Abstract

Joint-aperture optical coherence tomography (JA-OCT) is an angle-resolved OCT method, in which illumination from an active channel is simultaneously probed by several passive channels. JA-OCT increases the collection efficiency and effective sensitivity of the OCT system without increasing the power on the sample. Additionally, JA-OCT provides angular scattering information about the sample in a single acquisition, so the OCT imaging speed is not reduced. Thus, JA-OCT is especially suitable for ultra high speed in-vivo imaging. JA-OCT is compared to other angle-resolved techniques, and the relation between joint aperture imaging, adaptive optics, coherent and incoherent compounding is discussed. We present angle-resolved imaging of the human retina at an axial scan rate of 1.68 MHz, and demonstrate the benefits of JA-OCT: Speckle reduction, signal increase and suppression of specular and parasitic reflections. Moreover, in the future JA-OCT may allow for the reconstruction of the full Doppler vector and tissue discrimination by analysis of the angular scattering dependence.

© 2013 OSA

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2012

M. Wojtkowski, B. Kaluzny, and R. J. Zawadzki, “New directions in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 524–542 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz - 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82130M, 82130M-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, R. Andre, T. Pfeiffer, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz FDML OCT: snapshot retinal imaging at 6.7 million axial-scans per second,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82131E, 82131E-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, M. Sylwestrzak, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

B. J. Lujan, A. Roorda, R. W. Knighton, and J. Carroll, “Revealing Henle’s fiber layer using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1486–1492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe, H. Hasegawa, and S. Maeno, “Angular high-speed massively parallel detection spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for speckle reduction,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source for high speed retinal optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” J. Biophotonics4(7-8), 552–558 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express19(21), 20930–20939 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Direct measurement of the instantaneous linewidth of rapidly wavelength-swept lasers,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3733–3735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kurokawa, D. Tamada, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Adaptive optics retinal scanner for one-micrometer light source,” Opt. Express18(2), 1406–1418 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hughes, M. Spring, and A. Podoleanu, “Speckle noise reduction in optical coherence tomography of paint layers,” Appl. Opt.49(1), 99–107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by strain compounding,” Opt. Lett.35(14), 2445–2447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography by speckle correlation of angle-dependent B-scans,” Opt. Lett.35(12), 1998–2000 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. L. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, D. Vu, and A. A. Ferrante, “Dual-beam Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography of zebrafish,” Opt. Express16(18), 13624–13636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. A. Leitgeb, and L. Schmetterer, “Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for measurement of absolute flow velocities in human retinal vessels,” Opt. Lett.33(24), 2967–2969 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gao, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Measuring retinal contributions to the optical Stiles-Crawford effect with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(9), 6486–6501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

1999

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

Y. Pan and D. L. Farkas, “Noninvasive imaging of living human skin with dual-wavelength optical coherence tomography in two and three dimensions,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(4), 446–455 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1995

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

1993

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Ahn, Y.-C.

An, L.

Andre, R.

T. Klein, W. Wieser, R. Andre, T. Pfeiffer, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz FDML OCT: snapshot retinal imaging at 6.7 million axial-scans per second,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82131E, 82131E-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

Barry, S.

Baumann, B.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bird, A. C.

Blatter, C.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070505 (2012).
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Boppart, S.

Bornemann, J.

Bouma, B. E.

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
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W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
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A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Angle-resolved optical coherence tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction,” Opt. Express15(10), 6200–6209 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Speckle Reduction in OCT using Massively-Parallel Detection and Frequency-Domain Ranging,” Opt. Express14(11), 4736–4745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by ‘path length encoded’ angular compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(2), 260–263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.22(22), 1704–1706 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bower, B. A.

Burnes, D. L.

Y. Chen, D. L. Burnes, M. de Bruin, M. Mujat, and J. F. de Boer, “Three-dimensional pointwise comparison of human retinal optical property at 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz - 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82130M, 82130M-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, J.

B. J. Lujan, A. Roorda, R. W. Knighton, and J. Carroll, “Revealing Henle’s fiber layer using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1486–1492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, D. L. Burnes, M. de Bruin, M. Mujat, and J. F. de Boer, “Three-dimensional pointwise comparison of human retinal optical property at 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. L.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. L. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Choi, S.

Choma, M.

Curatolo, A.

de Boer, J. F.

Y. Chen, D. L. Burnes, M. de Bruin, M. Mujat, and J. F. de Boer, “Three-dimensional pointwise comparison of human retinal optical property at 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bruin, M.

