Abstract

In this paper, we report a light driven, non-invasive cell membrane perforation technique based on the localized field amplification by a nanosecond pulsed laser near gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The optoporation phenomena is investigated with pulses generated by a Nd:YAG laser for two wavelengths that are either in the visible (532 nm) or near infrared (NIR) (1064 nm). Here, the main objective is to compare on and off localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) to introduce foreign material through the cell membrane using nanosecond laser pulses. The membrane permeability of human melanoma cells (MW278) has been successfully increased as shown by the intake of a fluorescent dye upon irradiation. The viability of this laser driven perforation method is evaluated by propidium iodide exclusion as well as MTT assay. Our results show that up to 25% of the cells are perforated with 532 nm pulses at 50 mJ/cm2 and around 30% of the cells are perforated with 1064 nm pulses at 1 J/cm2. With 532 nm pulses, the viability 2 h after treatment is 64% but it increases to 88% 72 h later. On the other hand, the irradiation with 1064 nm pulses leads to an improved 2 h viability of 81% and reaches 98% after 72 h. Scanning electron microscopy images show that the 5 pulses delivered during treatment induce changes in the AuNPs size distribution when irradiated by a 532 nm beam, while this distribution is barely affected when 1064 nm is used.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. Eustis and M. A. el-Sayed, “Why gold nanoparticles are more precious than pretty gold: noble metal surface plasmon resonance and its enhancement of the radiative and nonradiative properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 35(3), 209–217 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Au nanoparticles target cancer,” Nano Today 2(1), 18–29 (2007).
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  31. P. M. Tiwari, K. Vig, V. A. Dennis, and S. R. Singh, “Functionalized gold nanoparticles and their biomedical applications,” J. Nanomater. 1(1), 31–63 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. P. Samaniego, J. Wen, L. S. Metelitsa, C. C. Chang, and D. O. Lapotko, “Selective gene transfection of individual cells in vitro with plasmonic nanobubbles,” J. Control. Release 152(2), 286–293 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. C. Yao, X. Qu, Z. Zhang, G. Hüttmann, and R. Rahmanzadeh, “Influence of laser parameters on nanoparticle-induced membrane permeabilization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054034 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. Inasawa, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser-induced shape transformation of gold nanoparticles below the melting point: the effect of surface melting,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3104–3111 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. A. Takami, H. Kurita, and S. Koda, “Laser-induced size reduction of noble metal particles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(8), 1226–1232 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  37. N. M. Schaeublin, L. K. Braydich-Stolle, A. M. Schrand, J. M. Miller, J. Hutchison, J. J. Schlager, and S. M. Hussain, “Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity,” Nanoscale 3(2), 410–420 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  39. É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, and M. Meunier, “Plasma mediated off-resonance plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced nanocavitation,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4763–4769 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Y. Hu, L. Latterini, L. Tarpani, S. Lee, R. A. Drezek, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubbles as transient vapor nanobubbles generated around plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2109–2123 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, E. Y. Hanna, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics,” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085102 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. M. Kitz, S. Preisser, A. Wetterwald, M. Jaeger, G. N. Thalmann, and M. Frenz, “Vapor bubble generation around gold nano-particles and its application to damaging of cells,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 291–304 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, C. Santiago, D. S. Wagner, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Generation and detection of plasmonic nanobubbles in zebrafish,” Nanotechnology 21(22), 225102 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. R. Lachaine, E. Boulais, E. Bourbeau, and M. Meunier, “Effect of pulse duration on plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced bubble generation in water,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 2012(Sept.) 1–4 (2012).
  46. V. K. Pustovalov, A. S. Smetannikov, and V. P. Zharov, “Photothermal and accompanied phenomena of selective nanophotothermolysis with gold nanoparticles and laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(11), 775–792 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  47. O. Ekici, R. K. Harrison, N. J. Durr, D. S. Eversole, M. Lee, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Thermal analysis of gold nanorods heated with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185501 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. A. V. Nikolskaya, V. P. Nikolski, and I. R. Efimov, “Gene printer: laser-scanning targeted transfection of cultured cardiac neonatal rat cells,” Cell Commun. Adhes. 13(4), 217–222 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J. J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, “Off-resonance plasmonic enhanced femtosecond laser optoporation and transfection of cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(7), 2345–2350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, D. S. Wagner, M. K. Brenner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Cell-specific transmembrane injection of molecular cargo with gold nanoparticle-generated transient plasmonic nanobubbles,” Biomaterials 33(21), 5441–5450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. Belyanin, S. Kashinath, X. Wu, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubble-enhanced endosomal escape processes for selective and guided intracellular delivery of chemotherapy to drug-resistant cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(6), 1821–1826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, and M. Meunier, “Plasma mediated off-resonance plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced nanocavitation,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4763–4769 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Patil, P. D. Chaudharie, M. Sahu, and J. Duragkar, “Review article on gene therapy,” Int. J. Genetics 4, 74–79 (2012).

R. Lachaine, E. Boulais, E. Bourbeau, and M. Meunier, “Effect of pulse duration on plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced bubble generation in water,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 2012(Sept.) 1–4 (2012).

2011 (4)

M. Kitz, S. Preisser, A. Wetterwald, M. Jaeger, G. N. Thalmann, and M. Frenz, “Vapor bubble generation around gold nano-particles and its application to damaging of cells,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 291–304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Schaeublin, L. K. Braydich-Stolle, A. M. Schrand, J. M. Miller, J. Hutchison, J. J. Schlager, and S. M. Hussain, “Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity,” Nanoscale 3(2), 410–420 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Tiwari, K. Vig, V. A. Dennis, and S. R. Singh, “Functionalized gold nanoparticles and their biomedical applications,” J. Nanomater. 1(1), 31–63 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. P. Samaniego, J. Wen, L. S. Metelitsa, C. C. Chang, and D. O. Lapotko, “Selective gene transfection of individual cells in vitro with plasmonic nanobubbles,” J. Control. Release 152(2), 286–293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Y. Hu, L. Latterini, L. Tarpani, S. Lee, R. A. Drezek, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubbles as transient vapor nanobubbles generated around plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2109–2123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, E. Y. Hanna, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics,” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, C. Santiago, D. S. Wagner, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Generation and detection of plasmonic nanobubbles in zebrafish,” Nanotechnology 21(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

