Abstract

We demonstrate an automated segmentation method for in-vivo 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the lamina cribrosa (LC). Manual segmentations of coronal slices of the LC were used as a gold standard in parameter selection and evaluation of the automated technique. The method was validated using two prototype OCT devices; each had a subject cohort including both healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Automated segmentation of in-vivo 3D LC OCT microstructure performed comparably to manual segmentation and is useful for investigative research and in clinical quantification of the LC.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

H. Y. Park, C. K. Park, “Diagnostic capability of lamina cribrosa thickness by enhanced depth imaging and factors affecting thickness in patients with glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 120(4), 745–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, M. H. Suh, M. Kang, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Three-dimensional evaluation of the lamina cribrosa using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 198–204 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Akagi, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Nonaka, S. Ooto, N. Yoshimura, “In vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa pores by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 4111–4119 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kiumehr, S. C. Park, D. Syril, C. C. Teng, C. Tello, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “In vivo evaluation of focal lamina cribrosa defects in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 130(5), 552–559 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, A. Patel, E. Plumb, N. Iftimia, T. Y. Chui, J. D. Akula, A. B. Fulton, “Multimodal adaptive optics retinal imager: design and performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(12), 2598–2607 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cardona, S. Saalfeld, J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, S. Preibisch, M. Longair, P. Tomancak, V. Hartenstein, R. J. Douglas, “TrakEM2 software for neural circuit reconstruction,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Boker, M. Neale, H. Maes, M. Wilde, M. Spiegel, T. Brick, J. Spies, R. Estabrook, S. Kenny, T. Bates, P. Mehta, J. Fox, “OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework,” Psychometrika 76(2), 306–317 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Ivers, C. Li, N. Patel, N. Sredar, X. Luo, H. Queener, R. S. Harwerth, J. Porter, “Reproducibility of measuring lamina cribrosa pore geometry in human and nonhuman primates with in vivo adaptive optics imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5473–5480 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Visualization of the lamina cribrosa using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152(1), 87–95, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

C. K. Leung, N. Choi, R. N. Weinreb, S. Liu, C. Ye, L. Liu, G. W. Lai, J. Lau, D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: pattern of RNFL defects in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 117(12), 2337–2344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doube, M. M. Kłosowski, I. Arganda-Carreras, F. P. Cordelières, R. P. Dougherty, J. S. Jackson, B. Schmid, J. R. Hutchinson, S. J. Shefelbine, “BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ,” Bone 47(6), 1076–1079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

L. Kagemann, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, P. M. Brennen, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, J. S. Schuman, “Ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of the lamina cribrosa,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S126–S131 (2008).
[PubMed]

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. HuangAdvanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

H. A. Quigley, A. T. Broman, “The number of people with glaucoma worldwide in 2010 and 2020,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(3), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, L. L. Price, A. Aydin, P. C. Stark, E. Hertzmark, E. Lai, H. Ishikawa, C. Mattox, J. G. Fujimoto, L. A. Paunescu, “Optical coherence tomography longitudinal evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(4), 464–470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, J. Wang, S. A. Beaton, J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of three optical coherence tomography scanning areas for detection of glaucomatous damage,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 39–43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J. K. Suh, R. T. Hart, “The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(1), 39–73 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

G. Tezel, K. Trinkaus, M. B. Wax, “Alterations in the morphology of lamina cribrosa pores in glaucomatous eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 88(2), 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

L. Fontana, A. Bhandari, F. W. Fitzke, R. A. Hitchings, “In vivo morphometry of the lamina cribrosa and its relation to visual field loss in glaucoma,” Curr. Eye Res. 17(4), 363–369 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. R. Green, A. E. Maumenee, “Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma. II. The site of injury and susceptibility to damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99(4), 635–649 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Addicks, E. M.

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. R. Green, A. E. Maumenee, “Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma. II. The site of injury and susceptibility to damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99(4), 635–649 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P. K.

Akagi, T.

T. Akagi, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Nonaka, S. Ooto, N. Yoshimura, “In vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa pores by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 4111–4119 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akula, J. D.

Arganda-Carreras, I.

A. Cardona, S. Saalfeld, J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, S. Preibisch, M. Longair, P. Tomancak, V. Hartenstein, R. J. Douglas, “TrakEM2 software for neural circuit reconstruction,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doube, M. M. Kłosowski, I. Arganda-Carreras, F. P. Cordelières, R. P. Dougherty, J. S. Jackson, B. Schmid, J. R. Hutchinson, S. J. Shefelbine, “BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ,” Bone 47(6), 1076–1079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, A.

