Abstract

Morgan and colleagues demonstrated that the RPE cell mosaic can be resolved in the living human eye non-invasively by imaging the short-wavelength autofluorescence using an adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscope. This method, based on the assumption that all subjects have the same longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) correction, has proved difficult to use in diseased eyes, and in particular those affected by age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this work, we improve Morgan’s method by accounting for chromatic aberration variations by optimizing the confocal aperture axial and transverse placement through an automated iterative maximization of image intensity. The increase in image intensity after algorithmic aperture placement varied depending upon patient and aperture position prior to optimization but increases as large as a factor of 10 were observed. When using a confocal aperture of 3.4 Airy disks in diameter, images were obtained using retinal radiant exposures of less than 2.44 J/cm2, which is ~22 times below the current ANSI maximum permissible exposure. RPE cell morphologies that were strikingly similar to those seen in postmortem histological studies were observed in AMD eyes, even in areas where the pattern of fluorescence appeared normal in commercial fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images. This new method can be used to study RPE morphology in AMD and other diseases, providing a powerful tool for understanding disease pathogenesis and progression, and offering a new means to assess the efficacy of treatments designed to restore RPE health.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

M. Rudolf, S. D. Vogt, C. A. Curcio, C. Huisingh, G. McGwin, A. Wagner, S. Grisanti, R. W. Read, “Histologic basis of variations in retinal pigment epithelium autofluorescence in eyes with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 120(4), 821–828 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

E. A. Rossi, D. R. Williams, A. Dubra, H. Song, M. A. Folwell, L. R. Latchney, M. M. Chung, “Photoreceptor and RPE Disruptions Observed Outside Clinically Visible Geographic Atrophy Lesions in the Living Eye with Fluorescence Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (FAOSLO),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, E–Abstract 5599 (2012).

2011

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Sayegh, C. Simader, U. Scheschy, A. Montuoro, C. Kiss, S. Sacu, D. P. Kreil, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “A systematic comparison of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence in patients with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 118(9), 1844–1851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Delori, J. P. Greenberg, R. L. Woods, J. Fischer, T. Duncker, J. Sparrow, R. T. Smith, “Quantitative measurements of autofluorescence with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(13), 9379–9390 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

D. H. Sliney, J. J. Hunter, F. C. Delori, D. R. Williams, J. Mellerio, “Competing Photochemical Retinal Damage Mechanisms From Visible Light: Implications for Human Retinal Exposure Limits,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, E-Abstract 3456 (2010).

2009

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, D. R. Williams, “The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 6015–6022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, D. R. Williams, “In vivo autofluorescence imaging of the human and macaque retinal pigment epithelial cell mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, D. H. Sliney, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1250–1265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Holz, A. Bindewald-Wittich, M. Fleckenstein, J. Dreyhaupt, H. P. N. Scholl, S. Schmitz-ValckenbergFAM-Study Group, “Progression of geographic atrophy and impact of fundus autofluorescence patterns in age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 463–472, 472.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

2002

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, J. Fan, A. Halfyard, A. C. Bird, “Abnormalities of fundus autofluorescence in central serous retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 133(6), 780–786 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

F. C. Delori, M. R. Fleckner, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, C. K. Dorey, “Autofluorescence distribution associated with drusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(2), 496–504 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999

R. Adler, C. Curcio, D. Hicks, D. Price, F. Wong, “Cell death in age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vis. 5, 31 (1999).
[PubMed]

1997

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “In vivo fundus autofluorescence in macular dystrophies,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(5), 609–615 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Fundus autofluorescence in age-related macular disease imaged with a laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(2), 478–486 (1997).
[PubMed]

D. H. Brainard, “The psychophysics toolbox,” Spat. Vis. 10(4), 433–436 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: Transforming numbers into movies,” Spat. Vis. 10(4), 437–442 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Distribution of fundus autofluorescence with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79(5), 407–412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 718–729 (1995).
[PubMed]

1992

1985

W. R. Green, P. J. McDonnell, J. H. Yeo, “Pathologic features of senile macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 92(5), 615–627 (1985).
[PubMed]

1975

C. J. Blair, “Geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. A manifestation of senile macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 93(1), 19–25 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972

J. D. Gass, “Drusen and disciform macular detachment and degeneration,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 70, 409–436 (1972).
[PubMed]

1965

J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A Simplex Method for Function Minimization,” Comput. J. 7(4), 308–313 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Adler, R.