A. Pathak, S. Patnaik, and K. C. Gupta, “Recent trends in non-viral vector-mediated gene delivery,” Biotechnol. J. 4(11), 1559–1572 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Mir, “Nucleic acids electrotransfer-based gene therapy (electrogenetherapy): past, current, and future,” Mol. Biotechnol. 43(2), 167–176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Whitehead, R. Langer, and D. G. Anderson, “Knocking down barriers: advances in siRNA delivery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 8(2), 129–138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Florea, K. Andreeva, C. Machado, P. M. Mirabito, and C. L. Schardl, “Elimination of marker genes from transformed filamentous fungi by unselected transient transfection with a Cre-expressing plasmid,” Fungal Genet. Biol. 46(10), 721–730 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yao, X. Qu, Z. Zhang, G. Hüttmann, and R. Rahmanzadeh, “Influence of laser parameters on nanoparticle-induced membrane permeabilization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. C. Farokhzad and R. Langer, “Impact of nanotechnology on drug delivery,” ACS Nano 3(1), 16–20 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

C. H. Evans, S. C. Ghivizzani, and P. D. Robbins, “Arthritis gene therapy’s first death,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 10(3), 110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang and L. C. Yu, “Single-cell microinjection technology in cell biology,” Bioessays 30(6), 606–610 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Asida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, “Enhanced transfection efficiency in laser-induced stress wave-assisted gene transfer at low laser fluence by increasing pressure impulse,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lei, H. Xu, H. Yang, and B. Yao, “Femtosecond laser-assisted microinjection into living neurons,” J. Neurosci. Methods 174(2), 215–218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Baumgart, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, S. Willenbrock, H. Murua Escobar, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Quantified femtosecond laser based opto-perforation of living GFSHR-17 and MTH53 a cells,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3021–3031 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Pustovalov, A. S. Smetannikov, and V. P. Zharov, “Photothermal and accompanied phenomena of selective nanophotothermolysis with gold nanoparticles and laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(11), 775–792 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Ekici, R. K. Harrison, N. J. Durr, D. S. Eversole, M. Lee, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Thermal analysis of gold nanorods heated with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Au nanoparticles target cancer,” Nano Today 2(1), 18–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (8)

S. Eustis and M. A. el-Sayed, “Why gold nanoparticles are more precious than pretty gold: noble metal surface plasmon resonance and its enhancement of the radiative and nonradiative properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 35(3), 209–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pissuwan, S. M. Valenzuela, and M. B. Cortie, “Therapeutic possibilities of plasmonically heated gold nanoparticles,” Trends Biotechnol. 24(2), 62–67 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lapotko, E. Lukianova, M. Potapnev, O. Aleinikova, and A. Oraevsky, “Method of laser activated nano-thermolysis for elimination of tumor cells,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 36–45 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Letfullin, C. Joenathan, T. F. George, and V. P. Zharov, “Laser-induced explosion of gold nanoparticles: potential role for nanophotothermolysis of cancer,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(4), 473–480 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. O. Lapotko, E. Y. Lukianova, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Selective laser nano-thermolysis of human leukemia cells with microbubbles generated around clusters of gold nanoparticles,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 631–642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Zheng, C. J. Cohen, L. Gattinoni, D. C. Palmer, N. P. Restifo, S. A. Rosenberg, and R. A. Morgan, “High-efficiency transfection of primary human and mouse T lymphocytes using RNA electroporation,” Mol. Ther. 13(1), 151–159 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Li and L. Huang, “Gene therapy progress and prospects: non-viral gene therapy by systemic delivery,” Gene Ther. 13(18), 1313–1319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Nikolskaya, V. P. Nikolski, and I. R. Efimov, “Gene printer: laser-scanning targeted transfection of cultured cardiac neonatal rat cells,” Cell Commun. Adhes. 13(4), 217–222 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Yao, R. Rahmanzadeh, E. Endl, Z. Zhang, J. Gerdes, and G. Hüttmann, “Elevation of plasma membrane permeability by laser irradiation of selectively bound nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064012 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Inasawa, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser-induced shape transformation of gold nanoparticles below the melting point: the effect of surface melting,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3104–3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Ogura, S. Sato, K. Nakanishi, M. Uenoyama, T. Kiyozumi, D. Saitoh, T. Ikeda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, “In vivo targeted gene transfer in skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Pitsillides, E. K. Joe, X. Wei, R. R. Anderson, and C. P. Lin, “Selective cell targeting with light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 4023–4032 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. J. Canatella, J. F. Karr, J. A. Petros, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Quantitative study of electroporation-mediated molecular uptake and cell viability,” Biophys. J. 80(2), 755–764 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Takami, H. Kurita, and S. Koda, “Laser-induced size reduction of noble metal particles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(8), 1226–1232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lehrman, “Virus treatment questioned after gene therapy death,” Nature 401(6753), 517–518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aleinikova, O.

D. Lapotko, E. Lukianova, M. Potapnev, O. Aleinikova, and A. Oraevsky, “Method of laser activated nano-thermolysis for elimination of tumor cells,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 36–45 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. G.

K. A. Whitehead, R. Langer, and D. G. Anderson, “Knocking down barriers: advances in siRNA delivery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 8(2), 129–138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

C. M. Pitsillides, E. K. Joe, X. Wei, R. R. Anderson, and C. P. Lin, “Selective cell targeting with light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 4023–4032 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreeva, K.

S. Florea, K. Andreeva, C. Machado, P. M. Mirabito, and C. L. Schardl, “Elimination of marker genes from transformed filamentous fungi by unselected transient transfection with a Cre-expressing plasmid,” Fungal Genet. Biol. 46(10), 721–730 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashida, H.

M. Ogura, S. Sato, K. Nakanishi, M. Uenoyama, T. Kiyozumi, D. Saitoh, T. Ikeda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, “In vivo targeted gene transfer in skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asida, H.

