescence endoscopy using local sensitization with hexaminolevulinate,” Endoscopy40(2), 106–109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekker, E.

E. Dekker and P. Fockens, “New imaging techniques at colonoscopy: tissue spectroscopy and narrow band imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.15(4), 703–714 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Do, E. J.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doniga, S.

C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, S. Doniga, D. Murawa, M. Strik, and M. Hünerbein, “Ultrastaging of colon cancer by sentinel node biopsy using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 319–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, K. W.

J. C. Malone, A. F. Hood, T. Conley, J. Nürnberger, L. A. Baldridge, J. L. Clendenon, K. W. Dunn, and C. L. Phillips, “Three-dimensional imaging of human skin and mucosa by two-photon laser scanning microscopy,” J. Cutan. Pathol.29(8), 453–458 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durbin, T. E.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egan, B. J.

J. Humphris, D. Swartz, B. J. Egan, and R. W. L. Leong, “Status of confocal laser endomicroscopy in gastrointestinal disease,” Trop. Gastroenterol.33(1), 9–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eickhoff, J.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K. W.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Bird, L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells via multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of the coenzyme NADH,” Cancer Res.65(19), 8766–8773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ericson, M. B.

J. Paoli, M. Smedh, A. M. Wennberg, and M. B. Ericson, “Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy on non-melanoma skin cancer: morphologic features for future non-invasive diagnostics,” J. Invest. Dermatol.128(5), 1248–1255 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewing, S. L.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fass, R.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fearon, E. R.

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel peptide probe,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel peptide probe,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fennerty, M. B.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fockens, P.

E. Dekker and P. Fockens, “New imaging techniques at colonoscopy: tissue spectroscopy and narrow band imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.15(4), 703–714 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37962 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujiya, M.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gahlen, J.

J. Gahlen, J. Stern, J. Pressmar, J. Böhm, R. Holle, and C. Herfarth, “Local 5-aminolevulinic acid application for laser light-induced fluorescence diagnosis of early staged colon cancer in rats,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(3), 302–307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garewal, H.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaustad, A.

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel peptide probe,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giancane, S.

Gillen, D.

A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(2), 283–290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, M. J.

H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, S. Bajaj, and V. Backman, “Colonoscopy and optical biopsy: bridging technological advances to clinical practice,” Gastroenterology140(7), 1863–1867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “Optical biopsy of in vivo human skin: multi-photon excitation microscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci.13(3), 196–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, E. G.

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, K. Degitz, E. G. Hahn, and D. Schwab, “Early detection of premalignant conditions in the colon by fluorescence endoscopy using local sensitization with hexaminolevulinate,” Endoscopy40(2), 106–109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haider, T.

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, T. Haider, and D. Schwab, “Hexaminolevulinate-induced fluorescence colonoscopy versus white light endoscopy for diagnosis of neoplastic lesions in the colon,” Endoscopy42(1), 28–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hancewicz, T. M.

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. C. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harada, Y.

K. Imaizumi, Y. Harada, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Yamaoka, H. Konishi, P. Dai, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Dual-wavelength excitation of mucosal autofluorescence for precise detection of diminutive colonic adenomas,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(1), 110–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harford, W. V.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herfarth, C.

J. Gahlen, J. Stern, J. Pressmar, J. Böhm, R. Holle, and C. Herfarth, “Local 5-aminolevulinic acid application for laser light-induced fluorescence diagnosis of early staged colon cancer in rats,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(3), 302–307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirche, C.

C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, S. Doniga, D. Murawa, M. Strik, and M. Hünerbein, “Ultrastaging of colon cancer by sentinel node biopsy using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 319–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holle, R.

J. Gahlen, J. Stern, J. Pressmar, J. Böhm, R. Holle, and C. Herfarth, “Local 5-aminolevulinic acid application for laser light-induced fluorescence diagnosis of early staged colon cancer in rats,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(3), 302–307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hood, A. F.