R. Adler, C. Curcio, D. Hicks, D. Price, F. Wong, “Cell death in age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vis. 5, 31 (1999).
[PubMed]

Ahamd, K.

Albuquerque, R. J. C.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambati, B. K.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambati, J.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arend, O.

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 718–729 (1995).
[PubMed]

Artal, P.

Baffi, J. Z.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bindewald-Wittich, A.

F. G. Holz, A. Bindewald-Wittich, M. Fleckenstein, J. Dreyhaupt, H. P. N. Scholl, S. Schmitz-ValckenbergFAM-Study Group, “Progression of geographic atrophy and impact of fundus autofluorescence patterns in age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 463–472, 472.e2 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bird, A. C.

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, J. Fan, A. Halfyard, A. C. Bird, “Abnormalities of fundus autofluorescence in central serous retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 133(6), 780–786 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Fundus autofluorescence in age-related macular disease imaged with a laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(2), 478–486 (1997).
[PubMed]

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “In vivo fundus autofluorescence in macular dystrophies,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(5), 609–615 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Distribution of fundus autofluorescence with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79(5), 407–412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, C. J.

C. J. Blair, “Geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. A manifestation of senile macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 93(1), 19–25 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blandford, A. D.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Bogdanovich, S.

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H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Hermann, B.

Hicks, D.

R. Adler, C. Curcio, D. Hicks, D. Price, F. Wong, “Cell death in age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vis. 5, 31 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hinton, D. R.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Hunter, J. J.

D. H. Sliney, J. J. Hunter, F. C. Delori, D. R. Williams, J. Mellerio, “Competing Photochemical Retinal Damage Mechanisms From Visible Light: Implications for Human Retinal Exposure Limits,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, E-Abstract 3456 (2010).

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, D. R. Williams, “The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 6015–6022 (2009).
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J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
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H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Kaneko, H.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Karikó, K.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Kiss, C.

R. G. Sayegh, C. Simader, U. Scheschy, A. Montuoro, C. Kiss, S. Sacu, D. P. Kreil, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “A systematic comparison of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence in patients with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 118(9), 1844–1851 (2011).
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H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Kreil, D. P.

R. G. Sayegh, C. Simader, U. Scheschy, A. Montuoro, C. Kiss, S. Sacu, D. P. Kreil, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “A systematic comparison of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence in patients with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 118(9), 1844–1851 (2011).
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Kugel, J. F.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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E. A. Rossi, D. R. Williams, A. Dubra, H. Song, M. A. Folwell, L. R. Latchney, M. M. Chung, “Photoreceptor and RPE Disruptions Observed Outside Clinically Visible Geographic Atrophy Lesions in the Living Eye with Fluorescence Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (FAOSLO),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, E–Abstract 5599 (2012).

Lee, D. K.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Littman, D. R.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Madigan, M. C.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Masella, B.

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
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W. R. Green, P. J. McDonnell, J. H. Yeo, “Pathologic features of senile macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 92(5), 615–627 (1985).
[PubMed]

McGwin, G.

M. Rudolf, S. D. Vogt, C. A. Curcio, C. Huisingh, G. McGwin, A. Wagner, S. Grisanti, R. W. Read, “Histologic basis of variations in retinal pigment epithelium autofluorescence in eyes with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 120(4), 821–828 (2013).
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Mead, R.

J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A Simplex Method for Function Minimization,” Comput. J. 7(4), 308–313 (1965).
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Mellerio, J.

D. H. Sliney, J. J. Hunter, F. C. Delori, D. R. Williams, J. Mellerio, “Competing Photochemical Retinal Damage Mechanisms From Visible Light: Implications for Human Retinal Exposure Limits,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, E-Abstract 3456 (2010).

Merigan, W.

Merigan, W. H.

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, D. R. Williams, “The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 6015–6022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, D. R. Williams, “In vivo autofluorescence imaging of the human and macaque retinal pigment epithelial cell mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
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Milam, A. H.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Misra, S.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montuoro, A.

R. G. Sayegh, C. Simader, U. Scheschy, A. Montuoro, C. Kiss, S. Sacu, D. P. Kreil, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “A systematic comparison of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence in patients with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 118(9), 1844–1851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, J. I. W.