Y. Chen, D. L. Burnes, M. de Bruin, M. Mujat, and J. F. de Boer, “Three-dimensional pointwise comparison of human retinal optical property at 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

Dragostinoff, N.

Drexler, W.

B. Považay, B. Hofer, C. Torti, B. Hermann, A. R. Tumlinson, M. Esmaeelpour, C. A. Egan, A. C. Bird, and W. Drexler, “Impact of enhanced resolution, speed and penetration on three-dimensional retinal optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(5), 4134–4150 (2009).
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W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(1), 45–88 (2008).
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W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 47–74 (2004).
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B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(18), 2142–2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Duker, J.

Duker, J. S.

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. L. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Egan, C. A.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

T. Klein, W. Wieser, R. Andre, T. Pfeiffer, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz FDML OCT: snapshot retinal imaging at 6.7 million axial-scans per second,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82131E, 82131E-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source for high speed retinal optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” J. Biophotonics4(7-8), 552–558 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Direct measurement of the instantaneous linewidth of rapidly wavelength-swept lasers,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3733–3735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source,” Opt. Express17(21), 18794–18807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esmaeelpour, M.

Farkas, D. L.

Y. Pan and D. L. Farkas, “Noninvasive imaging of living human skin with dual-wavelength optical coherence tomography in two and three dimensions,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(4), 446–455 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(18), 2142–2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

Fernández, E. J.

Ferrante, A. A.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Först, M.

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz - 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82130M, 82130M-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. L. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett.32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.22(22), 1704–1706 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Golubovic, B.

Gorczynska, I.

Gotzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Grajciar, B.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grychtol, P.

Hammer, D. X.

Hasegawa, H.

Y. Watanabe, H. Hasegawa, and S. Maeno, “Angular high-speed massively parallel detection spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for speckle reduction,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heim, P. J. S.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz - 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82130M, 82130M-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, B.

Hermes, B.

Hillman, T. R.

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofer, B.

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

Huber, R.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, R. Andre, T. Pfeiffer, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz FDML OCT: snapshot retinal imaging at 6.7 million axial-scans per second,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82131E, 82131E-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source for high speed retinal optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” J. Biophotonics4(7-8), 552–558 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Direct measurement of the instantaneous linewidth of rapidly wavelength-swept lasers,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3733–3735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source,” Opt. Express17(21), 18794–18807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. L. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett.32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R. A.

Hughes, M.

Iftimia, N.

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by ‘path length encoded’ angular compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(2), 260–263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Jayaraman, V.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz - 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82130M, 82130M-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz - 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82130M, 82130M-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R.

Jonnal, R. S.

Jung, W.

Kaluzny, B.

M. Wojtkowski, B. Kaluzny, and R. J. Zawadzki, “New directions in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 524–542 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Kennedy, B. F.

Klein, T.

T. Klein, W. Wieser, R. Andre, T. Pfeiffer, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz FDML OCT: snapshot retinal imaging at 6.7 million axial-scans per second,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82131E, 82131E-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source for high speed retinal optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” J. Biophotonics4(7-8), 552–558 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Direct measurement of the instantaneous linewidth of rapidly wavelength-swept lasers,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3733–3735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knighton, R. W.

B. J. Lujan, A. Roorda, R. W. Knighton, and J. Carroll, “Revealing Henle’s fiber layer using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1486–1492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kray, S.

Kurokawa, K.

Kurz, H.

Laut, S.

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, P.

Lin, C. P.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lujan, B. J.

B. J. Lujan, A. Roorda, R. W. Knighton, and J. Carroll, “Revealing Henle’s fiber layer using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1486–1492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeno, S.

Y. Watanabe, H. Hasegawa, and S. Maeno, “Angular high-speed massively parallel detection spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for speckle reduction,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Miller, D.

Miller, D. T.

Motaghiannezam, S. M.

Mujat, M.

Y. Chen, D. L. Burnes, M. de Bruin, M. Mujat, and J. F. de Boer, “Three-dimensional pointwise comparison of human retinal optical property at 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, D. Vu, and A. A. Ferrante, “Dual-beam Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography of zebrafish,” Opt. Express16(18), 13624–13636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

Oh, W.-Y.

Oldenburg, A.

Olivier, S. S.

Pan, Y.

Y. Pan and D. L. Farkas, “Noninvasive imaging of living human skin with dual-wavelength optical coherence tomography in two and three dimensions,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(4), 446–455 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Pfeiffer, T.