G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, L. L. Price, A. Aydin, P. C. Stark, E. Hertzmark, E. Lai, H. Ishikawa, C. Mattox, J. G. Fujimoto, L. A. Paunescu, “Optical coherence tomography longitudinal evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(4), 464–470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, S.

Bates, T.

S. Boker, M. Neale, H. Maes, M. Wilde, M. Spiegel, T. Brick, J. Spies, R. Estabrook, S. Kenny, T. Bates, P. Mehta, J. Fox, “OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework,” Psychometrika 76(2), 306–317 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Beaton, S. A.

G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, J. Wang, S. A. Beaton, J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of three optical coherence tomography scanning areas for detection of glaucomatous damage,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 39–43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellezza, A. J.

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J. K. Suh, R. T. Hart, “The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(1), 39–73 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhandari, A.

L. Fontana, A. Bhandari, F. W. Fitzke, R. A. Hitchings, “In vivo morphometry of the lamina cribrosa and its relation to visual field loss in glaucoma,” Curr. Eye Res. 17(4), 363–369 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bock, R.

Boker, S.

S. Boker, M. Neale, H. Maes, M. Wilde, M. Spiegel, T. Brick, J. Spies, R. Estabrook, S. Kenny, T. Bates, P. Mehta, J. Fox, “OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework,” Psychometrika 76(2), 306–317 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowd, C.

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brennen, P. M.

L. Kagemann, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, P. M. Brennen, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, J. S. Schuman, “Ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of the lamina cribrosa,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S126–S131 (2008).
[PubMed]

Brick, T.

S. Boker, M. Neale, H. Maes, M. Wilde, M. Spiegel, T. Brick, J. Spies, R. Estabrook, S. Kenny, T. Bates, P. Mehta, J. Fox, “OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework,” Psychometrika 76(2), 306–317 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broman, A. T.

H. A. Quigley, A. T. Broman, “The number of people with glaucoma worldwide in 2010 and 2020,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(3), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgoyne, C. F.

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J. K. Suh, R. T. Hart, “The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(1), 39–73 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Downs, M. D. Roberts, C. F. Burgoyne, R. T. Hart, “Multiscale finite element modeling of the lamina cribrosa microarchitecture in the eye,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference in Medicine and Biology (2009), 4277–4280.
[CrossRef]

Cable, A. E.

Cardona, A.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cardona, S. Saalfeld, J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, S. Preibisch, M. Longair, P. Tomancak, V. Hartenstein, R. J. Douglas, “TrakEM2 software for neural circuit reconstruction,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, J.

Choi, N.

C. K. Leung, N. Choi, R. N. Weinreb, S. Liu, C. Ye, L. Liu, G. W. Lai, J. Lau, D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: pattern of RNFL defects in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 117(12), 2337–2344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

Chui, T. Y.

Cordelières, F. P.

M. Doube, M. M. Kłosowski, I. Arganda-Carreras, F. P. Cordelières, R. P. Dougherty, J. S. Jackson, B. Schmid, J. R. Hutchinson, S. J. Shefelbine, “BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ,” Bone 47(6), 1076–1079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doube, M.

M. Doube, M. M. Kłosowski, I. Arganda-Carreras, F. P. Cordelières, R. P. Dougherty, J. S. Jackson, B. Schmid, J. R. Hutchinson, S. J. Shefelbine, “BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ,” Bone 47(6), 1076–1079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dougherty, R. P.

M. Doube, M. M. Kłosowski, I. Arganda-Carreras, F. P. Cordelières, R. P. Dougherty, J. S. Jackson, B. Schmid, J. R. Hutchinson, S. J. Shefelbine, “BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ,” Bone 47(6), 1076–1079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douglas, R. J.

A. Cardona, S. Saalfeld, J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, S. Preibisch, M. Longair, P. Tomancak, V. Hartenstein, R. J. Douglas, “TrakEM2 software for neural circuit reconstruction,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Downs, J. C.

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T. Akagi, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Nonaka, S. Ooto, N. Yoshimura, “In vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa pores by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 4111–4119 (2012).
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C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J. K. Suh, R. T. Hart, “The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(1), 39–73 (2005).
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Hitchings, R. A.