J. C. Malone, A. F. Hood, T. Conley, J. Nürnberger, L. A. Baldridge, J. L. Clendenon, K. W. Dunn, and C. L. Phillips, “Three-dimensional imaging of human skin and mucosa by two-photon laser scanning microscopy,” J. Cutan. Pathol.29(8), 453–458 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37962 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo identification of hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps in the colon,” Biosens. Bioelectron.30(1), 118–122 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humphris, J.

J. Humphris, D. Swartz, B. J. Egan, and R. W. L. Leong, “Status of confocal laser endomicroscopy in gastrointestinal disease,” Trop. Gastroenterol.33(1), 9–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hünerbein, M.

C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, S. Doniga, D. Murawa, M. Strik, and M. Hünerbein, “Ultrastaging of colon cancer by sentinel node biopsy using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 319–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyman, B. T.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imaizumi, K.

K. Imaizumi, Y. Harada, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Yamaoka, H. Konishi, P. Dai, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Dual-wavelength excitation of mucosal autofluorescence for precise detection of diminutive colonic adenomas,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(1), 110–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inaba, Y.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, C.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itabashi, K.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, T.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, J. T.

A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(2), 283–290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

Johnston, T. K.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, B. P.

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel peptide probe,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, P. D.

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. C. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapsokalyvas, D.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, D. Stampouli, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In-vivo tissue imaging using a compact mobile non-linear microscope,” Proc. SPIE7569, 756930, 756930–756939 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Cicchi, A. Crisci, A. Cosci, G. Nesi, D. Kapsokalyvas, S. Giancane, M. Carini, and F. S. Pavone, “Time- and spectral-resolved two-photon imaging of healthy bladder mucosa and carcinoma in situ,” Opt. Express18(4), 3840–3849 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kashima, S.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kashiwa, A.

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kastner, C.

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, T. Haider, and D. Schwab, “Hexaminolevulinate-induced fluorescence colonoscopy versus white light endoscopy for diagnosis of neoplastic lesions in the colon,” Endoscopy42(1), 28–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, K. Degitz, E. G. Hahn, and D. Schwab, “Early detection of premalignant conditions in the colon by fluorescence endoscopy using local sensitization with hexaminolevulinate,” Endoscopy40(2), 106–109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keely, P. J.

D. K. Bird, L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells via multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of the coenzyme NADH,” Cancer Res.65(19), 8766–8773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kessler, W. R.

W. R. Kessler, “Autofluorescence colonoscopy: a green light on the long road to “real-time” histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(2), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Kim, I. W.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. H.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. J.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. J.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneif, S.

C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, S. Doniga, D. Murawa, M. Strik, and M. Hünerbein, “Ultrastaging of colon cancer by sentinel node biopsy using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 319–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobat, D.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kochevar, I. E.

Koenig, K.

K. Koenig and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 432–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohgo, Y.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konishi, H.

K. Imaizumi, Y. Harada, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Yamaoka, H. Konishi, P. Dai, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Dual-wavelength excitation of mucosal autofluorescence for precise detection of diminutive colonic adenomas,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(1), 110–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, I. C.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laiho, L. H.

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. C. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. G.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leong, R. W. L.

J. Humphris, D. Swartz, B. J. Egan, and R. W. L. Leong, “Status of confocal laser endomicroscopy in gastrointestinal disease,” Trop. Gastroenterol.33(1), 9–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieberman, D. A.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, L. G.

L. G. Lim, M. Bajbouj, S. von Delius, and A. Meining, “Fluorescein-enhanced autofluorescence imaging for accurate differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a feasibility study,” Endoscopy43(5), 419–424 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Loeser, C. S.

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotti, T.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, D. Stampouli, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In-vivo tissue imaging using a compact mobile non-linear microscope,” Proc. SPIE7569, 756930, 756930–756939 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Cicchi, D. Massi, S. Sestini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Multidimensional non-linear laser imaging of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Opt. Express15(16), 10135–10148 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J.

Maeda, S.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maheshwari, Y.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malone, J. C.