T. Klein, W. Wieser, R. Andre, T. Pfeiffer, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz FDML OCT: snapshot retinal imaging at 6.7 million axial-scans per second,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82131E, 82131E-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Podoleanu, A.

Potsaid, B.

Považay, B.

Prieto, P. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regar, E.

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, E.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Rha, J.

Rollins, A. M.

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

B. J. Lujan, A. Roorda, R. W. Knighton, and J. Carroll, “Revealing Henle’s fiber layer using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1486–1492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Sarunic, M.

Sattmann, H.

Schmetterer, L.

Schmitt, J. M.

D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express19(21), 20930–20939 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 95–105 (1999).
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J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.42(7), 1427–1439 (1997).
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B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. L. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, T. T.

Shishkov, M.

Spöler, F.

Spring, M.

Srinivasan, V.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suslick, K.

Swanson, E. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sylwestrzak, M.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Taira, K.

Tamada, D.

Tearney, G. J.

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
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W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
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A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Angle-resolved optical coherence tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction,” Opt. Express15(10), 6200–6209 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Speckle Reduction in OCT using Massively-Parallel Detection and Frequency-Domain Ranging,” Opt. Express14(11), 4736–4745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by ‘path length encoded’ angular compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(2), 260–263 (2003).
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J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
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B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.22(22), 1704–1706 (1997).
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van der Steen, A. F.

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
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van Soest, G.

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
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Villiger, M.

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
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Vu, D.

Wang, H.

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

Watanabe, Y.

Y. Watanabe, H. Hasegawa, and S. Maeno, “Angular high-speed massively parallel detection spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for speckle reduction,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060504 (2011).
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Wax, A.

Wei, A.

Werkmeister, R. M.

Werner, J. S.

Wieser, W.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, R. Andre, T. Pfeiffer, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz FDML OCT: snapshot retinal imaging at 6.7 million axial-scans per second,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82131E, 82131E-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source for high speed retinal optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” J. Biophotonics4(7-8), 552–558 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express19(21), 20930–20939 (2011).
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B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Direct measurement of the instantaneous linewidth of rapidly wavelength-swept lasers,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3733–3735 (2010).
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W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
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C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source,” Opt. Express17(21), 18794–18807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 95–105 (1999).
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Yang, C.

Yasuno, Y.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 95–105 (1999).
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Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

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Am. J. Ophthalmol.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.116(1), 113–114 (1993).
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Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. L. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Lujan, A. Roorda, R. W. Knighton, and J. Carroll, “Revealing Henle’s fiber layer using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1486–1492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Y. Watanabe, H. Hasegawa, and S. Maeno, “Angular high-speed massively parallel detection spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for speckle reduction,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by ‘path length encoded’ angular compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(2), 260–263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, D. L. Burnes, M. de Bruin, M. Mujat, and J. F. de Boer, “Three-dimensional pointwise comparison of human retinal optical property at 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan and D. L. Farkas, “Noninvasive imaging of living human skin with dual-wavelength optical coherence tomography in two and three dimensions,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(4), 446–455 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 076018 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 47–74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics

