Abstract

In this study, we propose a new detection method of nanoparticle-enhanced human papillomavirus genotyping microarrays using a DVD optical pick-up with a photodiode. The HPV genotyping DNA chip was labeled using Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles, prepared on a treatment glass substrate. Then, the bio information of the HPV genotyping target DNA was detected by measuring the difference of the optical signals between the DNA spots and the background parts for cervical cancer diagnosis. Moreover the approximate linear relationship between the concentration of the HPV genotyping target DNA and the optical signal depending on the density of Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles was obtained by performing a spot finding algorithm. It is shown that the nanoparticle-labeled HPV genotyping target DNA can be measured and quantified by collecting the low-cost photodiode signal on the treatment glass chip, replacing high-cost fluorescence microarray scanners using a photomultiplier tube.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. J. Heller, “DNA microarray technology: devices, systems, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.4(1), 129–153 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Hamilton, N. Brown, V. Oseroff, B. Huey, R. Segraves, D. Sudar, J. Kumler, D. Albertson, and D. Pinkel, “A large field CCD system for quantitative imaging of microarrays,” Nucleic Acids Res.34(8), e58–e72 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Ardeshirpour, M. J. Deen, and S. Shirani, “Two-dimensional CMOS-based image sensor system for fluorescent detection,” Can. J. Electr. Comput. Eng.29(4), 231–235 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes,” Science289(5485), 1757–1760 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. C. Tansil and Z. Gao, “Nanoparticles in biomolecular detection,” Nano Today1(1), 28–37 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, I. Alexandre, D. Husar, J. Remacle, and B. Lounis, “Optical readout of gold nanoparticle-based DNA microarrays without silver enhancement,” Biophys. J.90(1), L13–L15 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and S.-G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol.13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. I. Segerink, M. J. Koster, A. J. Sprenkels, and A. van den Berg, “A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for μm sized beads on-chip,” Lab Chip12(10), 1780–1783 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. E. McFadden and L. Schumann, “The role of human papillomavirus in screening for cervical cancer,” J. Am. Acad. Nurse Pract.13(3), 116–126, quiz 127–128 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. X. Bosch and S. de Sanjosé, “Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer,” Curr. Oncol. Rep.4(2), 175–184 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. B. Miller and Y. W. Tang, “Basic concepts of microarrays and potential applications in clinical microbiology,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev.22(4), 611–633 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. J. An, N. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. Lee, S. J. Kim, M. S. Mun, S. H. Kim, and J. K. Jeong, “Correlation of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected with the HPV DNA chip microarray method,” Cancer97(7), 1672–1680 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D.-K. Lim, I.-J. Kim, and J.-M. Nam, “DNA-embedded Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)42(42), 5312–5314 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

L. I. Segerink, M. J. Koster, A. J. Sprenkels, and A. van den Berg, “A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for μm sized beads on-chip,” Lab Chip12(10), 1780–1783 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. B. Miller and Y. W. Tang, “Basic concepts of microarrays and potential applications in clinical microbiology,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev.22(4), 611–633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

D.-K. Lim, I.-J. Kim, and J.-M. Nam, “DNA-embedded Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)42(42), 5312–5314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, and S. G. Jeong, “DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(6), 687–691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and S.-G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol.13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

N. C. Tansil and Z. Gao, “Nanoparticles in biomolecular detection,” Nano Today1(1), 28–37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Hamilton, N. Brown, V. Oseroff, B. Huey, R. Segraves, D. Sudar, J. Kumler, D. Albertson, and D. Pinkel, “A large field CCD system for quantitative imaging of microarrays,” Nucleic Acids Res.34(8), e58–e72 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, I. Alexandre, D. Husar, J. Remacle, and B. Lounis, “Optical readout of gold nanoparticle-based DNA microarrays without silver enhancement,” Biophys. J.90(1), L13–L15 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

Y. Ardeshirpour, M. J. Deen, and S. Shirani, “Two-dimensional CMOS-based image sensor system for fluorescent detection,” Can. J. Electr. Comput. Eng.29(4), 231–235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. J. An, N. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. Lee, S. J. Kim, M. S. Mun, S. H. Kim, and J. K. Jeong, “Correlation of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected with the HPV DNA chip microarray method,” Cancer97(7), 1672–1680 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

F. X. Bosch and S. de Sanjosé, “Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer,” Curr. Oncol. Rep.4(2), 175–184 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Heller, “DNA microarray technology: devices, systems, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.4(1), 129–153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

S. E. McFadden and L. Schumann, “The role of human papillomavirus in screening for cervical cancer,” J. Am. Acad. Nurse Pract.13(3), 116–126, quiz 127–128 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes,” Science289(5485), 1757–1760 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albertson, D.