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, D. R. Williams, “The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 6015–6022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, D. R. Williams, “In vivo autofluorescence imaging of the human and macaque retinal pigment epithelial cell mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelder, J. A.

J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A Simplex Method for Function Minimization,” Comput. J. 7(4), 308–313 (1965).
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D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: Transforming numbers into movies,” Spat. Vis. 10(4), 437–442 (1997).
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M. Kleiner, D. Brainard, D. G. Pelli, “What’s new in Psychtoolbox-3?” Perception36, (2007).

Ponicsan, S. L.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Porter, J.

Price, D.

R. Adler, C. Curcio, D. Hicks, D. Price, F. Wong, “Cell death in age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vis. 5, 31 (1999).
[PubMed]

Prieto, P.

Provis, J. M.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Provost, P.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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R. G. Sayegh, C. Simader, U. Scheschy, A. Montuoro, C. Kiss, S. Sacu, D. P. Kreil, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “A systematic comparison of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence in patients with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 118(9), 1844–1851 (2011).
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M. Rudolf, S. D. Vogt, C. A. Curcio, C. Huisingh, G. McGwin, A. Wagner, S. Grisanti, R. W. Read, “Histologic basis of variations in retinal pigment epithelium autofluorescence in eyes with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 120(4), 821–828 (2013).
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Roorda, A.

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E. A. Rossi, D. R. Williams, A. Dubra, H. Song, M. A. Folwell, L. R. Latchney, M. M. Chung, “Photoreceptor and RPE Disruptions Observed Outside Clinically Visible Geographic Atrophy Lesions in the Living Eye with Fluorescence Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (FAOSLO),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, E–Abstract 5599 (2012).

Rudin, C. M.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Rudolf, S. D. Vogt, C. A. Curcio, C. Huisingh, G. McGwin, A. Wagner, S. Grisanti, R. W. Read, “Histologic basis of variations in retinal pigment epithelium autofluorescence in eyes with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 120(4), 821–828 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. G. Sayegh, C. Simader, U. Scheschy, A. Montuoro, C. Kiss, S. Sacu, D. P. Kreil, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “A systematic comparison of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence in patients with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 118(9), 1844–1851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. G. Sayegh, C. Simader, U. Scheschy, A. Montuoro, C. Kiss, S. Sacu, D. P. Kreil, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “A systematic comparison of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence in patients with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 118(9), 1844–1851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. G. Sayegh, C. Simader, U. Scheschy, A. Montuoro, C. Kiss, S. Sacu, D. P. Kreil, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “A systematic comparison of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence in patients with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 118(9), 1844–1851 (2011).
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R. G. Sayegh, C. Simader, U. Scheschy, A. Montuoro, C. Kiss, S. Sacu, D. P. Kreil, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “A systematic comparison of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence in patients with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 118(9), 1844–1851 (2011).
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F. G. Holz, A. Bindewald-Wittich, M. Fleckenstein, J. Dreyhaupt, H. P. N. Scholl, S. Schmitz-ValckenbergFAM-Study Group, “Progression of geographic atrophy and impact of fundus autofluorescence patterns in age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 463–472, 472.e2 (2007).
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F. G. Holz, A. Bindewald-Wittich, M. Fleckenstein, J. Dreyhaupt, H. P. N. Scholl, S. Schmitz-ValckenbergFAM-Study Group, “Progression of geographic atrophy and impact of fundus autofluorescence patterns in age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 463–472, 472.e2 (2007).
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R. G. Sayegh, C. Simader, U. Scheschy, A. Montuoro, C. Kiss, S. Sacu, D. P. Kreil, C. Prünte, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “A systematic comparison of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence in patients with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 118(9), 1844–1851 (2011).
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D. H. Sliney, J. J. Hunter, F. C. Delori, D. R. Williams, J. Mellerio, “Competing Photochemical Retinal Damage Mechanisms From Visible Light: Implications for Human Retinal Exposure Limits,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, E-Abstract 3456 (2010).