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Asida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, “Enhanced transfection efficiency in laser-induced stress wave-assisted gene transfer at low laser fluence by increasing pressure impulse,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bashkatov, A. N.

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J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J. J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, “Off-resonance plasmonic enhanced femtosecond laser optoporation and transfection of cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(7), 2345–2350 (2012).
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E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. Belyanin, S. Kashinath, X. Wu, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubble-enhanced endosomal escape processes for selective and guided intracellular delivery of chemotherapy to drug-resistant cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(6), 1821–1826 (2012).
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Ben-Yakar, A.

O. Ekici, R. K. Harrison, N. J. Durr, D. S. Eversole, M. Lee, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Thermal analysis of gold nanorods heated with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185501 (2008).
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R. Lachaine, E. Boulais, E. Bourbeau, and M. Meunier, “Effect of pulse duration on plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced bubble generation in water,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 2012(Sept.) 1–4 (2012).

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J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J. J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, “Off-resonance plasmonic enhanced femtosecond laser optoporation and transfection of cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(7), 2345–2350 (2012).
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É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, and M. Meunier, “Plasma mediated off-resonance plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced nanocavitation,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4763–4769 (2012).
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R. Lachaine, E. Boulais, E. Bourbeau, and M. Meunier, “Effect of pulse duration on plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced bubble generation in water,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 2012(Sept.) 1–4 (2012).

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N. M. Schaeublin, L. K. Braydich-Stolle, A. M. Schrand, J. M. Miller, J. Hutchison, J. J. Schlager, and S. M. Hussain, “Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity,” Nanoscale 3(2), 410–420 (2011).
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E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, D. S. Wagner, M. K. Brenner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Cell-specific transmembrane injection of molecular cargo with gold nanoparticle-generated transient plasmonic nanobubbles,” Biomaterials 33(21), 5441–5450 (2012).
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O. Ekici, R. K. Harrison, N. J. Durr, D. S. Eversole, M. Lee, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Thermal analysis of gold nanorods heated with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185501 (2008).
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O. Ekici, R. K. Harrison, N. J. Durr, D. S. Eversole, M. Lee, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Thermal analysis of gold nanorods heated with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185501 (2008).
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O. C. Farokhzad and R. Langer, “Impact of nanotechnology on drug delivery,” ACS Nano 3(1), 16–20 (2009).
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S. Florea, K. Andreeva, C. Machado, P. M. Mirabito, and C. L. Schardl, “Elimination of marker genes from transformed filamentous fungi by unselected transient transfection with a Cre-expressing plasmid,” Fungal Genet. Biol. 46(10), 721–730 (2009).
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Gattinoni, L.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zheng, C. J. Cohen, L. Gattinoni, D. C. Palmer, N. P. Restifo, S. A. Rosenberg, and R. A. Morgan, “High-efficiency transfection of primary human and mouse T lymphocytes using RNA electroporation,” Mol. Ther. 13(1), 151–159 (2006).
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A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
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R. R. Letfullin, C. Joenathan, T. F. George, and V. P. Zharov, “Laser-induced explosion of gold nanoparticles: potential role for nanophotothermolysis of cancer,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(4), 473–480 (2006).
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C. Yao, R. Rahmanzadeh, E. Endl, Z. Zhang, J. Gerdes, and G. Hüttmann, “Elevation of plasma membrane permeability by laser irradiation of selectively bound nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064012 (2005).
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C. H. Evans, S. C. Ghivizzani, and P. D. Robbins, “Arthritis gene therapy’s first death,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 10(3), 110 (2008).
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E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, E. Y. Hanna, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics,” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085102 (2010).
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E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Y. Hu, L. Latterini, L. Tarpani, S. Lee, R. A. Drezek, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubbles as transient vapor nanobubbles generated around plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2109–2123 (2010).
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E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, C. Santiago, D. S. Wagner, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Generation and detection of plasmonic nanobubbles in zebrafish,” Nanotechnology 21(22), 225102 (2010).
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E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, E. Y. Hanna, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics,” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085102 (2010).
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O. Ekici, R. K. Harrison, N. J. Durr, D. S. Eversole, M. Lee, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Thermal analysis of gold nanorods heated with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185501 (2008).
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Hu, Y.

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Y. Hu, L. Latterini, L. Tarpani, S. Lee, R. A. Drezek, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubbles as transient vapor nanobubbles generated around plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2109–2123 (2010).
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S. D. Li and L. Huang, “Gene therapy progress and prospects: non-viral gene therapy by systemic delivery,” Gene Ther. 13(18), 1313–1319 (2006).
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J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J. J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, “Off-resonance plasmonic enhanced femtosecond laser optoporation and transfection of cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(7), 2345–2350 (2012).
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N. M. Schaeublin, L. K. Braydich-Stolle, A. M. Schrand, J. M. Miller, J. Hutchison, J. J. Schlager, and S. M. Hussain, “Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity,” Nanoscale 3(2), 410–420 (2011).
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N. M. Schaeublin, L. K. Braydich-Stolle, A. M. Schrand, J. M. Miller, J. Hutchison, J. J. Schlager, and S. M. Hussain, “Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity,” Nanoscale 3(2), 410–420 (2011).
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C. Yao, R. Rahmanzadeh, E. Endl, Z. Zhang, J. Gerdes, and G. Hüttmann, “Elevation of plasma membrane permeability by laser irradiation of selectively bound nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064012 (2005).
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M. Ogura, S. Sato, K. Nakanishi, M. Uenoyama, T. Kiyozumi, D. Saitoh, T. Ikeda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, “In vivo targeted gene transfer in skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(3), 242–248 (2004).
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S. Inasawa, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser-induced shape transformation of gold nanoparticles below the melting point: the effect of surface melting,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3104–3111 (2005).
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P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Au nanoparticles target cancer,” Nano Today 2(1), 18–29 (2007).
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C. M. Pitsillides, E. K. Joe, X. Wei, R. R. Anderson, and C. P. Lin, “Selective cell targeting with light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 4023–4032 (2003).
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R. R. Letfullin, C. Joenathan, T. F. George, and V. P. Zharov, “Laser-induced explosion of gold nanoparticles: potential role for nanophotothermolysis of cancer,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(4), 473–480 (2006).
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Karr, J. F.

