Abstract

Fractional photothermolysis induced by non-ablative fractional lasers (NAFLs) or ablative fractional lasers (AFLs) can remodel the skin, regenerate collagen, and remove tumor tissue. However, fractional laser treatments may result in severe side effects, and multiple treatments are required to achieve the expected outcome. Thus, the treatment outcome and downtime after fractional laser treatments are key issues to determine the following treatment strategy. In this study, an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system was implemented for in vivo studies of wound healing after NAFL and AFL treatments. According to the OCT scanning results, the laser-induced photothermolysis including volatilization and coagulation could be morphologically identified. To continue monitoring the wound healing process, the treated regions were scanned with OCT at different time points, and the en-face images at various tissue depths were extracted from three-dimensional OCT images. Furthermore, to quantitatively evaluate the morphological changes at different tissue depths during wound healing, an algorithm was developed to distinguish the backscattering properties of untreated and treated tissues. The results showed that the coagulation damage induced by the NAFLs could be rapidly healed in 6 days. In contrast, the tissue volatilization induced by AFLs required a longer recovery time of 14 days. In conclusion, this study establishes the feasibility of this methodology as a means of clinically monitoring treatment outcomes and wound healing after fractional laser treatments.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

C. C. Wang, C. L. Huang, S. C. Lee, Y. M. Sue, F. J. Leu, “Treatment of cosmetic tattoos with nonablative fractional laser in an animal model: A novel method with histopathologic evidence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(2), 116–122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Sattler, K. Poloczek, R. Kästle, J. Welzel, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography for the evaluation of the kinetics and quantification of wound healing after fractional laser therapy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 69(4), e165–e173 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Deka, W. W. Wu, F. J. Kao, “In vivo wound healing diagnosis with second harmonic and fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061222 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Longo, M. Galimberti, B. De Pace, G. Pellacani, P. L. Bencini, “Laser skin rejuvenation: epidermal changes and collagen remodeling evaluated by in vivo confocal microscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(3), 769–776 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, P. J. Gong, F. M. Wood, D. D. Sampson, “In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061213 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Pereira, C. C. Barrias, P. L. Granja, P. J. Bartolo, “Advanced biofabrication strategies for skin regeneration and repair,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 8(4), 603–621 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, E. Z. Zhang, W. Fox, M. Rajadhyaksha, “Combined reflectance confocal microscopy/optical coherence tomography imaging for skin burn assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(5), 680–695 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

G. J. Liu, W. C. Jia, V. T. Sun, B. Choi, Z. P. Chen, “High-resolution imaging of microvasculature in human skin in-vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7694–7705 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-7-7694&origin=search .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lange-Asschenfeldt, A. Bob, D. Terhorst, M. Ulrich, J. Fluhr, G. Mendez, H. J. Roewert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, “Applicability of confocal laser scanning microscopy for evaluation and monitoring of cutaneous wound healing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076016 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

A. Barui, P. Banerjee, R. Patra, R. K. Das, S. Dhara, P. K. Dutta, J. Chatterjee, “Swept-source optical coherence tomography of lower limb wound healing with histopathological correlation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 026010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grunewald, M. Bodendorf, M. Llles, M. Kendler, J. C. Simon, U. Paasch, “In vivo wound healing and dermal matrix remodeling in response to fractional CO2 laser intervention: Clinicopathological correlation in non-facial skin,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 27(8), 811–818 (2011).

M. T. Tsai, F. Y. Chang, C. K. Lee, T. T. Chi, K. M. Yang, L. Y. Lin, J. T. Wu, C. C. Yang, “Observations of cardiac beating behaviors of wild-type and mutant Drosophilae with optical coherence tomography,” J Biophotonics 4(9), 610–618 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, N. Nakagawa, Y. Yasuno, “In vivo evaluation of human skin anisotropy by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2623–2631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, R. K. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(10), 2770–2783 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/boe/abstract.cfm?URI=boe-2-10-2770&origin=search .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