J. C. Malone, A. F. Hood, T. Conley, J. Nürnberger, L. A. Baldridge, J. L. Clendenon, K. W. Dunn, and C. L. Phillips, “Three-dimensional imaging of human skin and mucosa by two-photon laser scanning microscopy,” J. Cutan. Pathol.29(8), 453–458 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcus, P. M.

P. A. Newcomb, R. G. Norfleet, B. E. Storer, T. S. Surawicz, and P. M. Marcus, “Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.84(20), 1572–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massi, D.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, D. Stampouli, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In-vivo tissue imaging using a compact mobile non-linear microscope,” Proc. SPIE7569, 756930, 756930–756939 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Cicchi, D. Massi, S. Sestini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “Multidimensional non-linear laser imaging of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Opt. Express15(16), 10135–10148 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masters, B. R.

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “Optical biopsy of in vivo human skin: multi-photon excitation microscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci.13(3), 196–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mayinger, B.

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, T. Haider, and D. Schwab, “Hexaminolevulinate-induced fluorescence colonoscopy versus white light endoscopy for diagnosis of neoplastic lesions in the colon,” Endoscopy42(1), 28–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, K. Degitz, E. G. Hahn, and D. Schwab, “Early detection of premalignant conditions in the colon by fluorescence endoscopy using local sensitization with hexaminolevulinate,” Endoscopy40(2), 106–109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCallum, A. L.

A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(2), 283–290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McQuaid, K. R.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meining, A.

L. G. Lim, M. Bajbouj, S. von Delius, and A. Meining, “Fluorescein-enhanced autofluorescence imaging for accurate differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a feasibility study,” Endoscopy43(5), 419–424 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, S. J.

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel peptide probe,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyawaki, K.

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizukami, Y.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohanan, S.

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohr, Z.

C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, S. Doniga, D. Murawa, M. Strik, and M. Hünerbein, “Ultrastaging of colon cancer by sentinel node biopsy using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 319–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molloy, R. G.

A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(2), 283–290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, D. H.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morales, T. G.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriichi, K.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morimoto, Y.

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murawa, D.

C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, S. Doniga, D. Murawa, M. Strik, and M. Hünerbein, “Ultrastaging of colon cancer by sentinel node biopsy using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 319–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myung, S. J.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagata, J.

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naito, Y.

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakano, K.

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nata, T.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nathanson, M. H.

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, D. B.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nesi, G.

Neufert, C.

M. J. Waldner, S. Wirtz, C. Neufert, C. Becker, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy and narrow-band imaging-aided endoscopy for in vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer in mice,” Nat. Protoc.6(9), 1471–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumann, F.

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, T. Haider, and D. Schwab, “Hexaminolevulinate-induced fluorescence colonoscopy versus white light endoscopy for diagnosis of neoplastic lesions in the colon,” Endoscopy42(1), 28–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, K. Degitz, E. G. Hahn, and D. Schwab, “Early detection of premalignant conditions in the colon by fluorescence endoscopy using local sensitization with hexaminolevulinate,” Endoscopy40(2), 106–109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

M. J. Waldner, S. Wirtz, C. Neufert, C. Becker, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy and narrow-band imaging-aided endoscopy for in vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer in mice,” Nat. Protoc.6(9), 1471–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newcomb, P. A.

P. A. Newcomb, R. G. Norfleet, B. E. Storer, T. S. Surawicz, and P. M. Marcus, “Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.84(20), 1572–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikitin, A. Y.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomura, Y.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norfleet, R. G.

P. A. Newcomb, R. G. Norfleet, B. E. Storer, T. S. Surawicz, and P. M. Marcus, “Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.84(20), 1572–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nürnberger, J.

J. C. Malone, A. F. Hood, T. Conley, J. Nürnberger, L. A. Baldridge, J. L. Clendenon, K. W. Dunn, and C. L. Phillips, “Three-dimensional imaging of human skin and mucosa by two-photon laser scanning microscopy,” J. Cutan. Pathol.29(8), 453–458 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouzounov, D. G.

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paoli, J.

J. Paoli, M. Smedh, A. M. Wennberg, and M. B. Ericson, “Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy on non-melanoma skin cancer: morphologic features for future non-invasive diagnostics,” J. Invest. Dermatol.128(5), 1248–1255 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlova, I.