P. J. Canatella, J. F. Karr, J. A. Petros, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Quantitative study of electroporation-mediated molecular uptake and cell viability,” Biophys. J. 80(2), 755–764 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kashinath, S.

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. Belyanin, S. Kashinath, X. Wu, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubble-enhanced endosomal escape processes for selective and guided intracellular delivery of chemotherapy to drug-resistant cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(6), 1821–1826 (2012).
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Kiyozumi, T.

M. Ogura, S. Sato, K. Nakanishi, M. Uenoyama, T. Kiyozumi, D. Saitoh, T. Ikeda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, “In vivo targeted gene transfer in skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(3), 242–248 (2004).
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A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
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É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, and M. Meunier, “Plasma mediated off-resonance plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced nanocavitation,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4763–4769 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J. J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, “Off-resonance plasmonic enhanced femtosecond laser optoporation and transfection of cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(7), 2345–2350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lachaine, E. Boulais, E. Bourbeau, and M. Meunier, “Effect of pulse duration on plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced bubble generation in water,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 2012(Sept.) 1–4 (2012).

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O. C. Farokhzad and R. Langer, “Impact of nanotechnology on drug delivery,” ACS Nano 3(1), 16–20 (2009).
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D. Lapotko, E. Lukianova, M. Potapnev, O. Aleinikova, and A. Oraevsky, “Method of laser activated nano-thermolysis for elimination of tumor cells,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 36–45 (2006).
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Lapotko, D. O.

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, D. S. Wagner, M. K. Brenner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Cell-specific transmembrane injection of molecular cargo with gold nanoparticle-generated transient plasmonic nanobubbles,” Biomaterials 33(21), 5441–5450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. Belyanin, S. Kashinath, X. Wu, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubble-enhanced endosomal escape processes for selective and guided intracellular delivery of chemotherapy to drug-resistant cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(6), 1821–1826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. P. Samaniego, J. Wen, L. S. Metelitsa, C. C. Chang, and D. O. Lapotko, “Selective gene transfection of individual cells in vitro with plasmonic nanobubbles,” J. Control. Release 152(2), 286–293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, E. Y. Hanna, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics,” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Y. Hu, L. Latterini, L. Tarpani, S. Lee, R. A. Drezek, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubbles as transient vapor nanobubbles generated around plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2109–2123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, C. Santiago, D. S. Wagner, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Generation and detection of plasmonic nanobubbles in zebrafish,” Nanotechnology 21(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. O. Lapotko, E. Y. Lukianova, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Selective laser nano-thermolysis of human leukemia cells with microbubbles generated around clusters of gold nanoparticles,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 631–642 (2006).
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E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Y. Hu, L. Latterini, L. Tarpani, S. Lee, R. A. Drezek, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubbles as transient vapor nanobubbles generated around plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2109–2123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lebrun, J. J.

J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J. J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, “Off-resonance plasmonic enhanced femtosecond laser optoporation and transfection of cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(7), 2345–2350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

O. Ekici, R. K. Harrison, N. J. Durr, D. S. Eversole, M. Lee, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Thermal analysis of gold nanorods heated with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Y. Hu, L. Latterini, L. Tarpani, S. Lee, R. A. Drezek, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubbles as transient vapor nanobubbles generated around plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2109–2123 (2010).
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R. R. Letfullin, C. Joenathan, T. F. George, and V. P. Zharov, “Laser-induced explosion of gold nanoparticles: potential role for nanophotothermolysis of cancer,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(4), 473–480 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S. D.

S. D. Li and L. Huang, “Gene therapy progress and prospects: non-viral gene therapy by systemic delivery,” Gene Ther. 13(18), 1313–1319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

C. M. Pitsillides, E. K. Joe, X. Wei, R. R. Anderson, and C. P. Lin, “Selective cell targeting with light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 4023–4032 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lubatschowski, H.

Lukianova, E.

D. Lapotko, E. Lukianova, M. Potapnev, O. Aleinikova, and A. Oraevsky, “Method of laser activated nano-thermolysis for elimination of tumor cells,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 36–45 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukianova, E. Y.

D. O. Lapotko, E. Y. Lukianova, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Selective laser nano-thermolysis of human leukemia cells with microbubbles generated around clusters of gold nanoparticles,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 631–642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukianova-Hleb, E. Y.

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. Belyanin, S. Kashinath, X. Wu, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubble-enhanced endosomal escape processes for selective and guided intracellular delivery of chemotherapy to drug-resistant cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(6), 1821–1826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, D. S. Wagner, M. K. Brenner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Cell-specific transmembrane injection of molecular cargo with gold nanoparticle-generated transient plasmonic nanobubbles,” Biomaterials 33(21), 5441–5450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. P. Samaniego, J. Wen, L. S. Metelitsa, C. C. Chang, and D. O. Lapotko, “Selective gene transfection of individual cells in vitro with plasmonic nanobubbles,” J. Control. Release 152(2), 286–293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, E. Y. Hanna, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics,” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Y. Hu, L. Latterini, L. Tarpani, S. Lee, R. A. Drezek, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubbles as transient vapor nanobubbles generated around plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2109–2123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, C. Santiago, D. S. Wagner, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Generation and detection of plasmonic nanobubbles in zebrafish,” Nanotechnology 21(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machado, C.

S. Florea, K. Andreeva, C. Machado, P. M. Mirabito, and C. L. Schardl, “Elimination of marker genes from transformed filamentous fungi by unselected transient transfection with a Cre-expressing plasmid,” Fungal Genet. Biol. 46(10), 721–730 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metelitsa, L. S.

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. P. Samaniego, J. Wen, L. S. Metelitsa, C. C. Chang, and D. O. Lapotko, “Selective gene transfection of individual cells in vitro with plasmonic nanobubbles,” J. Control. Release 152(2), 286–293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meunier, M.

