Abstract

Clinical applications of photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) for detection of circulating tumor cells in deep blood vessels are hindered by laser beam scattering, that result in loss of PAFC sensitivity and resolution. We demonstrate biocompatible and rapid optical clearing (OC) of skin to minimize light scattering and thus, increase optical resolution and sensitivity of PAFC. OC effect was achieved in 20 min by sequent skin cleaning, microdermabrasion, and glycerol application enhanced by massage and sonophoresis. Using 0.8 mm mouse skin layer over a blood vessel in vitro phantom we demonstrated 1.6-fold decrease in laser spot blurring accompanied by 1.6-fold increase in PA signal amplitude from blood background. As a result, peak rate for B16F10 melanoma cells in blood flow increased 1.7-fold. By using OC we also demonstrated the feasibility of PA contrast improvement for human hand veins.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  62. ANSI_Z136.1. American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (American National Standards Institute, Washington DC, 2007).

2014

D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics54(1), 56–65 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

C. Y. Lai, B. Z. Fite, and K. W. Ferrara, “Ultrasonic enhancement of drug penetration in solid tumors,” Front Oncol3, 204 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, X. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, and Q. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett.38(20), 4236–4239 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Yu. Yanina, N. A. Trunina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoinduced cell morphology alterations quantified within adipose tissues by spectral optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Optical clearing-aided photoacoustic microscopy with enhanced resolution and imaging depth,” Opt. Lett.38(14), 2592–2595 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. M. Nogueira, and V. V. Tuchin, “The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing,” Laser Phys.23(7), 075606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol.12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Brauer, U. Patel, and E. K. Hale, “Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid,” Clin. Plast. Surg.40(1), 91–99 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

H. K. Kar, L. Gupta, and A. Chauhan, “A comparative study on efficacy of high and low fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and glycolic acid peel in melasma,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol.78(2), 165–171 (2012).
[PubMed]

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha and V. P. Zharov, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry,” Methods57(3), 280–296 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. B. Kauvar, “Successful treatment of melasma using a combination of microdermabrasion and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(2), 117–124 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Kim and A. W. Armstrong, “Current state of acne treatment: highlighting lasers, photodynamic therapy, and chemical peels,” Dermatol. Online J.17(3), 2 (2011), http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0t40h9px .
[PubMed]

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(8), 814–823 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Kirillin, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “In vivo study of the effect of mechanical compression on formation of OCT images of human skin,” J. Biophotonics3(12), 752–758 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res.69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Effect of ethanol on the transport of methylene blue through stratum corneum,” Med. Laser Appl.23(1), 31–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Rylander, T. E. Milner, S. A. Baranov, and J. S. Nelson, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing devices: enhancement of light penetration in ex vivo porcine skin and adipose tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(10), 688–694 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jiang, M. Boese, P. Turner, and R. K. Wang, “Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening,” World J. Gastroenterol.13(2), 192–218 (2007).
[PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, “A clear vision for laser diagnostics (review),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(6), 1621–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett.31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. F. Bernstein, “Laser treatment of tattoos,” Clin. Dermatol.24(1), 43–55 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Menyaev and V. P. Zharov, “Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model,” Proc. SPIE6087, 30–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg.32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H. Sakurai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Machida, “Influence of low-frequency massage device on transdermal absorption of ionic materials,” Int. J. Pharm.305(1-2), 112–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kinnunen and R. Myllylä, “Effect of glucose on photoacoustic signals at the wavelength of 1064 and 532 nm in pig blood and Intralipid,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2654–2661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med.34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol.121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

T. Kurihara-Bergstrom, K. Knutson, L. J. DeNoble, and C. Y. Goates, “Percutaneous absorption enhancement of an ionic molecule by ethanol-water systems in human skin,” Pharm. Res.7(7), 762–766 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrba, P. D.

M. Y. Kirillin, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “In vivo study of the effect of mechanical compression on formation of OCT images of human skin,” J. Biophotonics3(12), 752–758 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al’kov, S. V.

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandru, A.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol.12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altshuler, G. B.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, A. W.