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, D. H. Sliney, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1250–1265 (2007).
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F. Delori, J. P. Greenberg, R. L. Woods, J. Fischer, T. Duncker, J. Sparrow, R. T. Smith, “Quantitative measurements of autofluorescence with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(13), 9379–9390 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hwang, J. W. K. Chan, S. Chang, R. T. Smith, “Predictive value of fundus autofluorescence for development of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(6), 2655–2661 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. A. Rossi, D. R. Williams, A. Dubra, H. Song, M. A. Folwell, L. R. Latchney, M. M. Chung, “Photoreceptor and RPE Disruptions Observed Outside Clinically Visible Geographic Atrophy Lesions in the Living Eye with Fluorescence Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (FAOSLO),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, E–Abstract 5599 (2012).

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H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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F. Delori, J. P. Greenberg, R. L. Woods, J. Fischer, T. Duncker, J. Sparrow, R. T. Smith, “Quantitative measurements of autofluorescence with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(13), 9379–9390 (2011).
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F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 718–729 (1995).
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Tarallo, V.

H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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Tiruveedhula, P.

Tumbar, R.

Twietmeyer, T. H.

Unterhuber, A.

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M. Rudolf, S. D. Vogt, C. A. Curcio, C. Huisingh, G. McGwin, A. Wagner, S. Grisanti, R. W. Read, “Histologic basis of variations in retinal pigment epithelium autofluorescence in eyes with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 120(4), 821–828 (2013).
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A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, J. Fan, A. Halfyard, A. C. Bird, “Abnormalities of fundus autofluorescence in central serous retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 133(6), 780–786 (2002).
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A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “In vivo fundus autofluorescence in macular dystrophies,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(5), 609–615 (1997).
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A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Fundus autofluorescence in age-related macular disease imaged with a laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(2), 478–486 (1997).
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A. von Rückmann, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, “Distribution of fundus autofluorescence with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79(5), 407–412 (1995).
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M. Rudolf, S. D. Vogt, C. A. Curcio, C. Huisingh, G. McGwin, A. Wagner, S. Grisanti, R. W. Read, “Histologic basis of variations in retinal pigment epithelium autofluorescence in eyes with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 120(4), 821–828 (2013).
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Weiter, J. J.

F. C. Delori, M. R. Fleckner, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, C. K. Dorey, “Autofluorescence distribution associated with drusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(2), 496–504 (2000).
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E. A. Rossi, D. R. Williams, A. Dubra, H. Song, M. A. Folwell, L. R. Latchney, M. M. Chung, “Photoreceptor and RPE Disruptions Observed Outside Clinically Visible Geographic Atrophy Lesions in the Living Eye with Fluorescence Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (FAOSLO),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, E–Abstract 5599 (2012).

D. H. Sliney, J. J. Hunter, F. C. Delori, D. R. Williams, J. Mellerio, “Competing Photochemical Retinal Damage Mechanisms From Visible Light: Implications for Human Retinal Exposure Limits,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, E-Abstract 3456 (2010).

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, D. R. Williams, “The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 6015–6022 (2009).
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J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
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J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, D. R. Williams, “In vivo autofluorescence imaging of the human and macaque retinal pigment epithelial cell mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
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J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, D. R. Williams, “In vivo autofluorescence imaging of the human and macaque retinal pigment epithelial cell mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
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J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
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R. Adler, C. Curcio, D. Hicks, D. Price, F. Wong, “Cell death in age-related macular degeneration,” Mol. Vis. 5, 31 (1999).
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W. R. Green, P. J. McDonnell, J. H. Yeo, “Pathologic features of senile macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 92(5), 615–627 (1985).
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H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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H. Kaneko, S. Dridi, V. Tarallo, B. D. Gelfand, B. J. Fowler, W. G. Cho, M. E. Kleinman, S. L. Ponicsan, W. W. Hauswirth, V. A. Chiodo, K. Karikó, J. W. Yoo, D. K. Lee, M. Hadziahmetovic, Y. Song, S. Misra, G. Chaudhuri, F. W. Buaas, R. E. Braun, D. R. Hinton, Q. Zhang, H. E. Grossniklaus, J. M. Provis, M. C. Madigan, A. H. Milam, N. L. Justice, R. J. C. Albuquerque, A. D. Blandford, S. Bogdanovich, Y. Hirano, J. Witta, E. Fuchs, D. R. Littman, B. K. Ambati, C. M. Rudin, M. M. W. Chong, P. Provost, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich, J. L. Dunaief, J. Z. Baffi, J. Ambati, “DICER1 deficit induces Alu RNA toxicity in age-related macular degeneration,” Nature 471(7338), 325–330 (2011).
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J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, D. R. Williams, “The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 6015–6022 (2009).
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J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, D. R. Williams, “In vivo autofluorescence imaging of the human and macaque retinal pigment epithelial cell mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(3), 1350–1359 (2008).
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E. A. Rossi, D. R. Williams, A. Dubra, H. Song, M. A. Folwell, L. R. Latchney, M. M. Chung, “Photoreceptor and RPE Disruptions Observed Outside Clinically Visible Geographic Atrophy Lesions in the Living Eye with Fluorescence Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (FAOSLO),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, E–Abstract 5599 (2012).