J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J. J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, “Off-resonance plasmonic enhanced femtosecond laser optoporation and transfection of cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(7), 2345–2350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, and M. Meunier, “Plasma mediated off-resonance plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced nanocavitation,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4763–4769 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lachaine, E. Boulais, E. Bourbeau, and M. Meunier, “Effect of pulse duration on plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced bubble generation in water,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 2012(Sept.) 1–4 (2012).

Miller, J. M.

N. M. Schaeublin, L. K. Braydich-Stolle, A. M. Schrand, J. M. Miller, J. Hutchison, J. J. Schlager, and S. M. Hussain, “Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity,” Nanoscale 3(2), 410–420 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mir, L. M.

L. M. Mir, “Nucleic acids electrotransfer-based gene therapy (electrogenetherapy): past, current, and future,” Mol. Biotechnol. 43(2), 167–176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirabito, P. M.

S. Florea, K. Andreeva, C. Machado, P. M. Mirabito, and C. L. Schardl, “Elimination of marker genes from transformed filamentous fungi by unselected transient transfection with a Cre-expressing plasmid,” Fungal Genet. Biol. 46(10), 721–730 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, R. A.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zheng, C. J. Cohen, L. Gattinoni, D. C. Palmer, N. P. Restifo, S. A. Rosenberg, and R. A. Morgan, “High-efficiency transfection of primary human and mouse T lymphocytes using RNA electroporation,” Mol. Ther. 13(1), 151–159 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murua Escobar, H.

Nakanishi, K.

M. Ogura, S. Sato, K. Nakanishi, M. Uenoyama, T. Kiyozumi, D. Saitoh, T. Ikeda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, “In vivo targeted gene transfer in skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ngezahayo, A.

Nikolskaya, A. V.

A. V. Nikolskaya, V. P. Nikolski, and I. R. Efimov, “Gene printer: laser-scanning targeted transfection of cultured cardiac neonatal rat cells,” Cell Commun. Adhes. 13(4), 217–222 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolski, V. P.

A. V. Nikolskaya, V. P. Nikolski, and I. R. Efimov, “Gene printer: laser-scanning targeted transfection of cultured cardiac neonatal rat cells,” Cell Commun. Adhes. 13(4), 217–222 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noack, J.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Asida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, “Enhanced transfection efficiency in laser-induced stress wave-assisted gene transfer at low laser fluence by increasing pressure impulse,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ogura, S. Sato, K. Nakanishi, M. Uenoyama, T. Kiyozumi, D. Saitoh, T. Ikeda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, “In vivo targeted gene transfer in skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogura, M.

M. Ogura, S. Sato, K. Nakanishi, M. Uenoyama, T. Kiyozumi, D. Saitoh, T. Ikeda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, “In vivo targeted gene transfer in skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okano, H.

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Asida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, “Enhanced transfection efficiency in laser-induced stress wave-assisted gene transfer at low laser fluence by increasing pressure impulse,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A.

D. Lapotko, E. Lukianova, M. Potapnev, O. Aleinikova, and A. Oraevsky, “Method of laser activated nano-thermolysis for elimination of tumor cells,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 36–45 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

D. O. Lapotko, E. Y. Lukianova, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Selective laser nano-thermolysis of human leukemia cells with microbubbles generated around clusters of gold nanoparticles,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 631–642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, D. C.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zheng, C. J. Cohen, L. Gattinoni, D. C. Palmer, N. P. Restifo, S. A. Rosenberg, and R. A. Morgan, “High-efficiency transfection of primary human and mouse T lymphocytes using RNA electroporation,” Mol. Ther. 13(1), 151–159 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paltauf, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, A.

A. Pathak, S. Patnaik, and K. C. Gupta, “Recent trends in non-viral vector-mediated gene delivery,” Biotechnol. J. 4(11), 1559–1572 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patil, P. M.

P. M. Patil, P. D. Chaudharie, M. Sahu, and J. Duragkar, “Review article on gene therapy,” Int. J. Genetics 4, 74–79 (2012).

Patnaik, S.

A. Pathak, S. Patnaik, and K. C. Gupta, “Recent trends in non-viral vector-mediated gene delivery,” Biotechnol. J. 4(11), 1559–1572 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petros, J. A.

P. J. Canatella, J. F. Karr, J. A. Petros, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Quantitative study of electroporation-mediated molecular uptake and cell viability,” Biophys. J. 80(2), 755–764 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pissuwan, D.

D. Pissuwan, S. M. Valenzuela, and M. B. Cortie, “Therapeutic possibilities of plasmonically heated gold nanoparticles,” Trends Biotechnol. 24(2), 62–67 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitsillides, C. M.

C. M. Pitsillides, E. K. Joe, X. Wei, R. R. Anderson, and C. P. Lin, “Selective cell targeting with light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 4023–4032 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potapnev, M.

D. Lapotko, E. Lukianova, M. Potapnev, O. Aleinikova, and A. Oraevsky, “Method of laser activated nano-thermolysis for elimination of tumor cells,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 36–45 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prausnitz, M. R.

P. J. Canatella, J. F. Karr, J. A. Petros, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Quantitative study of electroporation-mediated molecular uptake and cell viability,” Biophys. J. 80(2), 755–764 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preisser, S.

Pustovalov, V. K.

V. K. Pustovalov, A. S. Smetannikov, and V. P. Zharov, “Photothermal and accompanied phenomena of selective nanophotothermolysis with gold nanoparticles and laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(11), 775–792 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qu, X.

C. Yao, X. Qu, Z. Zhang, G. Hüttmann, and R. Rahmanzadeh, “Influence of laser parameters on nanoparticle-induced membrane permeabilization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahmanzadeh, R.