L. Fontana, A. Bhandari, F. W. Fitzke, R. A. Hitchings, “In vivo morphometry of the lamina cribrosa and its relation to visual field loss in glaucoma,” Curr. Eye Res. 17(4), 363–369 (1998).
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Hornegger, J.

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M. Doube, M. M. Kłosowski, I. Arganda-Carreras, F. P. Cordelières, R. P. Dougherty, J. S. Jackson, B. Schmid, J. R. Hutchinson, S. J. Shefelbine, “BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ,” Bone 47(6), 1076–1079 (2010).
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Inoue, R.

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L. Kagemann, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, P. M. Brennen, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, J. S. Schuman, “Ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of the lamina cribrosa,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S126–S131 (2008).
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E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Visualization of the lamina cribrosa using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152(1), 87–95, e1 (2011).
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E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, M. H. Suh, M. Kang, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Three-dimensional evaluation of the lamina cribrosa using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 198–204 (2012).
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E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Visualization of the lamina cribrosa using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152(1), 87–95, e1 (2011).
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Lai, E.

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C. K. Leung, N. Choi, R. N. Weinreb, S. Liu, C. Ye, L. Liu, G. W. Lai, J. Lau, D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: pattern of RNFL defects in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 117(12), 2337–2344 (2010).
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C. K. Leung, N. Choi, R. N. Weinreb, S. Liu, C. Ye, L. Liu, G. W. Lai, J. Lau, D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: pattern of RNFL defects in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 117(12), 2337–2344 (2010).
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E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, M. H. Suh, M. Kang, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Three-dimensional evaluation of the lamina cribrosa using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 198–204 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Visualization of the lamina cribrosa using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152(1), 87–95, e1 (2011).
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C. K. Leung, N. Choi, R. N. Weinreb, S. Liu, C. Ye, L. Liu, G. W. Lai, J. Lau, D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: pattern of RNFL defects in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 117(12), 2337–2344 (2010).
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K. M. Ivers, C. Li, N. Patel, N. Sredar, X. Luo, H. Queener, R. S. Harwerth, J. Porter, “Reproducibility of measuring lamina cribrosa pore geometry in human and nonhuman primates with in vivo adaptive optics imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5473–5480 (2011).
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O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. HuangAdvanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Kiumehr, S. C. Park, D. Syril, C. C. Teng, C. Tello, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “In vivo evaluation of focal lamina cribrosa defects in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 130(5), 552–559 (2012).
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Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

C. K. Leung, N. Choi, R. N. Weinreb, S. Liu, C. Ye, L. Liu, G. W. Lai, J. Lau, D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: pattern of RNFL defects in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 117(12), 2337–2344 (2010).
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C. K. Leung, N. Choi, R. N. Weinreb, S. Liu, C. Ye, L. Liu, G. W. Lai, J. Lau, D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: pattern of RNFL defects in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 117(12), 2337–2344 (2010).
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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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A. Cardona, S. Saalfeld, J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, S. Preibisch, M. Longair, P. Tomancak, V. Hartenstein, R. J. Douglas, “TrakEM2 software for neural circuit reconstruction,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38011 (2012).
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O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. HuangAdvanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
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K. M. Ivers, C. Li, N. Patel, N. Sredar, X. Luo, H. Queener, R. S. Harwerth, J. Porter, “Reproducibility of measuring lamina cribrosa pore geometry in human and nonhuman primates with in vivo adaptive optics imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5473–5480 (2011).
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S. Boker, M. Neale, H. Maes, M. Wilde, M. Spiegel, T. Brick, J. Spies, R. Estabrook, S. Kenny, T. Bates, P. Mehta, J. Fox, “OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework,” Psychometrika 76(2), 306–317 (2011).
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G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, L. L. Price, A. Aydin, P. C. Stark, E. Hertzmark, E. Lai, H. Ishikawa, C. Mattox, J. G. Fujimoto, L. A. Paunescu, “Optical coherence tomography longitudinal evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(4), 464–470 (2005).
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Maumenee, A. E.

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. R. Green, A. E. Maumenee, “Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma. II. The site of injury and susceptibility to damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99(4), 635–649 (1981).
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Medeiros, F. A.

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Mehta, P.