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavone, F. S.

Pelet, S.

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. C. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, C. L.

J. C. Malone, A. F. Hood, T. Conley, J. Nürnberger, L. A. Baldridge, J. L. Clendenon, K. W. Dunn, and C. L. Phillips, “Three-dimensional imaging of human skin and mucosa by two-photon laser scanning microscopy,” J. Cutan. Pathol.29(8), 453–458 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pressmar, J.

J. Gahlen, J. Stern, J. Pressmar, J. Böhm, R. Holle, and C. Herfarth, “Local 5-aminolevulinic acid application for laser light-induced fluorescence diagnosis of early staged colon cancer in rats,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(3), 302–307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Provenzale, D.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Bird, L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells via multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of the coenzyme NADH,” Cancer Res.65(19), 8766–8773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramirez, F. C.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riching, K. M.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riemann, I.

K. Koenig and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 432–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivera, D. R.

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robert, M. E.

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogart, J. N.

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roorda, R. D.

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, H. K.

H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, S. Bajaj, and V. Backman, “Colonoscopy and optical biopsy: bridging technological advances to clinical practice,” Gastroenterology140(7), 1863–1867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, J. H.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saitoh, Y.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampliner, R. E.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, R.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saverio Pavone, F.

R. Cicchi and F. Saverio Pavone, “Non-linear fluorescence lifetime imaging of biological tissues,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2687–2697 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnell, T.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwab, D.

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, T. Haider, and D. Schwab, “Hexaminolevulinate-induced fluorescence colonoscopy versus white light endoscopy for diagnosis of neoplastic lesions in the colon,” Endoscopy42(1), 28–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, K. Degitz, E. G. Hahn, and D. Schwab, “Early detection of premalignant conditions in the colon by fluorescence endoscopy using local sensitization with hexaminolevulinate,” Endoscopy40(2), 106–109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sestini, S.

Shao, X.

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo identification of hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps in the colon,” Biosens. Bioelectron.30(1), 118–122 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skala, M. C.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smedh, M.

J. Paoli, M. Smedh, A. M. Wennberg, and M. B. Ericson, “Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy on non-melanoma skin cancer: morphologic features for future non-invasive diagnostics,” J. Invest. Dermatol.128(5), 1248–1255 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P. T. C.

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. C. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. T. C. So, H. Kim, and I. E. Kochevar, “Two-photon deep tissue ex vivo imaging of mouse dermal and subcutaneous structures,” Opt. Express3(9), 339–350 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “Optical biopsy of in vivo human skin: multi-photon excitation microscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci.13(3), 196–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sontag, S.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stampouli, D.

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, D. Stampouli, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In-vivo tissue imaging using a compact mobile non-linear microscope,” Proc. SPIE7569, 756930, 756930–756939 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stern, J.

J. Gahlen, J. Stern, J. Pressmar, J. Böhm, R. Holle, and C. Herfarth, “Local 5-aminolevulinic acid application for laser light-induced fluorescence diagnosis of early staged colon cancer in rats,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(3), 302–307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Storer, B. E.

P. A. Newcomb, R. G. Norfleet, B. E. Storer, T. S. Surawicz, and P. M. Marcus, “Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.84(20), 1572–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strik, M.

C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, S. Doniga, D. Murawa, M. Strik, and M. Hünerbein, “Ultrastaging of colon cancer by sentinel node biopsy using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 319–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surawicz, T. S.

P. A. Newcomb, R. G. Norfleet, B. E. Storer, T. S. Surawicz, and P. M. Marcus, “Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.84(20), 1572–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartz, D.

J. Humphris, D. Swartz, B. J. Egan, and R. W. L. Leong, “Status of confocal laser endomicroscopy in gastrointestinal disease,” Trop. Gastroenterol.33(1), 9–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, H.

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takamatsu, T.

K. Imaizumi, Y. Harada, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Yamaoka, H. Konishi, P. Dai, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Dual-wavelength excitation of mucosal autofluorescence for precise detection of diminutive colonic adenomas,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(1), 110–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanabe, H.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, H.