R. H. Kim and A. W. Armstrong, “Current state of acne treatment: highlighting lasers, photodynamic therapy, and chemical peels,” Dermatol. Online J.17(3), 2 (2011), http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0t40h9px .
[PubMed]

Baranov, S. A.

C. G. Rylander, T. E. Milner, S. A. Baranov, and J. S. Nelson, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing devices: enhancement of light penetration in ex vivo porcine skin and adipose tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(10), 688–694 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashkatov, A. N.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Effect of ethanol on the transport of methylene blue through stratum corneum,” Med. Laser Appl.23(1), 31–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernstein, E. F.

E. F. Bernstein, “Laser treatment of tattoos,” Clin. Dermatol.24(1), 43–55 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boese, M.

J. Jiang, M. Boese, P. Turner, and R. K. Wang, “Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brauer, J. A.

J. A. Brauer, U. Patel, and E. K. Hale, “Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid,” Clin. Plast. Surg.40(1), 91–99 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bui, A. K.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, M. I.

L. M. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. M. Nogueira, and V. V. Tuchin, “The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing,” Laser Phys.23(7), 075606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chan, E. K.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, Y. P.

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, J.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chauhan, A.

H. K. Kar, L. Gupta, and A. Chauhan, “A comparative study on efficacy of high and low fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and glycolic acid peel in melasma,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol.78(2), 165–171 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chess, S.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med.34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Childs, J.

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Childs, J. J.

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S. B.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, B.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med.34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, E. H.

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, M. J.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, W. S.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cottet, H.

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeNoble, L. J.

T. Kurihara-Bergstrom, K. Knutson, L. J. DeNoble, and C. Y. Goates, “Percutaneous absorption enhancement of an ionic molecule by ethanol-water systems in human skin,” Pharm. Res.7(7), 762–766 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolotov, L. E.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudelzak, J.

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, C. L.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg.32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, J. Y.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg.32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol.121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y. P.

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrara, K. W.

C. Y. Lai, B. Z. Fite, and K. W. Ferrara, “Ultrasonic enhancement of drug penetration in solid tumors,” Front Oncol3, 204 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fite, B. Z.

C. Y. Lai, B. Z. Fite, and K. W. Ferrara, “Ultrasonic enhancement of drug penetration in solid tumors,” Front Oncol3, 204 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, P. M.

T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galanzha, E. I.

E. I. Galanzha and V. P. Zharov, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry,” Methods57(3), 280–296 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res.69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening,” World J. Gastroenterol.13(2), 192–218 (2007).
[PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett.31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gavrilova, A. A.

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genina, E. A.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Effect of ethanol on the transport of methylene blue through stratum corneum,” Med. Laser Appl.23(1), 31–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glaich, A. S.

T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goates, C. Y.

T. Kurihara-Bergstrom, K. Knutson, L. J. DeNoble, and C. Y. Goates, “Percutaneous absorption enhancement of an ionic molecule by ethanol-water systems in human skin,” Pharm. Res.7(7), 762–766 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, D. J.

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, L. H.

T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gottlieb, G. J.

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregoriou, S.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol.12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, L.

H. K. Kar, L. Gupta, and A. Chauhan, “A comparative study on efficacy of high and low fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and glycolic acid peel in melasma,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol.78(2), 165–171 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hale, E. K.

J. A. Brauer, U. Patel, and E. K. Hale, “Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid,” Clin. Plast. Surg.40(1), 91–99 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Z.

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Y.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirshburg, J.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, C. H.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg.32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol.121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hussain, M.

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyacinth, L.

A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(8), 814–823 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, A.

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izquierdo-Román, A.

A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(8), 814–823 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, M. Boese, P. Turner, and R. K. Wang, “Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, B.

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabisov, R. K.

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamensky, V. A.

M. Y. Kirillin, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “In vivo study of the effect of mechanical compression on formation of OCT images of human skin,” J. Biophotonics3(12), 752–758 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H.

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kar, H. K.