S. Boker, M. Neale, H. Maes, M. Wilde, M. Spiegel, T. Brick, J. Spies, R. Estabrook, S. Kenny, T. Bates, P. Mehta, J. Fox, “OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework,” Psychometrika 76(2), 306–317 (2011).
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R. Inoue, M. Hangai, Y. Kotera, H. Nakanishi, S. Mori, S. Morishita, N. Yoshimura, “Three-dimensional high-speed optical coherence tomography imaging of lamina cribrosa in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 116(2), 214–222 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morishita, S.

R. Inoue, M. Hangai, Y. Kotera, H. Nakanishi, S. Mori, S. Morishita, N. Yoshimura, “Three-dimensional high-speed optical coherence tomography imaging of lamina cribrosa in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 116(2), 214–222 (2009).
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Mujat, M.

Nakanishi, H.

R. Inoue, M. Hangai, Y. Kotera, H. Nakanishi, S. Mori, S. Morishita, N. Yoshimura, “Three-dimensional high-speed optical coherence tomography imaging of lamina cribrosa in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 116(2), 214–222 (2009).
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Neale, M.

S. Boker, M. Neale, H. Maes, M. Wilde, M. Spiegel, T. Brick, J. Spies, R. Estabrook, S. Kenny, T. Bates, P. Mehta, J. Fox, “OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework,” Psychometrika 76(2), 306–317 (2011).
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Nonaka, A.

T. Akagi, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Nonaka, S. Ooto, N. Yoshimura, “In vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa pores by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 4111–4119 (2012).
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Ooto, S.

T. Akagi, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Nonaka, S. Ooto, N. Yoshimura, “In vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa pores by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 4111–4119 (2012).
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Park, C. K.

H. Y. Park, C. K. Park, “Diagnostic capability of lamina cribrosa thickness by enhanced depth imaging and factors affecting thickness in patients with glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 120(4), 745–752 (2013).
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Park, H. Y.

H. Y. Park, C. K. Park, “Diagnostic capability of lamina cribrosa thickness by enhanced depth imaging and factors affecting thickness in patients with glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 120(4), 745–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K. H.

E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, M. H. Suh, M. Kang, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Three-dimensional evaluation of the lamina cribrosa using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 198–204 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Visualization of the lamina cribrosa using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152(1), 87–95, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. C.

S. Kiumehr, S. C. Park, D. Syril, C. C. Teng, C. Tello, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “In vivo evaluation of focal lamina cribrosa defects in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 130(5), 552–559 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, A.

Patel, N.

K. M. Ivers, C. Li, N. Patel, N. Sredar, X. Luo, H. Queener, R. S. Harwerth, J. Porter, “Reproducibility of measuring lamina cribrosa pore geometry in human and nonhuman primates with in vivo adaptive optics imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5473–5480 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paunescu, L. A.

G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, L. L. Price, A. Aydin, P. C. Stark, E. Hertzmark, E. Lai, H. Ishikawa, C. Mattox, J. G. Fujimoto, L. A. Paunescu, “Optical coherence tomography longitudinal evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(4), 464–470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pietzsch, T.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plumb, E.

Porter, J.

K. M. Ivers, C. Li, N. Patel, N. Sredar, X. Luo, H. Queener, R. S. Harwerth, J. Porter, “Reproducibility of measuring lamina cribrosa pore geometry in human and nonhuman primates with in vivo adaptive optics imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5473–5480 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Povazay, B.

Preibisch, S.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cardona, S. Saalfeld, J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, S. Preibisch, M. Longair, P. Tomancak, V. Hartenstein, R. J. Douglas, “TrakEM2 software for neural circuit reconstruction,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, L. L.

G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, L. L. Price, A. Aydin, P. C. Stark, E. Hertzmark, E. Lai, H. Ishikawa, C. Mattox, J. G. Fujimoto, L. A. Paunescu, “Optical coherence tomography longitudinal evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(4), 464–470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queener, H.

K. M. Ivers, C. Li, N. Patel, N. Sredar, X. Luo, H. Queener, R. S. Harwerth, J. Porter, “Reproducibility of measuring lamina cribrosa pore geometry in human and nonhuman primates with in vivo adaptive optics imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5473–5480 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quigley, H. A.

H. A. Quigley, A. T. Broman, “The number of people with glaucoma worldwide in 2010 and 2020,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(3), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. R. Green, A. E. Maumenee, “Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma. II. The site of injury and susceptibility to damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99(4), 635–649 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rangaswamy, N. V.