K. Imaizumi, Y. Harada, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Yamaoka, H. Konishi, P. Dai, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Dual-wavelength excitation of mucosal autofluorescence for precise detection of diminutive colonic adenomas,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(1), 110–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Triadafilopoulos, G.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueno, N.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaughan, E. M.

D. K. Bird, L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells via multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of the coenzyme NADH,” Cancer Res.65(19), 8766–8773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Delius, S.

L. G. Lim, M. Bajbouj, S. von Delius, and A. Meining, “Fluorescein-enhanced autofluorescence imaging for accurate differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a feasibility study,” Endoscopy43(5), 419–424 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrotsos, K. M.

D. K. Bird, L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells via multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of the coenzyme NADH,” Cancer Res.65(19), 8766–8773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wakabayashi, N.

K. Imaizumi, Y. Harada, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Yamaoka, H. Konishi, P. Dai, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Dual-wavelength excitation of mucosal autofluorescence for precise detection of diminutive colonic adenomas,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(1), 110–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldner, M. J.

M. J. Waldner, S. Wirtz, C. Neufert, C. Becker, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy and narrow-band imaging-aided endoscopy for in vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer in mice,” Nat. Protoc.6(9), 1471–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37962 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel peptide probe,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watari, J.

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, D. G.

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wennberg, A. M.

J. Paoli, M. Smedh, A. M. Wennberg, and M. B. Ericson, “Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy on non-melanoma skin cancer: morphologic features for future non-invasive diagnostics,” J. Invest. Dermatol.128(5), 1248–1255 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. G.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Bird, L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells via multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of the coenzyme NADH,” Cancer Res.65(19), 8766–8773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, W. O.

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wirtz, S.

M. J. Waldner, S. Wirtz, C. Neufert, C. Becker, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy and narrow-band imaging-aided endoscopy for in vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer in mice,” Nat. Protoc.6(9), 1471–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, S.

Xu, C.

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yagi, N.

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaoka, Y.

K. Imaizumi, Y. Harada, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Yamaoka, H. Konishi, P. Dai, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Dual-wavelength excitation of mucosal autofluorescence for precise detection of diminutive colonic adenomas,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(1), 110–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, J.

Yan, L.

D. K. Bird, L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells via multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of the coenzyme NADH,” Cancer Res.65(19), 8766–8773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, D. H.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S. K.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, B. D.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, S. M.

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, N.

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshikawa, T.

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37962 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, G.

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37962 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, W.

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo identification of hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps in the colon,” Biosens. Bioelectron.30(1), 118–122 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

Zhuo, S.

Zipfel, W. R.

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

R. Cicchi and F. Saverio Pavone, “Non-linear fluorescence lifetime imaging of biological tissues,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.400(9), 2687–2697 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo identification of hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps in the colon,” Biosens. Bioelectron.30(1), 118–122 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

BMC Gastroenterol. (1)

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, J. Watari, Y. Nomura, T. Nata, N. Ueno, S. Maeda, S. Kashima, K. Itabashi, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Back-to-back comparison of auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) versus high resolution white light colonoscopy for adenoma detection,” BMC Gastroenterol.12(1), 75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

D. K. Bird, L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells via multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of the coenzyme NADH,” Cancer Res.65(19), 8766–8773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dig. Dis. Sci. (1)

S. M. Yoon, S. J. Myung, I. W. Kim, E. J. Do, B. D. Ye, J. H. Ryu, K. Park, K. Kim, I. C. Kwon, M. J. Kim, D. H. Moon, D. H. Yang, K. J. Kim, J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, and J. H. Kim, “Application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using a polymeric nanoparticle-based probe for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of colon cancer,” Dig. Dis. Sci.56(10), 3005–3013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (3)