C. Yao, X. Qu, Z. Zhang, G. Hüttmann, and R. Rahmanzadeh, “Influence of laser parameters on nanoparticle-induced membrane permeabilization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yao, R. Rahmanzadeh, E. Endl, Z. Zhang, J. Gerdes, and G. Hüttmann, “Elevation of plasma membrane permeability by laser irradiation of selectively bound nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064012 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Restifo, N. P.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zheng, C. J. Cohen, L. Gattinoni, D. C. Palmer, N. P. Restifo, S. A. Rosenberg, and R. A. Morgan, “High-efficiency transfection of primary human and mouse T lymphocytes using RNA electroporation,” Mol. Ther. 13(1), 151–159 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, P. D.

C. H. Evans, S. C. Ghivizzani, and P. D. Robbins, “Arthritis gene therapy’s first death,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 10(3), 110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, S. A.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zheng, C. J. Cohen, L. Gattinoni, D. C. Palmer, N. P. Restifo, S. A. Rosenberg, and R. A. Morgan, “High-efficiency transfection of primary human and mouse T lymphocytes using RNA electroporation,” Mol. Ther. 13(1), 151–159 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahu, M.

P. M. Patil, P. D. Chaudharie, M. Sahu, and J. Duragkar, “Review article on gene therapy,” Int. J. Genetics 4, 74–79 (2012).

Saitoh, D.

M. Ogura, S. Sato, K. Nakanishi, M. Uenoyama, T. Kiyozumi, D. Saitoh, T. Ikeda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, “In vivo targeted gene transfer in skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samaniego, A. P.

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. P. Samaniego, J. Wen, L. S. Metelitsa, C. C. Chang, and D. O. Lapotko, “Selective gene transfection of individual cells in vitro with plasmonic nanobubbles,” J. Control. Release 152(2), 286–293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santiago, C.

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, C. Santiago, D. S. Wagner, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Generation and detection of plasmonic nanobubbles in zebrafish,” Nanotechnology 21(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, S.

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Asida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, “Enhanced transfection efficiency in laser-induced stress wave-assisted gene transfer at low laser fluence by increasing pressure impulse,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ogura, S. Sato, K. Nakanishi, M. Uenoyama, T. Kiyozumi, D. Saitoh, T. Ikeda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, “In vivo targeted gene transfer in skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaeublin, N. M.

N. M. Schaeublin, L. K. Braydich-Stolle, A. M. Schrand, J. M. Miller, J. Hutchison, J. J. Schlager, and S. M. Hussain, “Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity,” Nanoscale 3(2), 410–420 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schardl, C. L.

S. Florea, K. Andreeva, C. Machado, P. M. Mirabito, and C. L. Schardl, “Elimination of marker genes from transformed filamentous fungi by unselected transient transfection with a Cre-expressing plasmid,” Fungal Genet. Biol. 46(10), 721–730 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlager, J. J.

N. M. Schaeublin, L. K. Braydich-Stolle, A. M. Schrand, J. M. Miller, J. Hutchison, J. J. Schlager, and S. M. Hussain, “Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity,” Nanoscale 3(2), 410–420 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrand, A. M.

N. M. Schaeublin, L. K. Braydich-Stolle, A. M. Schrand, J. M. Miller, J. Hutchison, J. J. Schlager, and S. M. Hussain, “Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity,” Nanoscale 3(2), 410–420 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S. R.

P. M. Tiwari, K. Vig, V. A. Dennis, and S. R. Singh, “Functionalized gold nanoparticles and their biomedical applications,” J. Nanomater. 1(1), 31–63 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smetannikov, A. S.

V. K. Pustovalov, A. S. Smetannikov, and V. P. Zharov, “Photothermal and accompanied phenomena of selective nanophotothermolysis with gold nanoparticles and laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(11), 775–792 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, M.

S. Inasawa, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser-induced shape transformation of gold nanoparticles below the melting point: the effect of surface melting,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3104–3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takami, A.

A. Takami, H. Kurita, and S. Koda, “Laser-induced size reduction of noble metal particles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(8), 1226–1232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takano, S.

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Asida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, “Enhanced transfection efficiency in laser-induced stress wave-assisted gene transfer at low laser fluence by increasing pressure impulse,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tarpani, L.

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Y. Hu, L. Latterini, L. Tarpani, S. Lee, R. A. Drezek, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubbles as transient vapor nanobubbles generated around plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2109–2123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terakawa, M.

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Asida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, “Enhanced transfection efficiency in laser-induced stress wave-assisted gene transfer at low laser fluence by increasing pressure impulse,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thalmann, G. N.

Tiwari, P. M.

P. M. Tiwari, K. Vig, V. A. Dennis, and S. R. Singh, “Functionalized gold nanoparticles and their biomedical applications,” J. Nanomater. 1(1), 31–63 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V. V.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uenoyama, M.

M. Ogura, S. Sato, K. Nakanishi, M. Uenoyama, T. Kiyozumi, D. Saitoh, T. Ikeda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, “In vivo targeted gene transfer in skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valenzuela, S. M.

D. Pissuwan, S. M. Valenzuela, and M. B. Cortie, “Therapeutic possibilities of plasmonically heated gold nanoparticles,” Trends Biotechnol. 24(2), 62–67 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venugopalan, V.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vig, K.

P. M. Tiwari, K. Vig, V. A. Dennis, and S. R. Singh, “Functionalized gold nanoparticles and their biomedical applications,” J. Nanomater. 1(1), 31–63 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, D. S.

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, D. S. Wagner, M. K. Brenner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Cell-specific transmembrane injection of molecular cargo with gold nanoparticle-generated transient plasmonic nanobubbles,” Biomaterials 33(21), 5441–5450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, C. Santiago, D. S. Wagner, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Generation and detection of plasmonic nanobubbles in zebrafish,” Nanotechnology 21(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, X.

C. M. Pitsillides, E. K. Joe, X. Wei, R. R. Anderson, and C. P. Lin, “Selective cell targeting with light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 4023–4032 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, J.

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. P. Samaniego, J. Wen, L. S. Metelitsa, C. C. Chang, and D. O. Lapotko, “Selective gene transfection of individual cells in vitro with plasmonic nanobubbles,” J. Control. Release 152(2), 286–293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wetterwald, A.

Whitehead, K. A.

K. A. Whitehead, R. Langer, and D. G. Anderson, “Knocking down barriers: advances in siRNA delivery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 8(2), 129–138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willenbrock, S.