C. P. Pan, Y. H. Shi, K. Amin, C. S. Greenberg, Z. Haroon, G. W. Faris, “Wound healing monitoring using near infrared fluorescent fibrinogen,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 285–294 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/boe/abstract.cfm?uri=boe-1-1-285 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Z. Freitas, L. R. Freschi, R. E. Samad, D. M. Zezell, S. C. Gouw-Soares, N. D. Vieira., “Determination of ablation threshold for composite resins and amalgam irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 236–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Ohmi, M. Tanigawa, A. Yamada, Y. Ueda, M. Haruna, “Dynamic analysis of internal and external mental sweating by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. F. Stumpp, V. P. Bedi, D. Wyatt, D. Lac, Z. Rahman, K. F. Chan, “In vivo confocal imaging of epidermal cell migration and dermal changes post nonablative fractional resurfacing: study of the wound healing process with corroborated histopathologic evidence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024018 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. K. Lee, C. H. Yu, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. C. Chang, Y. M. Wang, C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15847–15862 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-20-15847 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

Y. Yasuno, Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1- um swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6121–6139 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-10-6121 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Hantash, M. B. Mahmood, “Fractional photothermolysis: A novel aesthetic laser surgery modality,” Dermatol. Surg. 33(5), 525–534 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tannous, “Fractional resurfacing,” Clin. Dermatol. 25(5), 480–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Hantash, V. P. Bedi, K. F. Chan, C. B. Zachary, “Ex vivo histological characterization of a novel ablative fractional resurfacing device,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(2), 87–95 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(2), 142–149 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cobb, Y. C. Chen, R. A. Underwood, M. L. Usui, J. Olerud, X. D. Li, “Noninvasive assessment of cutaneous wound healing using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. Manstein, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, R. R. Anderson, “Fractional photothermolysis: A new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(5), 426–438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-12-11-2404 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. Jung, B. Kao, K. M. Kelly, L. H. L. Liaw, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Optical coherence tomography for in vitro monitoring of wound healing after laser irradiation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 222–226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. B. Zachary, “Modulating the Er:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 223–226 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

T. S. Alster, S. Garg, “Treatment of facial rhytides with a high-energy pulsed carbon dioxide laser,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 98(5), 791–794 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

Alberts, D. S.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alex, A.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alster, T. S.

T. S. Alster, S. Garg, “Treatment of facial rhytides with a high-energy pulsed carbon dioxide laser,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 98(5), 791–794 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amin, K.

An, L.

Anderson, R. R.

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(2), 142–149 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Manstein, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, R. R. Anderson, “Fractional photothermolysis: A new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(5), 426–438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, P.

A. Barui, P. Banerjee, R. Patra, R. K. Das, S. Dhara, P. K. Dutta, J. Chatterjee, “Swept-source optical coherence tomography of lower limb wound healing with histopathological correlation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 026010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnette, D.

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A. Barui, P. Banerjee, R. Patra, R. K. Das, S. Dhara, P. K. Dutta, J. Chatterjee, “Swept-source optical coherence tomography of lower limb wound healing with histopathological correlation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 026010 (2011).
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V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
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A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
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Lee, H. C.

Lee, S. C.

C. C. Wang, C. L. Huang, S. C. Lee, Y. M. Sue, F. J. Leu, “Treatment of cosmetic tattoos with nonablative fractional laser in an animal model: A novel method with histopathologic evidence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(2), 116–122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leu, F. J.

C. C. Wang, C. L. Huang, S. C. Lee, Y. M. Sue, F. J. Leu, “Treatment of cosmetic tattoos with nonablative fractional laser in an animal model: A novel method with histopathologic evidence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(2), 116–122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P.

Li, X. D.

M. J. Cobb, Y. C. Chen, R. A. Underwood, M. L. Usui, J. Olerud, X. D. Li, “Noninvasive assessment of cutaneous wound healing using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liaw, L. H. L.

W. G. Jung, B. Kao, K. M. Kelly, L. H. L. Liaw, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Optical coherence tomography for in vitro monitoring of wound healing after laser irradiation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 222–226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liew, Y. M.

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, P. J. Gong, F. M. Wood, D. D. Sampson, “In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061213 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, Y.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, L. Y.

M. T. Tsai, F. Y. Chang, C. K. Lee, T. T. Chi, K. M. Yang, L. Y. Lin, J. T. Wu, C. C. Yang, “Observations of cardiac beating behaviors of wild-type and mutant Drosophilae with optical coherence tomography,” J Biophotonics 4(9), 610–618 (2011).
[PubMed]

Liu, G. J.

Liu, H. L.

M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Llles, M.

S. Grunewald, M. Bodendorf, M. Llles, M. Kendler, J. C. Simon, U. Paasch, “In vivo wound healing and dermal matrix remodeling in response to fractional CO2 laser intervention: Clinicopathological correlation in non-facial skin,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 27(8), 811–818 (2011).