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, K. Degitz, E. G. Hahn, and D. Schwab, “Early detection of premalignant conditions in the colon by fluorescence endoscopy using local sensitization with hexaminolevulinate,” Endoscopy40(2), 106–109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mayinger, F. Neumann, C. Kastner, T. Haider, and D. Schwab, “Hexaminolevulinate-induced fluorescence colonoscopy versus white light endoscopy for diagnosis of neoplastic lesions in the colon,” Endoscopy42(1), 28–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Lim, M. Bajbouj, S. von Delius, and A. Meining, “Fluorescein-enhanced autofluorescence imaging for accurate differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a feasibility study,” Endoscopy43(5), 419–424 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, S. Bajaj, and V. Backman, “Colonoscopy and optical biopsy: bridging technological advances to clinical practice,” Gastroenterology140(7), 1863–1867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (3)

K. Imaizumi, Y. Harada, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Yamaoka, H. Konishi, P. Dai, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Dual-wavelength excitation of mucosal autofluorescence for precise detection of diminutive colonic adenomas,” Gastrointest. Endosc.75(1), 110–117 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(2), 283–290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Kessler, “Autofluorescence colonoscopy: a green light on the long road to “real-time” histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc.68(2), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. (1)

E. Dekker and P. Fockens, “New imaging techniques at colonoscopy: tissue spectroscopy and narrow band imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.15(4), 703–714 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Colorectal Dis. (3)

C. Hirche, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, S. Doniga, D. Murawa, M. Strik, and M. Hünerbein, “Ultrastaging of colon cancer by sentinel node biopsy using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 319–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, N. Wakabayashi, Y. Morimoto, K. Miyawaki, A. Kashiwa, N. Yoshida, K. Nakano, H. Takada, Y. Harada, N. Yagi, Y. Naito, T. Takamatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for diagnosis of superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.25(7), 811–816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moriichi, M. Fujiya, R. Sato, T. Nata, Y. Nomura, N. Ueno, C. Ishikawa, Y. Inaba, T. Ito, K. Okamoto, H. Tanabe, Y. Mizukami, J. Watari, Y. Saitoh, and Y. Kohgo, “Autofluorescence imaging and the quantitative intensity of fluorescence for evaluating the dysplastic grade of colonic neoplasms,” Int. J. Colorectal Dis.27(3), 325–330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067005 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. G. Ouzounov, W. O. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(4), 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Koenig and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 432–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Laiho, S. Pelet, T. M. Hancewicz, P. D. Kaplan, and P. T. C. So, “Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024016 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cutan. Pathol. (1)

J. C. Malone, A. F. Hood, T. Conley, J. Nürnberger, L. A. Baldridge, J. L. Clendenon, K. W. Dunn, and C. L. Phillips, “Three-dimensional imaging of human skin and mucosa by two-photon laser scanning microscopy,” J. Cutan. Pathol.29(8), 453–458 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

J. Paoli, M. Smedh, A. M. Wennberg, and M. B. Ericson, “Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy on non-melanoma skin cancer: morphologic features for future non-invasive diagnostics,” J. Invest. Dermatol.128(5), 1248–1255 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1)

P. A. Newcomb, R. G. Norfleet, B. E. Storer, T. S. Surawicz, and P. M. Marcus, “Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst.84(20), 1572–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “Optical biopsy of in vivo human skin: multi-photon excitation microscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci.13(3), 196–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

J. Gahlen, J. Stern, J. Pressmar, J. Böhm, R. Holle, and C. Herfarth, “Local 5-aminolevulinic acid application for laser light-induced fluorescence diagnosis of early staged colon cancer in rats,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(3), 302–307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

D. A. Lieberman, D. G. Weiss, J. H. Bond, D. J. Ahnen, H. Garewal, W. V. Harford, D. Provenzale, S. Sontag, T. Schnell, T. E. Durbin, D. B. Nelson, S. L. Ewing, G. Triadafilopoulos, F. C. Ramirez, J. G. Lee, J. F. Collins, M. B. Fennerty, T. K. Johnston, C. L. Corless, K. R. McQuaid, R. E. Sampliner, T. G. Morales, R. Fass, R. Smith, Y. Maheshwari, and G. Chejfec, “Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380,” N. Engl. J. Med.343(3), 162–168 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