G. Hamilton, N. Brown, V. Oseroff, B. Huey, R. Segraves, D. Sudar, J. Kumler, D. Albertson, and D. Pinkel, “A large field CCD system for quantitative imaging of microarrays,” Nucleic Acids Res.34(8), e58–e72 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandre, I.

G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, I. Alexandre, D. Husar, J. Remacle, and B. Lounis, “Optical readout of gold nanoparticle-based DNA microarrays without silver enhancement,” Biophys. J.90(1), L13–L15 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, H. J.

H. J. An, N. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. Lee, S. J. Kim, M. S. Mun, S. H. Kim, and J. K. Jeong, “Correlation of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected with the HPV DNA chip microarray method,” Cancer97(7), 1672–1680 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ardeshirpour, Y.

Y. Ardeshirpour, M. J. Deen, and S. Shirani, “Two-dimensional CMOS-based image sensor system for fluorescent detection,” Can. J. Electr. Comput. Eng.29(4), 231–235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berciaud, S.

G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, I. Alexandre, D. Husar, J. Remacle, and B. Lounis, “Optical readout of gold nanoparticle-based DNA microarrays without silver enhancement,” Biophys. J.90(1), L13–L15 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blab, G. A.

G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, I. Alexandre, D. Husar, J. Remacle, and B. Lounis, “Optical readout of gold nanoparticle-based DNA microarrays without silver enhancement,” Biophys. J.90(1), L13–L15 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosch, F. X.

F. X. Bosch and S. de Sanjosé, “Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer,” Curr. Oncol. Rep.4(2), 175–184 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, N.

G. Hamilton, N. Brown, V. Oseroff, B. Huey, R. Segraves, D. Sudar, J. Kumler, D. Albertson, and D. Pinkel, “A large field CCD system for quantitative imaging of microarrays,” Nucleic Acids Res.34(8), e58–e72 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, P. O.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, N. H.

H. J. An, N. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. Lee, S. J. Kim, M. S. Mun, S. H. Kim, and J. K. Jeong, “Correlation of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected with the HPV DNA chip microarray method,” Cancer97(7), 1672–1680 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cognet, L.

G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, I. Alexandre, D. Husar, J. Remacle, and B. Lounis, “Optical readout of gold nanoparticle-based DNA microarrays without silver enhancement,” Biophys. J.90(1), L13–L15 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, R. W.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Sanjosé, S.

F. X. Bosch and S. de Sanjosé, “Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer,” Curr. Oncol. Rep.4(2), 175–184 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deen, M. J.

Y. Ardeshirpour, M. J. Deen, and S. Shirani, “Two-dimensional CMOS-based image sensor system for fluorescent detection,” Can. J. Electr. Comput. Eng.29(4), 231–235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Z.

N. C. Tansil and Z. Gao, “Nanoparticles in biomolecular detection,” Nano Today1(1), 28–37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamilton, G.

G. Hamilton, N. Brown, V. Oseroff, B. Huey, R. Segraves, D. Sudar, J. Kumler, D. Albertson, and D. Pinkel, “A large field CCD system for quantitative imaging of microarrays,” Nucleic Acids Res.34(8), e58–e72 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heller, M. J.

M. J. Heller, “DNA microarray technology: devices, systems, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.4(1), 129–153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huey, B.

G. Hamilton, N. Brown, V. Oseroff, B. Huey, R. Segraves, D. Sudar, J. Kumler, D. Albertson, and D. Pinkel, “A large field CCD system for quantitative imaging of microarrays,” Nucleic Acids Res.34(8), e58–e72 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husar, D.

G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, I. Alexandre, D. Husar, J. Remacle, and B. Lounis, “Optical readout of gold nanoparticle-based DNA microarrays without silver enhancement,” Biophys. J.90(1), L13–L15 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, J. K.

H. J. An, N. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. Lee, S. J. Kim, M. S. Mun, S. H. Kim, and J. K. Jeong, “Correlation of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected with the HPV DNA chip microarray method,” Cancer97(7), 1672–1680 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, S. G.

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, and S. G. Jeong, “DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(6), 687–691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.-G.

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and S.-G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol.13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I. H.

H. J. An, N. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. Lee, S. J. Kim, M. S. Mun, S. H. Kim, and J. K. Jeong, “Correlation of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected with the HPV DNA chip microarray method,” Cancer97(7), 1672–1680 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, I.-J.