H. K. Kar, L. Gupta, and A. Chauhan, “A comparative study on efficacy of high and low fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and glycolic acid peel in melasma,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol.78(2), 165–171 (2012).
[PubMed]

Katsambas, A.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol.12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, T. M.

T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauvar, A. N. B.

A. N. B. Kauvar, “Successful treatment of melasma using a combination of microdermabrasion and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(2), 117–124 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, M. H.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med.34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khlebtsov, N. G.

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett.31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, R. H.

R. H. Kim and A. W. Armstrong, “Current state of acne treatment: highlighting lasers, photodynamic therapy, and chemical peels,” Dermatol. Online J.17(3), 2 (2011), http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0t40h9px .
[PubMed]

Kim, Y. K.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinnunen, M.

M. Kinnunen and R. Myllylä, “Effect of glucose on photoacoustic signals at the wavelength of 1064 and 532 nm in pig blood and Intralipid,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2654–2661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kirillin, M. Y.

M. Y. Kirillin, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “In vivo study of the effect of mechanical compression on formation of OCT images of human skin,” J. Biophotonics3(12), 752–758 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutson, K.

T. Kurihara-Bergstrom, K. Knutson, L. J. DeNoble, and C. Y. Goates, “Percutaneous absorption enhancement of an ionic molecule by ethanol-water systems in human skin,” Pharm. Res.7(7), 762–766 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kochubey, V. I.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kokoska, M. S.

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kontochristopoulos, G.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol.12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korobko, A. A.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurihara-Bergstrom, T.

T. Kurihara-Bergstrom, K. Knutson, L. J. DeNoble, and C. Y. Goates, “Percutaneous absorption enhancement of an ionic molecule by ethanol-water systems in human skin,” Pharm. Res.7(7), 762–766 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, K.

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, C. Y.

C. Y. Lai, B. Z. Fite, and K. W. Ferrara, “Ultrasonic enhancement of drug penetration in solid tumors,” Front Oncol3, 204 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larin, K. V.

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics54(1), 56–65 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W. R.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg.32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol.121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C. J.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg.32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Luo, Q.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, and Q. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett.38(20), 4236–4239 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M Kelly, K.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med.34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machida, Y.

H. Sakurai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Machida, “Influence of low-frequency massage device on transdermal absorption of ionic materials,” Int. J. Pharm.305(1-2), 112–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackanos, M. A.

E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, Z.

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslyakova, G. N.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McClure, R. A.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCullough, J.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med.34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menyaev, Y. A.

Y. A. Menyaev and V. P. Zharov, “Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model,” Proc. SPIE6087, 30–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyrueix, R.

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

C. G. Rylander, T. E. Milner, S. A. Baranov, and J. S. Nelson, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing devices: enhancement of light penetration in ex vivo porcine skin and adipose tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(10), 688–694 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myllylä, R.

M. Kinnunen and R. Myllylä, “Effect of glucose on photoacoustic signals at the wavelength of 1064 and 532 nm in pig blood and Intralipid,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2654–2661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nedosekin, D. A.

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Rylander, T. E. Milner, S. A. Baranov, and J. S. Nelson, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing devices: enhancement of light penetration in ex vivo porcine skin and adipose tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(10), 688–694 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med.34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nesterov, A. V.

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nogueira, E. M.

L. M. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. M. Nogueira, and V. V. Tuchin, “The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing,” Laser Phys.23(7), 075606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, L. M.

L. M. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. M. Nogueira, and V. V. Tuchin, “The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing,” Laser Phys.23(7), 075606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Park, D.

D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics54(1), 56–65 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics54(1), 56–65 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, U.

J. A. Brauer, U. Patel, and E. K. Hale, “Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid,” Clin. Plast. Surg.40(1), 91–99 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phelps, R. G.

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickett, P. M.

E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pouliquen, G.

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pravdin, A. B.

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, E. V.

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rylander, C. G.

A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(8), 814–823 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Rylander, T. E. Milner, S. A. Baranov, and J. S. Nelson, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing devices: enhancement of light penetration in ex vivo porcine skin and adipose tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(10), 688–694 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rylander, H. G.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakurai, H.