F. C. Delori, M. R. Fleckner, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, C. K. Dorey, “Autofluorescence distribution associated with drusen in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(2), 496–504 (2000).
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F. Delori, J. P. Greenberg, R. L. Woods, J. Fischer, T. Duncker, J. Sparrow, R. T. Smith, “Quantitative measurements of autofluorescence with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(13), 9379–9390 (2011).
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F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 718–729 (1995).
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J. Borggaard, NELDER_MEAD[Computer software] (2009). http://people.sc.fsu.edu/~jburkardt/m_src/nelder_mead/nelder_mead.html

A. Dubra and Z. Harvey, “Registration of 2D Images from Fast Scanning Ophthalmic Instruments,” in Biomedical Image Registration, B. Fischer, B. M. Dawant, and C. Lorenz, eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science No. 6204 (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010), pp. 60–71.

P. Rangel-Fonseca, A. Gomez-Vieyra, D. Malacara-Hernández, M. C. Wilson-Herran, M. M. Chung, D. R. Williams, and E. A. Rossi, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 are preparing a manuscript to be called “Automated segmentation of retinal pigment epithelium cells in fluorescence adaptive optics images.”

J. I. W. Morgan, “In vivo imaging of the retinal pigment epithelial cells,” (University of Rochester, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nelder-Mead algorithm validated on a model eye. The start (white x’s) and end positions (white o’s) for 20 random starting points are overlaid on the intensity profile of the focused spot; solid lines link start and end positions and do not represent the algorithm path. Panels (a)-(c) show different views of the same data sliced at the maximum intensity position, showing coronal (a), side (b) and overhead (c) views. Note the difference in scale between the (x,y) and (z) dimensions. Color bar shows relation between color and normalized intensity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wide field FAF cSLO images and FAOSLO image locations. Images for subjects AMD1, AMD2, normal young healthy control & AMD3 are shown in panels (a), (b), (c), & (d), respectively. FAOSLO image locations shown in subsequent figures are outlined in yellow. Scale bar is 400 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence adaptive optics images of the RPE mosaic at locations marked in Fig. 2 for (a) AMD1-1 (b) AMD1-2 (c) AMD2-1 (d) AMD2-2 (e) AMD3-1, and (f) normal young control-1. Scale bar is 50 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Segmented RPE cells from FAOSLO images shown in Fig. 3. (a) AMD1-1 (b) AMD1-2 (c) AMD2-1 (d) AMD2-2 (e) AMD3-1, and (f) normal young control-1. Scale bar is 50 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Despite fairly uniform FAF in cSLO, RPE mosaic imaged in AOSLO shows deviation from normal morphology. (a) Location 2 from AMD2 in FAOSLO (from Fig. 4(c)), compared to corresponding area imaged in FAF cSLO Spectralis, where some structure can be seen, but individual cells are not resolved, contrast has been stretched in (b) for comparison to AOSLO and original FAF image without contrast adjustment. Scale bar is 50 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AMD eyes show greater variance in cell area. Segmented cells colored by area for: (a) AMD1-1, (b) AMD1-2, (c) AMD2-1, (d) AMD2-2, (e) AMD3-1, (f) normal young control-1 and (g) normal young control-2. Color bar shows relation between color and area. Below each image is the corresponding histogram of cell sizes. Note the difference in number of cells for each image (y-axis of each histogram); bin sizes are identical. Normal eyes show a tight, fairly normal distribution of sizes (histograms below (f) and (g)), while the AMD eyes (histograms below a-e) show larger variance, with both larger and smaller cells.

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