Longo, C.

C. Longo, M. Galimberti, B. De Pace, G. Pellacani, P. L. Bencini, “Laser skin rejuvenation: epidermal changes and collagen remodeling evaluated by in vivo confocal microscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(3), 769–776 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahato, K. K.

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmood, M. B.

B. M. Hantash, M. B. Mahmood, “Fractional photothermolysis: A novel aesthetic laser surgery modality,” Dermatol. Surg. 33(5), 525–534 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Manstein, D.

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(2), 142–149 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Manstein, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, R. R. Anderson, “Fractional photothermolysis: A new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(5), 426–438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, M.

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinlay, J. R.

E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, P. J. Gong, F. M. Wood, D. D. Sampson, “In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061213 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendez, G.

S. Lange-Asschenfeldt, A. Bob, D. Terhorst, M. Ulrich, J. Fluhr, G. Mendez, H. J. Roewert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, “Applicability of confocal laser scanning microscopy for evaluation and monitoring of cutaneous wound healing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076016 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, C. H.

E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

Miyazawa, A.

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Nakagawa, N.

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, N. Nakagawa, Y. Yasuno, “In vivo evaluation of human skin anisotropy by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2623–2631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. Jung, B. Kao, K. M. Kelly, L. H. L. Liaw, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Optical coherence tomography for in vitro monitoring of wound healing after laser irradiation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 222–226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nemecek, R.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohmi, M.

M. Ohmi, M. Tanigawa, A. Yamada, Y. Ueda, M. Haruna, “Dynamic analysis of internal and external mental sweating by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olerud, J.

M. J. Cobb, Y. C. Chen, R. A. Underwood, M. L. Usui, J. Olerud, X. D. Li, “Noninvasive assessment of cutaneous wound healing using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paasch, U.

S. Grunewald, M. Bodendorf, M. Llles, M. Kendler, J. C. Simon, U. Paasch, “In vivo wound healing and dermal matrix remodeling in response to fractional CO2 laser intervention: Clinicopathological correlation in non-facial skin,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 27(8), 811–818 (2011).

Pan, C. P.

Park, B. H.

Park, H.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, A. H.

Patra, R.

A. Barui, P. Banerjee, R. Patra, R. K. Das, S. Dhara, P. K. Dutta, J. Chatterjee, “Swept-source optical coherence tomography of lower limb wound healing with histopathological correlation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 026010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pehamberger, H.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellacani, G.

C. Longo, M. Galimberti, B. De Pace, G. Pellacani, P. L. Bencini, “Laser skin rejuvenation: epidermal changes and collagen remodeling evaluated by in vivo confocal microscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(3), 769–776 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, R. F.

R. F. Pereira, C. C. Barrias, P. L. Granja, P. J. Bartolo, “Advanced biofabrication strategies for skin regeneration and repair,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 8(4), 603–621 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poloczek, K.

E. C. Sattler, K. Poloczek, R. Kästle, J. Welzel, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography for the evaluation of the kinetics and quantification of wound healing after fractional laser therapy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 69(4), e165–e173 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prabhu, V.

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahman, Z.

O. F. Stumpp, V. P. Bedi, D. Wyatt, D. Lac, Z. Rahman, K. F. Chan, “In vivo confocal imaging of epidermal cell migration and dermal changes post nonablative fractional resurfacing: study of the wound healing process with corroborated histopathologic evidence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024018 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Ranger-Moore, J.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, L.

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, S. B. S.

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roewert-Huber, H. J.

S. Lange-Asschenfeldt, A. Bob, D. Terhorst, M. Ulrich, J. Fluhr, G. Mendez, H. J. Roewert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, “Applicability of confocal laser scanning microscopy for evaluation and monitoring of cutaneous wound healing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076016 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, E. V.

E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saboda, K.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sajben, F. P.

E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, S.

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, N. Nakagawa, Y. Yasuno, “In vivo evaluation of human skin anisotropy by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2623–2631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salasche, S. J.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samad, R. E.

A. Z. Freitas, L. R. Freschi, R. E. Samad, D. M. Zezell, S. C. Gouw-Soares, N. D. Vieira., “Determination of ablation threshold for composite resins and amalgam irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 236–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, P. J. Gong, F. M. Wood, D. D. Sampson, “In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061213 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattler, E. C.

