Abstract

Time-resolved (TR) techniques provide a means of discriminating photons based on their time-of-flight. Since early arriving photons have a lower probability of probing deeper tissue than photons with long time-of-flight, time-windowing has been suggested as a method for improving depth sensitivity. However, TR measurements also contain instrument contributions (instrument-response-function, IRF), which cause temporal broadening of the measured temporal point-spread function (TPSF) compared to the true distribution of times-of-flight (DTOF). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the IRF on the depth sensitivity of TR measurements. TPSFs were acquired on homogeneous and two-layer tissue-mimicking phantoms with varying optical properties. The measured IRF and TPSFs were deconvolved using a stable algorithm to recover the DTOFs. The microscopic Beer-Lambert law was applied to the TPSFs and DTOFs to obtain depth-resolved absorption changes. In contrast to the DTOF, the latest part of the TPSF was not the most sensitive to absorption changes in the lower layer, which was confirmed by computer simulations. The improved depth sensitivity of the DTOF was illustrated in a pig model of the adult human head. Specifically, it was shown that dynamic absorption changes obtained from the late part of the DTOFs recovered from TPSFs acquired by probes positioned on the scalp were similar to absorption changes measured directly on the brain. These results collectively demonstrate that this method improves the depth sensitivity of TR measurements by removing the effects of the IRF.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

M. Mäkitalo and A. Foi, “Optimal inversion of the Anscombe transformation in low-count Poisson image denoising,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.20(1), 99–109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Dani, S. Pratesi, G. Fontanelli, J. Barp, and G. Bertini, “Blood transfusions increase cerebral, splanchnic, and renal oxygenation in anemic preterm infants,” Transfusion50(6), 1220–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow in a juvenile porcine model by depth-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 037014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

M. Diop, J. T. Elliott, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “A broadband continuous-wave multichannel near-infrared system for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in newborn piglets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(5), 054302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L. T. Jensen, J. Selb, D. A. Boas, and M. Ashina, “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: an experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT,” Eur. J. Neurol.16(4), 461–467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

L. Gagnon, C. Gauthier, R. D. Hoge, F. Lesage, J. Selb, and D. A. Boas, “Double-layer estimation of intra- and extracerebral hemoglobin concentration with a time-resolved system,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. C. Hansen, “Regularization Tools Version 4.0 for Matlab 7.3,” Numer. Algorithms46(2), 189–194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Montcel, R. Chabrier, and P. Poulet, “Detection of cortical activation with time-resolved diffuse optical methods,” Appl. Opt.44(10), 1942–1947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

D. W. Brown, J. Hadway, and T.-Y. Lee, “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in newborn piglets,” Pediatr. Res.54(6), 861–867 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys.28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol.33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science198(4323), 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol.33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashina, M.

H. W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L. T. Jensen, J. Selb, D. A. Boas, and M. Ashina, “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: an experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT,” Eur. J. Neurol.16(4), 461–467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barp, J.

C. Dani, S. Pratesi, G. Fontanelli, J. Barp, and G. Bertini, “Blood transfusions increase cerebral, splanchnic, and renal oxygenation in anemic preterm infants,” Transfusion50(6), 1220–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bays, R.

Belau, M.

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertini, G.

C. Dani, S. Pratesi, G. Fontanelli, J. Barp, and G. Bertini, “Blood transfusions increase cerebral, splanchnic, and renal oxygenation in anemic preterm infants,” Transfusion50(6), 1220–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

H. W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L. T. Jensen, J. Selb, D. A. Boas, and M. Ashina, “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: an experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT,” Eur. J. Neurol.16(4), 461–467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gagnon, C. Gauthier, R. D. Hoge, F. Lesage, J. Selb, and D. A. Boas, “Double-layer estimation of intra- and extracerebral hemoglobin concentration with a time-resolved system,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. W.

D. W. Brown, J. Hadway, and T.-Y. Lee, “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in newborn piglets,” Pediatr. Res.54(6), 861–867 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpenter, C. M.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chabrier, R.

Chance, B.

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys.28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt.28(12), 2331–2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contini, D.

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, and R. Cubeddu, “Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express14(12), 5418–5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol.33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crandall, C. G.

S. L. Davis, P. J. Fadel, J. Cui, G. D. Thomas, and C. G. Crandall, “Skin blood flow influences near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measurements of tissue oxygenation during heat stress,” J. Appl. Physiol.100(1), 221–224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

Cui, J.