M. J. Waldner, S. Wirtz, C. Neufert, C. Becker, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy and narrow-band imaging-aided endoscopy for in vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer in mice,” Nat. Protoc.6(9), 1471–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

PLoS ONE (2)

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS ONE7(5), e37962 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Miller, B. P. Joshi, Y. Feng, A. Gaustad, E. R. Fearon, and T. D. Wang, “In vivo fluorescence-based endoscopic detection of colon dysplasia in the mouse using a novel peptide probe,” PLoS ONE6(3), e17384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, J. G. White, and N. Ramanujam, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of NADH and FAD redox states, fluorescence lifetimes, and cellular morphology in precancerous epithelia,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(49), 19494–19499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Cicchi, D. Kapsokalyvas, D. Stampouli, V. De Giorgi, D. Massi, T. Lotti, and F. S. Pavone, “In-vivo tissue imaging using a compact mobile non-linear microscope,” Proc. SPIE7569, 756930, 756930–756939 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trop. Gastroenterol. (1)

J. Humphris, D. Swartz, B. J. Egan, and R. W. L. Leong, “Status of confocal laser endomicroscopy in gastrointestinal disease,” Trop. Gastroenterol.33(1), 9–20 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

O. Warburg, The Metabolism of Tumors (Constabel, London, 1930).

U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, “United States Cancer Statistics: 1999–2007 Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report,” Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Cancer Institute (Atlanta, GA, 2010), http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/uscs/ .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Histological images taken using a 20X objective on H&E stained tissue sections of healthy colon mucosa (A), adenomatous polyp (C), and adenocarcinoma (E). Corresponding TPF images (taken with a 20X objective - 0.9 NA) acquired from ex vivo fresh biopsies of healthy colon mucosa (B), adenomatous polyp (D), and adenocarcinoma (F). Scale bars: 40 μm. Histological images taken using a 40X objective on H&E stained tissue sections of healthy colon mucosa (G), adenomatous polyp (J), and adenocarcinoma (L). Corresponding TPF images (taken with a 40X objective – 1.3 NA) acquired from ex vivo fresh biopsies of healthy colon mucosa (H), adenomatous polyp (K), and adenocarcinoma (M). Scale bars: 30 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TPF images at high resolution (taken with a 40X objective - 1.3 NA) of healthy colon mucosa (A), adenomatous polyp (B), and adenocarcinoma (C) acquired at 30 μm depth from tissue surface on ex-vivo fresh biopsies. Images have been acquired using 740 nm as excitation wavelength. Scale bars: 10 μm. (D) Distribution of the cellular/nuclear size ratio for healthy mucosa, adenomatous polyp, and adenocarcinoma. (E) Distribution of the cellular asymmetry for healthy mucosa, adenomatous polyp, and adenocarcinoma. In the graphs dots represent single data points, while the box is enclosing the data within SD. All the values for both Cellular/Nuclear Ratio and Cellular Asymmetry, taken in couples, were found to be statistically different at the 0.05 level after a two-sample statistical t-test.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Red-Ox Ratio color-coded maps obtained after processing of NADH-images (740 nm excitation; 440 – 480 nm detection) and FAD-images (890 nm excitation; 480 – 540 nm detection) for healthy tissue (A-C), adenomatous polyp (D-F), and adenocarcinoma (G-I). The depth of recording from tissue surface is indicated in the down-left corner. Scale bars: 10 μm. (J) Red-Ox Ratio distribution for healthy tissue (blue), adenomatous polyp (yellow), and adenocarcinoma (green) with the color-coded scale used in Red-Ox Ratio mapping superimposed. Distributions have been obtained by averaging over 6 images per samples and 5 samples per tissue type. All the values for RedOx Ratio, taken in couples, were found to be statistically different at the 0.05 level after a two-sample statistical t-test.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average Values of Cellular/Nuclear Ratio (Left Column) and Cellular Asymmetry (Right Column) Calculated on a Population of 125 Cells of Healthy Mucosa, Adenomatous Polyp, and Adenocarcinoma

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Red-OxRatio= FADNADH FAD+NADH .

Metrics