E. C. Sattler, K. Poloczek, R. Kästle, J. Welzel, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography for the evaluation of the kinetics and quantification of wound healing after fractional laser therapy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 69(4), e165–e173 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Satyamoorthy, K.

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, T. T.

Shi, Y. H.

Simon, J. C.

S. Grunewald, M. Bodendorf, M. Llles, M. Kendler, J. C. Simon, U. Paasch, “In vivo wound healing and dermal matrix remodeling in response to fractional CO2 laser intervention: Clinicopathological correlation in non-facial skin,” Int. J. Hyperthermia 27(8), 811–818 (2011).

Sink, R. K.

D. Manstein, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, R. R. Anderson, “Fractional photothermolysis: A new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(5), 426–438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slayton, L. D.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockfleth, E.

S. Lange-Asschenfeldt, A. Bob, D. Terhorst, M. Ulrich, J. Fluhr, G. Mendez, H. J. Roewert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, “Applicability of confocal laser scanning microscopy for evaluation and monitoring of cutaneous wound healing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076016 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stumpp, O. F.

O. F. Stumpp, V. P. Bedi, D. Wyatt, D. Lac, Z. Rahman, K. F. Chan, “In vivo confocal imaging of epidermal cell migration and dermal changes post nonablative fractional resurfacing: study of the wound healing process with corroborated histopathologic evidence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024018 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sue, Y. M.

C. C. Wang, C. L. Huang, S. C. Lee, Y. M. Sue, F. J. Leu, “Treatment of cosmetic tattoos with nonablative fractional laser in an animal model: A novel method with histopathologic evidence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(2), 116–122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugawara, T.

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, V. T.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanigawa, M.

M. Ohmi, M. Tanigawa, A. Yamada, Y. Ueda, M. Haruna, “Dynamic analysis of internal and external mental sweating by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanner, H.

D. Manstein, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, R. R. Anderson, “Fractional photothermolysis: A new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(5), 426–438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tannous, Z.

Z. Tannous, “Fractional resurfacing,” Clin. Dermatol. 25(5), 480–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(2), 142–149 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Terhorst, D.

S. Lange-Asschenfeldt, A. Bob, D. Terhorst, M. Ulrich, J. Fluhr, G. Mendez, H. J. Roewert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, “Applicability of confocal laser scanning microscopy for evaluation and monitoring of cutaneous wound healing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076016 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. T.

M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Tsai, F. Y. Chang, C. K. Lee, T. T. Chi, K. M. Yang, L. Y. Lin, J. T. Wu, C. C. Yang, “Observations of cardiac beating behaviors of wild-type and mutant Drosophilae with optical coherence tomography,” J Biophotonics 4(9), 610–618 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. K. Lee, C. H. Yu, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. C. Chang, Y. M. Wang, C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15847–15862 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-20-15847 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueda, Y.

M. Ohmi, M. Tanigawa, A. Yamada, Y. Ueda, M. Haruna, “Dynamic analysis of internal and external mental sweating by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulrich, M.

S. Lange-Asschenfeldt, A. Bob, D. Terhorst, M. Ulrich, J. Fluhr, G. Mendez, H. J. Roewert-Huber, E. Stockfleth, B. Lange-Asschenfeldt, “Applicability of confocal laser scanning microscopy for evaluation and monitoring of cutaneous wound healing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076016 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Underwood, R. A.

M. J. Cobb, Y. C. Chen, R. A. Underwood, M. L. Usui, J. Olerud, X. D. Li, “Noninvasive assessment of cutaneous wound healing using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usui, M. L.

M. J. Cobb, Y. C. Chen, R. A. Underwood, M. L. Usui, J. Olerud, X. D. Li, “Noninvasive assessment of cutaneous wound healing using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vieira, N. D.

A. Z. Freitas, L. R. Freschi, R. E. Samad, D. M. Zezell, S. C. Gouw-Soares, N. D. Vieira., “Determination of ablation threshold for composite resins and amalgam irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 236–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang, C. L. Huang, S. C. Lee, Y. M. Sue, F. J. Leu, “Treatment of cosmetic tattoos with nonablative fractional laser in an animal model: A novel method with histopathologic evidence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(2), 116–122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Wang, Y. M.

Warneke, J. A.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weingast, J.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinigel, M.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welzel, J.