D.-K. Lim, I.-J. Kim, and J.-M. Nam, “DNA-embedded Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)42(42), 5312–5314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-H.

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, and S. G. Jeong, “DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(6), 687–691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and S.-G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol.13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, and S. G. Jeong, “DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(6), 687–691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and S.-G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol.13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

H. J. An, N. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. Lee, S. J. Kim, M. S. Mun, S. H. Kim, and J. K. Jeong, “Correlation of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected with the HPV DNA chip microarray method,” Cancer97(7), 1672–1680 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

H. J. An, N. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. Lee, S. J. Kim, M. S. Mun, S. H. Kim, and J. K. Jeong, “Correlation of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected with the HPV DNA chip microarray method,” Cancer97(7), 1672–1680 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koster, M. J.

L. I. Segerink, M. J. Koster, A. J. Sprenkels, and A. van den Berg, “A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for μm sized beads on-chip,” Lab Chip12(10), 1780–1783 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumler, J.

G. Hamilton, N. Brown, V. Oseroff, B. Huey, R. Segraves, D. Sudar, J. Kumler, D. Albertson, and D. Pinkel, “A large field CCD system for quantitative imaging of microarrays,” Nucleic Acids Res.34(8), e58–e72 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

H. J. An, N. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. Lee, S. J. Kim, M. S. Mun, S. H. Kim, and J. K. Jeong, “Correlation of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected with the HPV DNA chip microarray method,” Cancer97(7), 1672–1680 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

H. J. An, N. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. Lee, S. J. Kim, M. S. Mun, S. H. Kim, and J. K. Jeong, “Correlation of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected with the HPV DNA chip microarray method,” Cancer97(7), 1672–1680 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-H.

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and S.-G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol.13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-Y.

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, and S. G. Jeong, “DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(6), 687–691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and S.-G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol.13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Letsinger, R. L.

T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes,” Science289(5485), 1757–1760 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, D.-K.

D.-K. Lim, I.-J. Kim, and J.-M. Nam, “DNA-embedded Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)42(42), 5312–5314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lounis, B.

G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, I. Alexandre, D. Husar, J. Remacle, and B. Lounis, “Optical readout of gold nanoparticle-based DNA microarrays without silver enhancement,” Biophys. J.90(1), L13–L15 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFadden, S. E.

S. E. McFadden and L. Schumann, “The role of human papillomavirus in screening for cervical cancer,” J. Am. Acad. Nurse Pract.13(3), 116–126, quiz 127–128 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, M. B.

M. B. Miller and Y. W. Tang, “Basic concepts of microarrays and potential applications in clinical microbiology,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev.22(4), 611–633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkin, C. A.

T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes,” Science289(5485), 1757–1760 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mun, M. S.

H. J. An, N. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. Lee, S. J. Kim, M. S. Mun, S. H. Kim, and J. K. Jeong, “Correlation of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected with the HPV DNA chip microarray method,” Cancer97(7), 1672–1680 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, J.-M.

D.-K. Lim, I.-J. Kim, and J.-M. Nam, “DNA-embedded Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)42(42), 5312–5314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oseroff, V.

G. Hamilton, N. Brown, V. Oseroff, B. Huey, R. Segraves, D. Sudar, J. Kumler, D. Albertson, and D. Pinkel, “A large field CCD system for quantitative imaging of microarrays,” Nucleic Acids Res.34(8), e58–e72 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinkel, D.

G. Hamilton, N. Brown, V. Oseroff, B. Huey, R. Segraves, D. Sudar, J. Kumler, D. Albertson, and D. Pinkel, “A large field CCD system for quantitative imaging of microarrays,” Nucleic Acids Res.34(8), e58–e72 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remacle, J.

G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, I. Alexandre, D. Husar, J. Remacle, and B. Lounis, “Optical readout of gold nanoparticle-based DNA microarrays without silver enhancement,” Biophys. J.90(1), L13–L15 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schena, M.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schumann, L.

S. E. McFadden and L. Schumann, “The role of human papillomavirus in screening for cervical cancer,” J. Am. Acad. Nurse Pract.13(3), 116–126, quiz 127–128 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segerink, L. I.

L. I. Segerink, M. J. Koster, A. J. Sprenkels, and A. van den Berg, “A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for μm sized beads on-chip,” Lab Chip12(10), 1780–1783 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segraves, R.

G. Hamilton, N. Brown, V. Oseroff, B. Huey, R. Segraves, D. Sudar, J. Kumler, D. Albertson, and D. Pinkel, “A large field CCD system for quantitative imaging of microarrays,” Nucleic Acids Res.34(8), e58–e72 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalon, D.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirani, S.