C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source for high speed retinal optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” J. Biophotonics4(7-8), 552–558 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
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Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kurokawa, D. Tamada, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Adaptive optics retinal scanner for one-micrometer light source,” Opt. Express18(2), 1406–1418 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, B. Hofer, C. Torti, B. Hermann, A. R. Tumlinson, M. Esmaeelpour, C. A. Egan, A. C. Bird, and W. Drexler, “Impact of enhanced resolution, speed and penetration on three-dimensional retinal optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(5), 4134–4150 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express19(21), 20930–20939 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source,” Opt. Express17(21), 18794–18807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Oldenburg, F. Toublan, K. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. Boppart, “Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(17), 6597–6614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Angle-resolved optical coherence tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction,” Opt. Express15(10), 6200–6209 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, M. Sylwestrzak, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, D. Vu, and A. A. Ferrante, “Dual-beam Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography of zebrafish,” Opt. Express16(18), 13624–13636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Speckle Reduction in OCT using Massively-Parallel Detection and Frequency-Domain Ranging,” Opt. Express14(11), 4736–4745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Spöler, S. Kray, P. Grychtol, B. Hermes, J. Bornemann, M. Först, and H. Kurz, “Simultaneous dual-band ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(17), 10832–10841 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gao, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Measuring retinal contributions to the optical Stiles-Crawford effect with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(9), 6486–6501 (2008).
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Opt. Lett.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Speckle is formed by superposition of the electric fields from scatterers in each resolvable volume element. b)-f) Speckle reduction: b) In spatial techniques, speckle patterns from different locations are compounded, yielding speckle reduction at the cost of reduced (transverse) resolution. c) Scatterer diversity may also be achieved by induced motion of the scatterers. d) Wavelength diversity employs incoherent compounding of the speckle pattern formed at different wavelengths. e) Polarization diversity can also achieve speckle reduction. f) Since the speckle pattern looks different from every angle, speckle can be reduced by angular compounding. JA-OCT uses this angle-anisotropy to combine active illumination with passive probe channels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In joint aperture OCT (JA-OCT), the sample is illuminated by one active beam and additionally probed by passive beams. a) Rendering of a symmetric JA-OCT geometry with active center beam and three probe beams. b,c) Schematic sample arm configurations for JA-OCT. An intermediate focus may allow for more flexible beam alignment, since the lenses may have a larger distance between each other. d) If all beams have the same size, dense packing allows for a maximum of 6 probe beams surrounding the active beam. e) However, JA-OCT is neither restricted to a symmetric configuration nor to beams of the same size. a: active (illuminating) beam; p: passive (probe-only) beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of standard high numerical aperture (NA), adaptive optics (AO) and joint aperture (JA) confocal imaging. In each case, the figure shows the incoming wavefront, a focusing lens, and the converging wavefront to one sample location. In high NA imaging, lens aberrations induce more and more wavefront distortion as NA is increased. Thus, the imaging system reaches maximum collection efficiency at an NA value that is given by the specific imaging system. With adaptive optics, the incoming wavefront is predistorted in order to compensate for aberrations, enabling the use of very large NAs. JA imaging is conceptually similar to AO imaging, since each beam can easily be tilted individually in order to correct for aberrations. Note that, contrary to high-NA and AO methods, the relative phase across the NA does not need to be actively controlled, since it is already set by the active (illuminating) beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

JA-OCT interferometer layout. Square boxes represent 3dB fiber couplers, unless the coupling ratio is indicated individually. Fiber based polarization controllers are present in each sample and reference arm (not shown). Note that the direction of view in the sample arm is switched from top view to side view at the galvanometer mirrors in order to better visualize the beam geometry. Inset: Beam profile in front of the eye, with light coupled to all channels. All beams are located in a circular aperture (red) of 3mm diameter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a-d) OCT B-frame tomograms from channel 1 to 4, consisting of 2112 axial scans, acquired at 1.68 MHz axial scan rate. e) Compounded tomogram (average of all channels), exhibiting improved image quality. f,g) Zoomed region of interest (ROI) of channel 1 and the compound tomogram, at the position indicated by the white box in a). Speckle reduction in the compounded image is clearly visible. Also note the increased visibility of the retinal layers, for instance of the external limiting membrane (ELM). Reflection from the ELM seems to be angle-dependent, with most of the signal in this region stemming from channel 3. h,i) En-face views of the complete data set (256 frames), indicating the position of the B-frames with the dashed red line. JA-OCT clearly reduces the impact of both specular reflections from the sample (see arrow in Ch4) and of parasitic reflections, which originate from the sample arm lenses (see arrow in the en-face view of Ch1). Scale bar length is 1mm in tissue (assuming n = 1.33, 0.288 mm/degree scan angle).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Averaging of adjacent frames in standard single-channel OCT (left) and JA-OCT (right), at the same location as in Fig. 5. Image quality of the compounded JA-OCT images is always superior to single-channel imaging. Bottom: In the enlarged image sections, it can be clearly seen that averaging of frames spanning less than 100 µm distance already blurs out important image detail, such as the blood vessel indicated by the arrow.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Retinal image with inverse contrast and in linear power scale (FFT signal squared). Blue box indicated region of interest (ROI) around the RPE layer. b) Mean signal power in the ROI with respect to the power in the active channel 1. c) Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculated as power mean to power standard deviation over the entire image (black squares). Since the signal is weaker in the passive channels, the SNR increase is lower than with the square root of channel number (black squares). The experimental SNR increase is close to the calculated value (green triangles), which takes into account the varying power levels, assuming completely uncorrelated speckle patterns (Eq. (1)).

Equations (2)

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SN R N SNR = i=1 N α i N = α i =const. 1+α(N1) N >1,
α> N 1 N1 N 1 N .

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