E. C. Sattler, K. Poloczek, R. Kästle, J. Welzel, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical coherence tomography for the evaluation of the kinetics and quantification of wound healing after fractional laser therapy,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 69(4), e165–e173 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wood, F. M.

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, P. J. Gong, F. M. Wood, D. D. Sampson, “In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061213 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. T. Tsai, F. Y. Chang, C. K. Lee, T. T. Chi, K. M. Yang, L. Y. Lin, J. T. Wu, C. C. Yang, “Observations of cardiac beating behaviors of wild-type and mutant Drosophilae with optical coherence tomography,” J Biophotonics 4(9), 610–618 (2011).
[PubMed]

Wu, W. W.

G. Deka, W. W. Wu, F. J. Kao, “In vivo wound healing diagnosis with second harmonic and fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061222 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, D.

O. F. Stumpp, V. P. Bedi, D. Wyatt, D. Lac, Z. Rahman, K. F. Chan, “In vivo confocal imaging of epidermal cell migration and dermal changes post nonablative fractional resurfacing: study of the wound healing process with corroborated histopathologic evidence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024018 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Ohmi, M. Tanigawa, A. Yamada, Y. Ueda, M. Haruna, “Dynamic analysis of internal and external mental sweating by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C. C.

M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Tsai, F. Y. Chang, C. K. Lee, T. T. Chi, K. M. Yang, L. Y. Lin, J. T. Wu, C. C. Yang, “Observations of cardiac beating behaviors of wild-type and mutant Drosophilae with optical coherence tomography,” J Biophotonics 4(9), 610–618 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. K. Lee, C. H. Yu, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. C. Chang, Y. M. Wang, C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15847–15862 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-20-15847 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. M.

M. T. Tsai, F. Y. Chang, C. K. Lee, T. T. Chi, K. M. Yang, L. Y. Lin, J. T. Wu, C. C. Yang, “Observations of cardiac beating behaviors of wild-type and mutant Drosophilae with optical coherence tomography,” J Biophotonics 4(9), 610–618 (2011).
[PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1- um swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6121–6139 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-10-6121 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Yun, S. H.

Zachary, C. B.

B. M. Hantash, V. P. Bedi, K. F. Chan, C. B. Zachary, “Ex vivo histological characterization of a novel ablative fractional resurfacing device,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(2), 87–95 (2007).
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C. B. Zachary, “Modulating the Er:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 223–226 (2000).
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A. Z. Freitas, L. R. Freschi, R. E. Samad, D. M. Zezell, S. C. Gouw-Soares, N. D. Vieira., “Determination of ablation threshold for composite resins and amalgam irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 236–241 (2010).
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S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
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Appl. Phys. Express

M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
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Biomed. Opt. Express

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Dermatol. Surg.

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

W. G. Jung, B. Kao, K. M. Kelly, L. H. L. Liaw, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Optical coherence tomography for in vitro monitoring of wound healing after laser irradiation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 222–226 (2003).
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J Biophotonics

M. T. Tsai, F. Y. Chang, C. K. Lee, T. T. Chi, K. M. Yang, L. Y. Lin, J. T. Wu, C. C. Yang, “Observations of cardiac beating behaviors of wild-type and mutant Drosophilae with optical coherence tomography,” J Biophotonics 4(9), 610–618 (2011).
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J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.

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J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Deka, W. W. Wu, F. J. Kao, “In vivo wound healing diagnosis with second harmonic and fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061222 (2013).
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O. F. Stumpp, V. P. Bedi, D. Wyatt, D. Lac, Z. Rahman, K. F. Chan, “In vivo confocal imaging of epidermal cell migration and dermal changes post nonablative fractional resurfacing: study of the wound healing process with corroborated histopathologic evidence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024018 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, P. J. Gong, F. M. Wood, D. D. Sampson, “In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061213 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ohmi, M. Tanigawa, A. Yamada, Y. Ueda, M. Haruna, “Dynamic analysis of internal and external mental sweating by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. Lett.

A. Z. Freitas, L. R. Freschi, R. E. Samad, D. M. Zezell, S. C. Gouw-Soares, N. D. Vieira., “Determination of ablation threshold for composite resins and amalgam irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 236–241 (2010).
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Lasers Med. Sci.

C. Longo, M. Galimberti, B. De Pace, G. Pellacani, P. L. Bencini, “Laser skin rejuvenation: epidermal changes and collagen remodeling evaluated by in vivo confocal microscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(3), 769–776 (2013).
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Lasers Surg. Med.