S. L. Davis, P. J. Fadel, J. Cui, G. D. Thomas, and C. G. Crandall, “Skin blood flow influences near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measurements of tissue oxygenation during heat stress,” J. Appl. Physiol.100(1), 221–224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dani, C.

C. Dani, S. Pratesi, G. Fontanelli, J. Barp, and G. Bertini, “Blood transfusions increase cerebral, splanchnic, and renal oxygenation in anemic preterm infants,” Transfusion50(6), 1220–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S. C.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S. L.

S. L. Davis, P. J. Fadel, J. Cui, G. D. Thomas, and C. G. Crandall, “Skin blood flow influences near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measurements of tissue oxygenation during heat stress,” J. Appl. Physiol.100(1), 221–224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol.33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinten, J. M.

Diop, M.

J. T. Elliott, D. Milej, A. Gerega, W. Weigl, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, T.-Y. Lee, A. Liebert, and K. St. Lawrence, “Variance of time-of-flight distribution is sensitive to cerebral blood flow as demonstrated by ICG bolus-tracking measurements in adult pigs,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(2), 206–218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Diop and K. St. Lawrence, “Deconvolution method for recovering the photon time-of-flight distribution from time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2358–2360 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow in a juvenile porcine model by depth-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 037014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diop, J. T. Elliott, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “A broadband continuous-wave multichannel near-infrared system for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in newborn piglets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(5), 054302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dögnitz, N.

Eames, M. E.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elliott, J. T.

J. T. Elliott, D. Milej, A. Gerega, W. Weigl, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, T.-Y. Lee, A. Liebert, and K. St. Lawrence, “Variance of time-of-flight distribution is sensitive to cerebral blood flow as demonstrated by ICG bolus-tracking measurements in adult pigs,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(2), 206–218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow in a juvenile porcine model by depth-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 037014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diop, J. T. Elliott, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “A broadband continuous-wave multichannel near-infrared system for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in newborn piglets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(5), 054302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Essenpreis, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fadel, P. J.

S. L. Davis, P. J. Fadel, J. Cui, G. D. Thomas, and C. G. Crandall, “Skin blood flow influences near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measurements of tissue oxygenation during heat stress,” J. Appl. Physiol.100(1), 221–224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firbank, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foi, A.

M. Mäkitalo and A. Foi, “Optimal inversion of the Anscombe transformation in low-count Poisson image denoising,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.20(1), 99–109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontanelli, G.

C. Dani, S. Pratesi, G. Fontanelli, J. Barp, and G. Bertini, “Blood transfusions increase cerebral, splanchnic, and renal oxygenation in anemic preterm infants,” Transfusion50(6), 1220–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, L.

L. Gagnon, C. Gauthier, R. D. Hoge, F. Lesage, J. Selb, and D. A. Boas, “Double-layer estimation of intra- and extracerebral hemoglobin concentration with a time-resolved system,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaudette, T.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, C.

L. Gagnon, C. Gauthier, R. D. Hoge, F. Lesage, J. Selb, and D. A. Boas, “Double-layer estimation of intra- and extracerebral hemoglobin concentration with a time-resolved system,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerega, A.

Gisler, T.

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hadway, J.

D. W. Brown, J. Hadway, and T.-Y. Lee, “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in newborn piglets,” Pediatr. Res.54(6), 861–867 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, P. C.

P. C. Hansen, “Regularization Tools Version 4.0 for Matlab 7.3,” Numer. Algorithms46(2), 189–194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hering, G.

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hervé, L.

Hiraoka, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoge, R. D.

L. Gagnon, C. Gauthier, R. D. Hoge, F. Lesage, J. Selb, and D. A. Boas, “Double-layer estimation of intra- and extracerebral hemoglobin concentration with a time-resolved system,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, L. T.

H. W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L. T. Jensen, J. Selb, D. A. Boas, and M. Ashina, “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: an experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT,” Eur. J. Neurol.16(4), 461–467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jöbsis, F. F.

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science198(4323), 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Lee, T.-Y.

J. T. Elliott, D. Milej, A. Gerega, W. Weigl, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, T.-Y. Lee, A. Liebert, and K. St. Lawrence, “Variance of time-of-flight distribution is sensitive to cerebral blood flow as demonstrated by ICG bolus-tracking measurements in adult pigs,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(2), 206–218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow in a juvenile porcine model by depth-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 037014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diop, J. T. Elliott, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “A broadband continuous-wave multichannel near-infrared system for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in newborn piglets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(5), 054302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Brown, J. Hadway, and T.-Y. Lee, “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in newborn piglets,” Pediatr. Res.54(6), 861–867 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lesage, F.