Ritch, R.

S. Kiumehr, S. C. Park, D. Syril, C. C. Teng, C. Tello, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “In vivo evaluation of focal lamina cribrosa defects in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 130(5), 552–559 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, M. D.

J. C. Downs, M. D. Roberts, C. F. Burgoyne, R. T. Hart, “Multiscale finite element modeling of the lamina cribrosa microarchitecture in the eye,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference in Medicine and Biology (2009), 4277–4280.
[CrossRef]

Roorda, A.

Rueden, C.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saalfeld, S.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cardona, S. Saalfeld, J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, S. Preibisch, M. Longair, P. Tomancak, V. Hartenstein, R. J. Douglas, “TrakEM2 software for neural circuit reconstruction,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schindelin, J.

A. Cardona, S. Saalfeld, J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, S. Preibisch, M. Longair, P. Tomancak, V. Hartenstein, R. J. Douglas, “TrakEM2 software for neural circuit reconstruction,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, B.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doube, M. M. Kłosowski, I. Arganda-Carreras, F. P. Cordelières, R. P. Dougherty, J. S. Jackson, B. Schmid, J. R. Hutchinson, S. J. Shefelbine, “BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ,” Bone 47(6), 1076–1079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Townsend, G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, “Imaging of the retinal nerve fibre layer for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(2), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, P. M. Brennen, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, J. S. Schuman, “Ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of the lamina cribrosa,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S126–S131 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, J. Wang, S. A. Beaton, J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of three optical coherence tomography scanning areas for detection of glaucomatous damage,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 39–43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, L. L. Price, A. Aydin, P. C. Stark, E. Hertzmark, E. Lai, H. Ishikawa, C. Mattox, J. G. Fujimoto, L. A. Paunescu, “Optical coherence tomography longitudinal evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(4), 464–470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shefelbine, S. J.

M. Doube, M. M. Kłosowski, I. Arganda-Carreras, F. P. Cordelières, R. P. Dougherty, J. S. Jackson, B. Schmid, J. R. Hutchinson, S. J. Shefelbine, “BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ,” Bone 47(6), 1076–1079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, E. L.

Spiegel, M.

S. Boker, M. Neale, H. Maes, M. Wilde, M. Spiegel, T. Brick, J. Spies, R. Estabrook, S. Kenny, T. Bates, P. Mehta, J. Fox, “OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework,” Psychometrika 76(2), 306–317 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spies, J.

S. Boker, M. Neale, H. Maes, M. Wilde, M. Spiegel, T. Brick, J. Spies, R. Estabrook, S. Kenny, T. Bates, P. Mehta, J. Fox, “OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework,” Psychometrika 76(2), 306–317 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sredar, N.

K. M. Ivers, C. Li, N. Patel, N. Sredar, X. Luo, H. Queener, R. S. Harwerth, J. Porter, “Reproducibility of measuring lamina cribrosa pore geometry in human and nonhuman primates with in vivo adaptive optics imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5473–5480 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stark, P. C.

G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, L. L. Price, A. Aydin, P. C. Stark, E. Hertzmark, E. Lai, H. Ishikawa, C. Mattox, J. G. Fujimoto, L. A. Paunescu, “Optical coherence tomography longitudinal evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(4), 464–470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, J. K.

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J. K. Suh, R. T. Hart, “The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(1), 39–73 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, M. H.

E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, M. H. Suh, M. Kang, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Three-dimensional evaluation of the lamina cribrosa using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 198–204 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Susanna, R.

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Syril, D.

S. Kiumehr, S. C. Park, D. Syril, C. C. Teng, C. Tello, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “In vivo evaluation of focal lamina cribrosa defects in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 130(5), 552–559 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takayama, K.

T. Akagi, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Nonaka, S. Ooto, N. Yoshimura, “In vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa pores by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 4111–4119 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. HuangAdvanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tello, C.

S. Kiumehr, S. C. Park, D. Syril, C. C. Teng, C. Tello, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “In vivo evaluation of focal lamina cribrosa defects in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 130(5), 552–559 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, C. C.

S. Kiumehr, S. C. Park, D. Syril, C. C. Teng, C. Tello, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “In vivo evaluation of focal lamina cribrosa defects in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 130(5), 552–559 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tezel, G.