Y. Ardeshirpour, M. J. Deen, and S. Shirani, “Two-dimensional CMOS-based image sensor system for fluorescent detection,” Can. J. Electr. Comput. Eng.29(4), 231–235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sprenkels, A. J.

L. I. Segerink, M. J. Koster, A. J. Sprenkels, and A. van den Berg, “A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for μm sized beads on-chip,” Lab Chip12(10), 1780–1783 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudar, D.

G. Hamilton, N. Brown, V. Oseroff, B. Huey, R. Segraves, D. Sudar, J. Kumler, D. Albertson, and D. Pinkel, “A large field CCD system for quantitative imaging of microarrays,” Nucleic Acids Res.34(8), e58–e72 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, Y. W.

M. B. Miller and Y. W. Tang, “Basic concepts of microarrays and potential applications in clinical microbiology,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev.22(4), 611–633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tansil, N. C.

N. C. Tansil and Z. Gao, “Nanoparticles in biomolecular detection,” Nano Today1(1), 28–37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taton, T. A.

T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes,” Science289(5485), 1757–1760 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Berg, A.

L. I. Segerink, M. J. Koster, A. J. Sprenkels, and A. van den Berg, “A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for μm sized beads on-chip,” Lab Chip12(10), 1780–1783 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.

M. J. Heller, “DNA microarray technology: devices, systems, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.4(1), 129–153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, I. Alexandre, D. Husar, J. Remacle, and B. Lounis, “Optical readout of gold nanoparticle-based DNA microarrays without silver enhancement,” Biophys. J.90(1), L13–L15 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Can. J. Electr. Comput. Eng.

Y. Ardeshirpour, M. J. Deen, and S. Shirani, “Two-dimensional CMOS-based image sensor system for fluorescent detection,” Can. J. Electr. Comput. Eng.29(4), 231–235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cancer

H. J. An, N. H. Cho, S. Y. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. Lee, S. J. Kim, M. S. Mun, S. H. Kim, and J. K. Jeong, “Correlation of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected with the HPV DNA chip microarray method,” Cancer97(7), 1672–1680 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.)

D.-K. Lim, I.-J. Kim, and J.-M. Nam, “DNA-embedded Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)42(42), 5312–5314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Microbiol. Rev.

M. B. Miller and Y. W. Tang, “Basic concepts of microarrays and potential applications in clinical microbiology,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev.22(4), 611–633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Appl. Phys.

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, and S. G. Jeong, “DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(6), 687–691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Oncol. Rep.

F. X. Bosch and S. de Sanjosé, “Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer,” Curr. Oncol. Rep.4(2), 175–184 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Nurse Pract.

S. E. McFadden and L. Schumann, “The role of human papillomavirus in screening for cervical cancer,” J. Am. Acad. Nurse Pract.13(3), 116–126, quiz 127–128 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lab Chip

L. I. Segerink, M. J. Koster, A. J. Sprenkels, and A. van den Berg, “A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for μm sized beads on-chip,” Lab Chip12(10), 1780–1783 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsyst. Technol.

K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Lee, S. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and S.-G. Jeong, “A new DNA chip detection mechanism using optical pick-up actuators,” Microsyst. Technol.13(8-10), 1359–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Today

N. C. Tansil and Z. Gao, “Nanoparticles in biomolecular detection,” Nano Today1(1), 28–37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucleic Acids Res.

G. Hamilton, N. Brown, V. Oseroff, B. Huey, R. Segraves, D. Sudar, J. Kumler, D. Albertson, and D. Pinkel, “A large field CCD system for quantitative imaging of microarrays,” Nucleic Acids Res.34(8), e58–e72 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes,” Science289(5485), 1757–1760 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Schena, DNA Chip Analysis (Wiley, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A schematic diagram of the DVD optical pick-up with photodiode sensor; (b) DVD pick-up used in experiments and its major components; (c) the experimental setup of photodiode based detection system

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A process diagram of the HPV genotyping microarray preparation; (b) the analysis software to load the scanned image and calculate the signal to background ratio of the HPV genotyping DNA with the low risk 6, 11, 16 and 18 types.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical detection of the spot and background of the DNA chip to calculate the SBR; (b) the diagnostic result of the DNA chip of low risk 11 type for the case of concentration of the target DNA of 0.1 pmol/μl; (c) the relationship between the concentration of the HPV genotyping target DNA and the SBR, and the density of Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images of the Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles for the HPV genotyping microarray with different concentrations of the target DNA (0.05, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 pmol/μl)

Equations (1)

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SBR= R s / R b ,

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