L. Gagnon, C. Gauthier, R. D. Hoge, F. Lesage, J. Selb, and D. A. Boas, “Double-layer estimation of intra- and extracerebral hemoglobin concentration with a time-resolved system,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebert, A.

Ma, X.

V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, R.

Mäkitalo, M.

M. Mäkitalo and A. Foi, “Optimal inversion of the Anscombe transformation in low-count Poisson image denoising,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.20(1), 99–109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandeville, J. B.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marota, J. J.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migueis, M.

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milej, D.

Möller, M.

Montcel, B.

Morrison, L. B.

Ninck, M.

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys.28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Obrig, H.

Paglia, F.

Patterson, M. S.

Paulsen, K. D.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

Planat-Chrétien, A.

Pogue, B. W.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulet, P.

Pratesi, S.

C. Dani, S. Pratesi, G. Fontanelli, J. Barp, and G. Bertini, “Blood transfusions increase cerebral, splanchnic, and renal oxygenation in anemic preterm infants,” Transfusion50(6), 1220–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puszka, A.

Rinneberg, H.

Schytz, H. W.

H. W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L. T. Jensen, J. Selb, D. A. Boas, and M. Ashina, “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: an experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT,” Eur. J. Neurol.16(4), 461–467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selb, J.

H. W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L. T. Jensen, J. Selb, D. A. Boas, and M. Ashina, “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: an experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT,” Eur. J. Neurol.16(4), 461–467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gagnon, C. Gauthier, R. D. Hoge, F. Lesage, J. Selb, and D. A. Boas, “Double-layer estimation of intra- and extracerebral hemoglobin concentration with a time-resolved system,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorensen, A. G.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, L.

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, and R. Cubeddu, “Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express14(12), 5418–5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St. Lawrence, K.

J. T. Elliott, D. Milej, A. Gerega, W. Weigl, M. Diop, L. B. Morrison, T.-Y. Lee, A. Liebert, and K. St. Lawrence, “Variance of time-of-flight distribution is sensitive to cerebral blood flow as demonstrated by ICG bolus-tracking measurements in adult pigs,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(2), 206–218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Diop and K. St. Lawrence, “Deconvolution method for recovering the photon time-of-flight distribution from time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2358–2360 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow in a juvenile porcine model by depth-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 037014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diop, J. T. Elliott, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “A broadband continuous-wave multichannel near-infrared system for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in newborn piglets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(5), 054302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

Stott, J. J.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strangman, G.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, G. D.

S. L. Davis, P. J. Fadel, J. Cui, G. D. Thomas, and C. G. Crandall, “Skin blood flow influences near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measurements of tissue oxygenation during heat stress,” J. Appl. Physiol.100(1), 221–224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tichauer, K. M.

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow in a juvenile porcine model by depth-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 037014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Diop, J. T. Elliott, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “A broadband continuous-wave multichannel near-infrared system for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in newborn piglets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(5), 054302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, and R. Cubeddu, “Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express14(12), 5418–5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Bergh, H.

van der Zee, P.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.38(12), 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol.33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

Wabnitz, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol.46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagni?res, G.

Weigl, W.

Wienecke, T.

H. W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L. T. Jensen, J. Selb, D. A. Boas, and M. Ashina, “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: an experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT,” Eur. J. Neurol.16(4), 461–467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol.33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol.33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yalavarthy, P. K.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. (1)

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Neurol. (1)

H. W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L. T. Jensen, J. Selb, D. A. Boas, and M. Ashina, “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: an experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT,” Eur. J. Neurol.16(4), 461–467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

M. Mäkitalo and A. Foi, “Optimal inversion of the Anscombe transformation in low-count Poisson image denoising,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.20(1), 99–109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

S. L. Davis, P. J. Fadel, J. Cui, G. D. Thomas, and C. G. Crandall, “Skin blood flow influences near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measurements of tissue oxygenation during heat stress,” J. Appl. Physiol.100(1), 221–224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gagnon, C. Gauthier, R. D. Hoge, F. Lesage, J. Selb, and D. A. Boas, “Double-layer estimation of intra- and extracerebral hemoglobin concentration with a time-resolved system,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Elliott, M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow in a juvenile porcine model by depth-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 037014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Phys. (1)