G. Tezel, K. Trinkaus, M. B. Wax, “Alterations in the morphology of lamina cribrosa pores in glaucomatous eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 88(2), 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tinevez, J. Y.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomancak, P.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cardona, S. Saalfeld, J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, S. Preibisch, M. Longair, P. Tomancak, V. Hartenstein, R. J. Douglas, “TrakEM2 software for neural circuit reconstruction,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torti, C.

Townsend, K. A.

K. A. Townsend, G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, “Imaging of the retinal nerve fibre layer for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(2), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, P. M. Brennen, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, J. S. Schuman, “Ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of the lamina cribrosa,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S126–S131 (2008).
[PubMed]

Trinkaus, K.

G. Tezel, K. Trinkaus, M. B. Wax, “Alterations in the morphology of lamina cribrosa pores in glaucomatous eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 88(2), 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

Varma, R.

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. HuangAdvanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vessani, R. M.

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilupuru, A. S.

Wang, J.

G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, J. Wang, S. A. Beaton, J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of three optical coherence tomography scanning areas for detection of glaucomatous damage,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 39–43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, M. B.

G. Tezel, K. Trinkaus, M. B. Wax, “Alterations in the morphology of lamina cribrosa pores in glaucomatous eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 88(2), 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, M. H. Suh, M. Kang, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Three-dimensional evaluation of the lamina cribrosa using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 198–204 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Visualization of the lamina cribrosa using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152(1), 87–95, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Leung, N. Choi, R. N. Weinreb, S. Liu, C. Ye, L. Liu, G. W. Lai, J. Lau, D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: pattern of RNFL defects in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 117(12), 2337–2344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

White, D. J.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilde, M.

S. Boker, M. Neale, H. Maes, M. Wilde, M. Spiegel, T. Brick, J. Spies, R. Estabrook, S. Kenny, T. Bates, P. Mehta, J. Fox, “OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework,” Psychometrika 76(2), 306–317 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

K. A. Townsend, G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, “Imaging of the retinal nerve fibre layer for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(2), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, P. M. Brennen, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, J. S. Schuman, “Ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of the lamina cribrosa,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S126–S131 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, J. Wang, S. A. Beaton, J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of three optical coherence tomography scanning areas for detection of glaucomatous damage,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 39–43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, L. L. Price, A. Aydin, P. C. Stark, E. Hertzmark, E. Lai, H. Ishikawa, C. Mattox, J. G. Fujimoto, L. A. Paunescu, “Optical coherence tomography longitudinal evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(4), 464–470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, C.

C. K. Leung, N. Choi, R. N. Weinreb, S. Liu, C. Ye, L. Liu, G. W. Lai, J. Lau, D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: pattern of RNFL defects in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 117(12), 2337–2344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimura, N.

T. Akagi, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Nonaka, S. Ooto, N. Yoshimura, “In vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa pores by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 4111–4119 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Inoue, M. Hangai, Y. Kotera, H. Nakanishi, S. Mori, S. Morishita, N. Yoshimura, “Three-dimensional high-speed optical coherence tomography imaging of lamina cribrosa in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 116(2), 214–222 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zangwill, L. M.

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, J. Wang, S. A. Beaton, J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of three optical coherence tomography scanning areas for detection of glaucomatous damage,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 39–43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Visualization of the lamina cribrosa using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152(1), 87–95, e1 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (3)

S. Kiumehr, S. C. Park, D. Syril, C. C. Teng, C. Tello, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “In vivo evaluation of focal lamina cribrosa defects in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 130(5), 552–559 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. R. Green, A. E. Maumenee, “Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma. II. The site of injury and susceptibility to damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99(4), 635–649 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, L. L. Price, A. Aydin, P. C. Stark, E. Hertzmark, E. Lai, H. Ishikawa, C. Mattox, J. G. Fujimoto, L. A. Paunescu, “Optical coherence tomography longitudinal evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in glaucoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(4), 464–470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Bone (1)

M. Doube, M. M. Kłosowski, I. Arganda-Carreras, F. P. Cordelières, R. P. Dougherty, J. S. Jackson, B. Schmid, J. R. Hutchinson, S. J. Shefelbine, “BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ,” Bone 47(6), 1076–1079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