C. C. Wang, C. L. Huang, S. C. Lee, Y. M. Sue, F. J. Leu, “Treatment of cosmetic tattoos with nonablative fractional laser in an animal model: A novel method with histopathologic evidence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(2), 116–122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Zachary, “Modulating the Er:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 223–226 (2000).
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E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Manstein, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, R. R. Anderson, “Fractional photothermolysis: A new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(5), 426–438 (2004).
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H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(2), 142–149 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Hantash, V. P. Bedi, K. F. Chan, C. B. Zachary, “Ex vivo histological characterization of a novel ablative fractional resurfacing device,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(2), 87–95 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
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Nanomedicine (Lond)

R. F. Pereira, C. C. Barrias, P. L. Granja, P. J. Bartolo, “Advanced biofabrication strategies for skin regeneration and repair,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 8(4), 603–621 (2013).
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Nat. Photonics

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
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Opt. Express

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-12-11-2404 .
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Y. Yasuno, Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1- um swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6121–6139 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-10-6121 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. K. Lee, C. H. Yu, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. C. Chang, Y. M. Wang, C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15847–15862 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-20-15847 .
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G. J. Liu, W. C. Jia, V. T. Sun, B. Choi, Z. P. Chen, “High-resolution imaging of microvasculature in human skin in-vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7694–7705 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-7-7694&origin=search .
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the portable SS-OCT system used for monitoring wound healing. (b) Layout of the handheld probe for skin scanning. (c) Picture of the handheld probe. PC: polarization controller, CIR: optical circulator, FBG: fiber Bragg grating, FC: fiber coupler, DAQ: data acquisition board, C: collimator, L1, L2, L3: lenses, M: mirror, and G: galvanometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OCT images of the phantom exposed to various AFL exposure energies. (a), (b), and (c) represent en-face images at the depth of 250 μm beneath the phantom surface for exposure energies of 15, 20 and 25 mJ, respectively. (I)-(IX): B-mode results of locations I-XI indicated by the red lines in (a), (b), and (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo results of skin before and after NAFL and AFL exposures. (a), (b) pictures of belly skin taken after NAFL and AFL exposures, respectively. The black arrows indicate the exposed areas, and each area equals approximately 1 × 1 cm2. (c), (f) the OCT results of facial and belly skin before laser exposures, respectively. (d), (g) the OCT results of facial and belly skin after NAFL exposures at 25 mJ. (e), (h) the OCT results of facial and belly skin after AFL exposures at 25 mJ. The epidermal layer is indicated by the yellow arrow. The red arrows indicate the structures of the induced MTZs, and the white arrows represent micro-epidermal necrotic debris (MEND). E: epidermis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

2D OCT images of belly skin after the NAFL exposure, obtained on day 0, day 1, day 2, day 3, day 4, and day 6. The white arrow indicates a cleft membrane induced by the NAFL, and the red arrows show the structures of the induced MTZs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)-(d) En-face images of the basement membrane obtained on day 0, day 2, day 4, and day 6. The yellow arrows indicate the cleft basement membrane caused by the exposure to a higher energy of 25 mJ, and the white arrows represent the damaged spots on the basement membrane induced by the NAFL exposure. (e), (f) En-face images at a deeper depth of 500 μm below the skin surface, obtained before and 1 month after the NAFL treatment. The spots indicated by the red arrows show the appearance of tissue scaring even though the tissue had completely healed, providing evidence of collagen regeneration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

2D OCT images of belly skin obtained on day 0, day 1, day 2, day 3, day 4, day 6, day 10, and day 14. The white arrows indicate the structures of the induced MTZs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

En-face OCT images at two depths: (a) 500 μm and (b) 750 μm. The data were recorded on day 0, day 1, day 2, day 3, day 4, day 6, day 10, and day 14.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Flow diagram of the OCT imaging process algorithm estimating the MTZ area at various depths.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Results of estimating the MTZ areas from Fig. 7. The results indicated that the averaged areas of the MTZs decrease as the recovery time increases and that the MTZs induced at deeper depths can eventually recover in two weeks

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relationship between the healing time and the area ratio of the averaged MTZs area of 750 μm to that of 500 μm

Equations (1)

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I D ( x i , y j ) = I a v ( x i , y j ) 1 n i = 1 n I a v ( x i , y j ) = I a v ( x i , y j ) I t h ( y j )

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