H. Sakurai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Machida, “Influence of low-frequency massage device on transdermal absorption of ionic materials,” Int. J. Pharm.305(1-2), 112–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salavastru, C.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol.12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarimollaoglu, M.

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savrasov, G. V.

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, J.

D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics54(1), 56–65 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shashkov, E. V.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res.69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett.31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, S. C.

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol.121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, R.

Smirnov, M. Z.

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Son, T.

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spring, P. M.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res.69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoianovici, C.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suen, J. Y.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res.69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabatadze, D.

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, Y.

H. Sakurai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Machida, “Influence of low-frequency massage device on transdermal absorption of ionic materials,” Int. J. Pharm.305(1-2), 112–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanghetti, E. A.

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teodor, A.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol.12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trunina, N. A.

I. Yu. Yanina, N. A. Trunina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoinduced cell morphology alterations quantified within adipose tissues by spectral optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, R. Y.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg.32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

I. Yu. Yanina, N. A. Trunina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoinduced cell morphology alterations quantified within adipose tissues by spectral optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. M. Nogueira, and V. V. Tuchin, “The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing,” Laser Phys.23(7), 075606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Effect of ethanol on the transport of methylene blue through stratum corneum,” Med. Laser Appl.23(1), 31–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, “A clear vision for laser diagnostics (review),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(6), 1621–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening,” World J. Gastroenterol.13(2), 192–218 (2007).
[PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett.31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, P.

J. Jiang, M. Boese, P. Turner, and R. K. Wang, “Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vargas, G.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasily, D. B.

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vavouli, C.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol.12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virostko, J.

E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, W. C.

A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(8), 814–823 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.-H.

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol.121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Wang, R. K.

J. Jiang, M. Boese, P. Turner, and R. K. Wang, “Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, H.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, R. A.

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, X.

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, H.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Yanina, I. Yu.

I. Yu. Yanina, N. A. Trunina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoinduced cell morphology alterations quantified within adipose tissues by spectral optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Yaroslavsky, I. V.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.-H.

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, A. T.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, J.

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zharov, V. P.

E. I. Galanzha and V. P. Zharov, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry,” Methods57(3), 280–296 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res.69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening,” World J. Gastroenterol.13(2), 192–218 (2007).
[PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett.31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Menyaev and V. P. Zharov, “Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model,” Proc. SPIE6087, 30–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Z.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhi, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, H.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, D.

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, and Q. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett.38(20), 4236–4239 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubkova, E. A.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol.

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol.151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res.69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Dermatol.

E. F. Bernstein, “Laser treatment of tattoos,” Clin. Dermatol.24(1), 43–55 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Plast. Surg.

J. A. Brauer, U. Patel, and E. K. Hale, “Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid,” Clin. Plast. Surg.40(1), 91–99 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry A

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Online J.

R. H. Kim and A. W. Armstrong, “Current state of acne treatment: highlighting lasers, photodynamic therapy, and chemical peels,” Dermatol. Online J.17(3), 2 (2011), http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0t40h9px .
[PubMed]

Dermatol. Surg.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg.32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Expert Rev. Med. Devices

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Front Oncol

C. Y. Lai, B. Z. Fite, and K. W. Ferrara, “Ultrasonic enhancement of drug penetration in solid tumors,” Front Oncol3, 204 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

V. V. Tuchin, “A clear vision for laser diagnostics (review),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(6), 1621–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol.

H. K. Kar, L. Gupta, and A. Chauhan, “A comparative study on efficacy of high and low fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and glycolic acid peel in melasma,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol.78(2), 165–171 (2012).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Pharm.

H. Sakurai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Machida, “Influence of low-frequency massage device on transdermal absorption of ionic materials,” Int. J. Pharm.305(1-2), 112–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.