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys.28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
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Neuroimage (1)

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage13(1), 76–90 (2001).
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Opt. Express (2)

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D. W. Brown, J. Hadway, and T.-Y. Lee, “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in newborn piglets,” Pediatr. Res.54(6), 861–867 (2003).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Diop, K. M. Tichauer, J. T. Elliott, M. Migueis, T.-Y. Lee, and K. St. Lawrence, “Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow,” Proc. SPIE7555, 75550Z (2010).
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C. Dani, S. Pratesi, G. Fontanelli, J. Barp, and G. Bertini, “Blood transfusions increase cerebral, splanchnic, and renal oxygenation in anemic preterm infants,” Transfusion50(6), 1220–1226 (2010).
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H. Wabnitz, A. Liebert, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “Depth selectivity in time-domain optical brain imaging based on time windows and moments of time-of-flight distributions,” in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, St. Petersburg, Florida, 2008), p. BMD9.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, and G. Zaccanti, “Performance Assessment of Time-Domain Optical Brain Imagers: The nEUROPt Protocol,” in Biomedical Optics and 3D Imaging (Miami, 2012).

M. Diop and K. St. Lawrence, “A deconvolution method for recovering tissue impulse response from time-resolved measurements,” in Biomedical Optics (BIOMED) (Miami, 2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the two-layer phantom. Measurements for a homogeneous medium were acquired by removing the top layer and placing the emission and detection optodes 3 cm apart on the surface of the bottom layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) TPSFs measured with the emission and detection probes positioned 3 cm apart on the surface of the homogeneous phantom. The curves were obtained by averaging 32 individual TPSFs, each acquired for 1s. The solid black curve is the TPSF measured at baseline (acquired at 800 kHz) and the cyan curve with the open circles is the TPSF acquired at the highest absorption coefficient (step 4 in Table 1). The dashed black curve is the instrument response function (IRF). Note, the amplitude of the IRF was divided by three for visualization purpose. (b) Corresponding DTOFs obtained by deconvolving the IRF and TPSFs shown in (a). Pathlength-resolved absorption changes (Δμa) recovered from the experimental TPSFs and the deconvolved DTOFs are shown in (c) and (d), respectively. The predicted Δμa from the simulated TPSFs and DTOFs are shown in (e) and (f), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) TPSFs measured with the probes positioned on the surface of the two-layer phantom. Each curve is the average of 32 TPSFs. The black curve is the TPSF at baseline and the cyan curve with the open circles is the TPSF acquired with the largest μa value in the bottom layer (step 4 in Table 1). (b) DTOFs obtained by deconvolving the IRF and TPSFs. Absorption changes (Δμa) recovered from (c) the experimental TPSFs and (d) the corresponding DTOFs. Fig. (e) and (f) are the pathlength-resolved Δμa generated from (e) the simulated TPSFs and (f) the simulated DTOFs. The vertical dashed lines indicate the specific pathlengths used to obtain the data presented in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The absorption changes (Δμa) recovered from the two-layer media are plotted against Δμa in the bottom layer. The Δμa values are shown from early (red), middle (green) and late time-windows (blue) for experimental (a) TPSFs and (b) DTOFs, as well as for simulated (c) TPSFs and (d) DTOFs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Normalized absorption changes for early (black) and late (blue) time-windows (width = 0.1 ns) obtained with the DTOFs recovered from the TPSFs measured by probes positioned on the pig’s scalp at a source-detector separation of 3 cm. (b) and (c) Comparison of the normalized absorption changes determined with the probes placed directly on the brain (red curve with circles) and the normalized Δμa(t) obtained from late time-window of the DTOFs acquired with the probes on the scalp, following two distinct ICG injections (blue and green). Note that the red curves in (b) and (c) are the same.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical properties of the bottom layer (i.e. the homogeneous phantom)a

Equations (5)

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TPSF=IRF*DTOF
TPSF(mΔt)= n=0 m1 IRF([m-n]Δt)DTOF(nΔt)Δt
min x ( Ax-b 2 2 + λ 2 WLx 2 2 )
ln( N i ( T ) N i ( 0 ) )=Δ μ a,i L i
ln( N i ( T ) N i ( 0 ) )=Δ μ a,i v t i

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