Wu, X.

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. Belyanin, S. Kashinath, X. Wu, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubble-enhanced endosomal escape processes for selective and guided intracellular delivery of chemotherapy to drug-resistant cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(6), 1821–1826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

M. Lei, H. Xu, H. Yang, and B. Yao, “Femtosecond laser-assisted microinjection into living neurons,” J. Neurosci. Methods 174(2), 215–218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, Y.

S. Inasawa, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser-induced shape transformation of gold nanoparticles below the melting point: the effect of surface melting,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3104–3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

M. Lei, H. Xu, H. Yang, and B. Yao, “Femtosecond laser-assisted microinjection into living neurons,” J. Neurosci. Methods 174(2), 215–218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, B.

M. Lei, H. Xu, H. Yang, and B. Yao, “Femtosecond laser-assisted microinjection into living neurons,” J. Neurosci. Methods 174(2), 215–218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, C.

C. Yao, X. Qu, Z. Zhang, G. Hüttmann, and R. Rahmanzadeh, “Influence of laser parameters on nanoparticle-induced membrane permeabilization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yao, R. Rahmanzadeh, E. Endl, Z. Zhang, J. Gerdes, and G. Hüttmann, “Elevation of plasma membrane permeability by laser irradiation of selectively bound nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064012 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L. C.

Y. Zhang and L. C. Yu, “Single-cell microinjection technology in cell biology,” Bioessays 30(6), 606–610 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang and L. C. Yu, “Single-cell microinjection technology in cell biology,” Bioessays 30(6), 606–610 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

C. Yao, X. Qu, Z. Zhang, G. Hüttmann, and R. Rahmanzadeh, “Influence of laser parameters on nanoparticle-induced membrane permeabilization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yao, R. Rahmanzadeh, E. Endl, Z. Zhang, J. Gerdes, and G. Hüttmann, “Elevation of plasma membrane permeability by laser irradiation of selectively bound nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064012 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zheng, C. J. Cohen, L. Gattinoni, D. C. Palmer, N. P. Restifo, S. A. Rosenberg, and R. A. Morgan, “High-efficiency transfection of primary human and mouse T lymphocytes using RNA electroporation,” Mol. Ther. 13(1), 151–159 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zharov, V. P.

V. K. Pustovalov, A. S. Smetannikov, and V. P. Zharov, “Photothermal and accompanied phenomena of selective nanophotothermolysis with gold nanoparticles and laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(11), 775–792 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Letfullin, C. Joenathan, T. F. George, and V. P. Zharov, “Laser-induced explosion of gold nanoparticles: potential role for nanophotothermolysis of cancer,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(4), 473–480 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Z.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zheng, C. J. Cohen, L. Gattinoni, D. C. Palmer, N. P. Restifo, S. A. Rosenberg, and R. A. Morgan, “High-efficiency transfection of primary human and mouse T lymphocytes using RNA electroporation,” Mol. Ther. 13(1), 151–159 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

O. C. Farokhzad and R. Langer, “Impact of nanotechnology on drug delivery,” ACS Nano 3(1), 16–20 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Y. Hu, L. Latterini, L. Tarpani, S. Lee, R. A. Drezek, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubbles as transient vapor nanobubbles generated around plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2109–2123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Asida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, “Enhanced transfection efficiency in laser-induced stress wave-assisted gene transfer at low laser fluence by increasing pressure impulse,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

R. Lachaine, E. Boulais, E. Bourbeau, and M. Meunier, “Effect of pulse duration on plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced bubble generation in water,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 2012(Sept.) 1–4 (2012).

Arthritis Res. Ther. (1)

C. H. Evans, S. C. Ghivizzani, and P. D. Robbins, “Arthritis gene therapy’s first death,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 10(3), 110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bioessays (1)

Y. Zhang and L. C. Yu, “Single-cell microinjection technology in cell biology,” Bioessays 30(6), 606–610 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomaterials (3)

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. Belyanin, S. Kashinath, X. Wu, and D. O. Lapotko, “Plasmonic nanobubble-enhanced endosomal escape processes for selective and guided intracellular delivery of chemotherapy to drug-resistant cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(6), 1821–1826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Baumgart, L. Humbert, É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, J. J. Lebrun, and M. Meunier, “Off-resonance plasmonic enhanced femtosecond laser optoporation and transfection of cancer cells,” Biomaterials 33(7), 2345–2350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, D. S. Wagner, M. K. Brenner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Cell-specific transmembrane injection of molecular cargo with gold nanoparticle-generated transient plasmonic nanobubbles,” Biomaterials 33(21), 5441–5450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (2)

C. M. Pitsillides, E. K. Joe, X. Wei, R. R. Anderson, and C. P. Lin, “Selective cell targeting with light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 4023–4032 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Canatella, J. F. Karr, J. A. Petros, and M. R. Prausnitz, “Quantitative study of electroporation-mediated molecular uptake and cell viability,” Biophys. J. 80(2), 755–764 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biotechnol. J. (1)

A. Pathak, S. Patnaik, and K. C. Gupta, “Recent trends in non-viral vector-mediated gene delivery,” Biotechnol. J. 4(11), 1559–1572 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Lett. (1)

D. Lapotko, E. Lukianova, M. Potapnev, O. Aleinikova, and A. Oraevsky, “Method of laser activated nano-thermolysis for elimination of tumor cells,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 36–45 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cell Commun. Adhes. (1)

A. V. Nikolskaya, V. P. Nikolski, and I. R. Efimov, “Gene printer: laser-scanning targeted transfection of cultured cardiac neonatal rat cells,” Cell Commun. Adhes. 13(4), 217–222 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

S. Eustis and M. A. el-Sayed, “Why gold nanoparticles are more precious than pretty gold: noble metal surface plasmon resonance and its enhancement of the radiative and nonradiative properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 35(3), 209–217 (2006).
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Fungal Genet. Biol. (1)

S. Florea, K. Andreeva, C. Machado, P. M. Mirabito, and C. L. Schardl, “Elimination of marker genes from transformed filamentous fungi by unselected transient transfection with a Cre-expressing plasmid,” Fungal Genet. Biol. 46(10), 721–730 (2009).
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Gene Ther. (1)

S. D. Li and L. Huang, “Gene therapy progress and prospects: non-viral gene therapy by systemic delivery,” Gene Ther. 13(18), 1313–1319 (2006).
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Int. J. Genetics (1)

P. M. Patil, P. D. Chaudharie, M. Sahu, and J. Duragkar, “Review article on gene therapy,” Int. J. Genetics 4, 74–79 (2012).