T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jiang, M. Boese, P. Turner, and R. K. Wang, “Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 021105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Yu. Yanina, N. A. Trunina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoinduced cell morphology alterations quantified within adipose tissues by spectral optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(11), 111407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Kirillin, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “In vivo study of the effect of mechanical compression on formation of OCT images of human skin,” J. Biophotonics3(12), 752–758 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cosmet. Dermatol.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol.12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther.10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol.121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

M. Kinnunen and R. Myllylä, “Effect of glucose on photoacoustic signals at the wavelength of 1064 and 532 nm in pig blood and Intralipid,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(15), 2654–2661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev.

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

L. M. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. M. Nogueira, and V. V. Tuchin, “The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing,” Laser Phys.23(7), 075606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Rylander, T. E. Milner, S. A. Baranov, and J. S. Nelson, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing devices: enhancement of light penetration in ex vivo porcine skin and adipose tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(10), 688–694 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med.41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med.40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med.43(8), 814–823 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. B. Kauvar, “Successful treatment of melasma using a combination of microdermabrasion and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med.44(2), 117–124 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med.34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med.42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Laser Appl.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Effect of ethanol on the transport of methylene blue through stratum corneum,” Med. Laser Appl.23(1), 31–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Methods

E. I. Galanzha and V. P. Zharov, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry,” Methods57(3), 280–296 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Pharm. Res.

T. Kurihara-Bergstrom, K. Knutson, L. J. DeNoble, and C. Y. Goates, “Percutaneous absorption enhancement of an ionic molecule by ethanol-water systems in human skin,” Pharm. Res.7(7), 762–766 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol.86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

Y. A. Menyaev and V. P. Zharov, “Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model,” Proc. SPIE6087, 30–39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE7161, 716109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasonics

D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics54(1), 56–65 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

World J. Gastroenterol.

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening,” World J. Gastroenterol.13(2), 192–218 (2007).
[PubMed]

Other

R. Myllylä, Z. Zhao, and M. Kinnunen, “Pulsed photoacoustic techniques and glucose determination in human blood and tissue,” in Handbook of Optical Sensing of Glucose in Biological Fluids and Tissues, V.V. Tuchin, ed. (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London, 419–455, 2009).

M. Sarimollaoglu, D. A. Nedosekin, Y. A. Menyaev, M. A. Juratli, and V. P. Zharov, “Nonlinear photoacoustic signal amplification from single targets in absorption background,” Photoacoustics. doi 10.1016/j.pacs.2013.11.002.. (2013).

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, PM166, Bellingham, WA, 2007).

V. V. Tuchin, Optical Clearing of Tissues and Blood (SPIE Press, PM154, Bellingham, WA, 2006).

M. Muir, “DMSO: Many Uses, Much Controversy,” http://www.dmso.org/articles/information/muir.htm
[CrossRef]

K. Ariga, K. Kawakami, and J. P. Hill, “Emerging pressure-release materials for drug delivery,” Expert Opin. Drug. Deliv, (2013). http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1517/17425247.2013.819340

ANSI_Z136.1. American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (American National Standards Institute, Washington DC, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic representation of PAFC principles of melanoma cell detection in deep blood vessels with a focused US transducer. (b) Schematics and (c) photo of in vitro phantom of blood vessel with mouse skin covering the tube. (d) Optical scheme.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Monitoring of optical skin clearing using transmission imaging of the laser beam passing 830 µm skin layer. Typical images (b) and (c) of the laser beam spot before and after OC of the skin presented as a heatmap of irradiation intensity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical properties of skin layer after clearing: (a) transmission and (b) width of laser focal spot before and after OC. Solid curves represent best fit trends: power for (a) and polynomial for (b). (c) The increase in PA signal amplitude of whole blood in a phantom model before and after OC of the skin layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OC improvement of PAFC detection sensitivity for B16F10 melanoma cells enumeration in skin covered flow in vitro phantom. Typical PAFC traces for melanoma cells in flow (a) before and (b) after OC of skin. (c) Dependence of peak rate on the laser pulse energy before and after OC of skin. Data points were fitted using a sigmoid curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OC for human skin. (a) Visual contrast of the vein. (b) Typical changes in PA signal waveform. (c) Typical PAFC traces for a vein in human hand before and after OC. (d) US characterization of the selected vein.

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