G. Tezel, K. Trinkaus, M. B. Wax, “Alterations in the morphology of lamina cribrosa pores in glaucomatous eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 88(2), 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Quigley, A. T. Broman, “The number of people with glaucoma worldwide in 2010 and 2020,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(3), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Townsend, G. Wollstein, J. S. Schuman, “Imaging of the retinal nerve fibre layer for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(2), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

L. Fontana, A. Bhandari, F. W. Fitzke, R. A. Hitchings, “In vivo morphometry of the lamina cribrosa and its relation to visual field loss in glaucoma,” Curr. Eye Res. 17(4), 363–369 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

T. Akagi, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Nonaka, S. Ooto, N. Yoshimura, “In vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa pores by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 4111–4119 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Ivers, C. Li, N. Patel, N. Sredar, X. Luo, H. Queener, R. S. Harwerth, J. Porter, “Reproducibility of measuring lamina cribrosa pore geometry in human and nonhuman primates with in vivo adaptive optics imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5473–5480 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Lee, T. W. Kim, R. N. Weinreb, M. H. Suh, M. Kang, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, “Three-dimensional evaluation of the lamina cribrosa using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 198–204 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Methods (1)

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging (1)

L. Kagemann, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, P. M. Brennen, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, J. S. Schuman, “Ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of the lamina cribrosa,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S126–S131 (2008).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmology (4)

C. K. Leung, N. Choi, R. N. Weinreb, S. Liu, C. Ye, L. Liu, G. W. Lai, J. Lau, D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: pattern of RNFL defects in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 117(12), 2337–2344 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. HuangAdvanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Inoue, M. Hangai, Y. Kotera, H. Nakanishi, S. Mori, S. Morishita, N. Yoshimura, “Three-dimensional high-speed optical coherence tomography imaging of lamina cribrosa in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 116(2), 214–222 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Park, C. K. Park, “Diagnostic capability of lamina cribrosa thickness by enhanced depth imaging and factors affecting thickness in patients with glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 120(4), 745–752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

PLoS ONE (1)

A. Cardona, S. Saalfeld, J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, S. Preibisch, M. Longair, P. Tomancak, V. Hartenstein, R. J. Douglas, “TrakEM2 software for neural circuit reconstruction,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e38011 (2012).
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Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SS-OCT scan of healthy eye. B-scan frames are stacked (a) into a 3D data cube from which an individual C-mode slice is selected at random (at the location of the dotted line on the left) to undergo manual and automated segmentation analysis (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Automated pore segmentation process for MAO-OCT scan. Following a 3D-Gaussian filter, a C-mode slice is randomly selected from the stack (1). A local contrast enhancement highlights local features of the structure (2), which are then thresholded (3). A 3D median filter removes pores unconnected in depth and the regions exterior to the visible lamina are masked (4). Finally, the segmentation is overlaid on the original image for subjective evaluation (5). The outline for automated segmentation is shown in green.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Automated segmentation results for MAO-OCT (a-c) and SS-OCT (d-f). Solid arrow (a) points to a region where blood vessel shadow is unmasked, and as a result the pore boundaries exhibit irregular boarders within the shadow. Dotted arrow (c) shows region where small adjacent pores are combined into a single pore.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The unprocessed C-mode slice (a) and corresponding segmentation (b) for a scan of a healthy eye taken with the SS-OCT device. For pores identified by both automated and manual segmentations the automated pores are colored red and manual are colored blue so that overlapping segmentation appears as purple. Pores identified only by the automated method are colored yellow and those seen solely in the manual segmentation are colored green.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The unprocessed C-mode slice (a,c) and corresponding segmentation (b,d) for scans of one glaucomatous (top) and one healthy eye (bottom) taken with the MAO-OCT system. Segmentations are colored according the scheme outlined in Fig. 4. The top image shows relatively good agreement between manual and automated methods, while the bottom images exhibit regions of segmentation disagreement; the arrow points to pores identified in the automated method but not manually. These locations exhibits low signal-to-noise ratio in the original image (c), which explains the discrepancy.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Average measurement and imprecision estimate for each segmentation method using SS-OCT

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Table 2 Average measurement and imprecision estimate for each segmentation method using MAO-OCT

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Table 3 Final parameter values selected for segmentation for SS-OCT and MAO-OCT

Equations (1)

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I s e g m e n t e d = { b a c k g r o u n d , I f I o r i g i n a l > μ + k × σ + c ; o b j e c t , e l s e

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