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

C. Yao, X. Qu, Z. Zhang, G. Hüttmann, and R. Rahmanzadeh, “Influence of laser parameters on nanoparticle-induced membrane permeabilization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054034 (2009).
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C. Yao, R. Rahmanzadeh, E. Endl, Z. Zhang, J. Gerdes, and G. Hüttmann, “Elevation of plasma membrane permeability by laser irradiation of selectively bound nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064012 (2005).
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J. Control. Release (1)

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, A. P. Samaniego, J. Wen, L. S. Metelitsa, C. C. Chang, and D. O. Lapotko, “Selective gene transfection of individual cells in vitro with plasmonic nanobubbles,” J. Control. Release 152(2), 286–293 (2011).
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J. Nanomater. (1)

P. M. Tiwari, K. Vig, V. A. Dennis, and S. R. Singh, “Functionalized gold nanoparticles and their biomedical applications,” J. Nanomater. 1(1), 31–63 (2011).
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M. Lei, H. Xu, H. Yang, and B. Yao, “Femtosecond laser-assisted microinjection into living neurons,” J. Neurosci. Methods 174(2), 215–218 (2008).
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J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
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S. Inasawa, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser-induced shape transformation of gold nanoparticles below the melting point: the effect of surface melting,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3104–3111 (2005).
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A. Takami, H. Kurita, and S. Koda, “Laser-induced size reduction of noble metal particles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(8), 1226–1232 (1999).
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A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
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O. Ekici, R. K. Harrison, N. J. Durr, D. S. Eversole, M. Lee, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Thermal analysis of gold nanorods heated with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185501 (2008).
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Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

V. K. Pustovalov, A. S. Smetannikov, and V. P. Zharov, “Photothermal and accompanied phenomena of selective nanophotothermolysis with gold nanoparticles and laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(11), 775–792 (2008).
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M. Ogura, S. Sato, K. Nakanishi, M. Uenoyama, T. Kiyozumi, D. Saitoh, T. Ikeda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, “In vivo targeted gene transfer in skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(3), 242–248 (2004).
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D. O. Lapotko, E. Y. Lukianova, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Selective laser nano-thermolysis of human leukemia cells with microbubbles generated around clusters of gold nanoparticles,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 631–642 (2006).
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L. M. Mir, “Nucleic acids electrotransfer-based gene therapy (electrogenetherapy): past, current, and future,” Mol. Biotechnol. 43(2), 167–176 (2009).
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Y. Zhao, Z. Zheng, C. J. Cohen, L. Gattinoni, D. C. Palmer, N. P. Restifo, S. A. Rosenberg, and R. A. Morgan, “High-efficiency transfection of primary human and mouse T lymphocytes using RNA electroporation,” Mol. Ther. 13(1), 151–159 (2006).
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É. Boulais, R. Lachaine, and M. Meunier, “Plasma mediated off-resonance plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced nanocavitation,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4763–4769 (2012).
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P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Au nanoparticles target cancer,” Nano Today 2(1), 18–29 (2007).
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Nanomedicine (Lond) (1)

R. R. Letfullin, C. Joenathan, T. F. George, and V. P. Zharov, “Laser-induced explosion of gold nanoparticles: potential role for nanophotothermolysis of cancer,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(4), 473–480 (2006).
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Nanoscale (1)

N. M. Schaeublin, L. K. Braydich-Stolle, A. M. Schrand, J. M. Miller, J. Hutchison, J. J. Schlager, and S. M. Hussain, “Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity,” Nanoscale 3(2), 410–420 (2011).
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Nanotechnology (2)

E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, E. Y. Hanna, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics,” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085102 (2010).
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E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, C. Santiago, D. S. Wagner, J. H. Hafner, and D. O. Lapotko, “Generation and detection of plasmonic nanobubbles in zebrafish,” Nanotechnology 21(22), 225102 (2010).
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K. A. Whitehead, R. Langer, and D. G. Anderson, “Knocking down barriers: advances in siRNA delivery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 8(2), 129–138 (2009).
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D. Pissuwan, S. M. Valenzuela, and M. B. Cortie, “Therapeutic possibilities of plasmonically heated gold nanoparticles,” Trends Biotechnol. 24(2), 62–67 (2006).
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K. Sankaranarayanan, S. Radhakrishnan, S. Kanagaraj, R. Rajendran, S. Shahid, P. Kathirvel, V. Sundaresan, V. K. Udayakumar, R. Ramachandran, and R. Sundararajan, “Effect of Irreversible electroporation on cell proliferation in fibroblasts,” Proceedings of the ESA Annual Meeting on Electrostatics (2011), pp. 1–8.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, K. Hopkin, A. Johnson, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and P. Walter, Essential Cell Biology, 2nd ed. (Garland Science, 2009).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Permeabilization rate measured by LY introduction in melanoma cells and 2 h viability (by PI exclusion) in the operating range of fluence for 532 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths. (a) and (b) are cells irradiated without AuNPs while (c) and (d) represent cells with 100 nm AuNPs (n = 3 or 4, the error bars represent the standard deviation).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Comparison of MTT assay for both lasers up to 72 h after treatment. The cells were able to fully recover without any noticeable effect (n = 4, the error bars represent the standard deviation, results from 2 independent experiences). (b) Phase contrast image showing rounded cells (red arrows) after treatment and (c) corresponding fluorescent image showing intake of LY.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images showing AuNPs (red arrows) on cells before and after treatment with their size distribution for both wavelengths. Bar is 2 μm (n = 2, results from 2 independent experiences).

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