Abstract

The proposed device considerably reduces the measuring time of important microscopic features of tooth crown surfaces. The instrumentation is accompanied by a computer program to analyse the results. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings that are referred as striae of Retzius. These striae correspond to linear structures on the enamel surface. This newly developed optical measuring instrument can automatically, precisely and accurately record the number and periodicity of perikymata on the dental crown. Furthermore it can characterize the variability in periodicity of perikymata in hominids. The depth of field can be extended as desired by taking several images with different focus positions and combining them into a single composite image that contains all regions fully focused.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  3. I. E. Barnes, “Replication techniques for the scanning electron microscope 1. history, material and techniques,” J. Dent. 6, 327–341 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. I. E. Barnes, “Replication techniques for the scanning electron microscope 2. clinical and laboratory procedures: interpretation,” J. Dent. 7, 25–37 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. F. V. Rozzi, “Dental development in plio-pleistocene hominids enamel extenxion rate in fossil hominids,” Acadmie des sciences 35, 293–296 (1997).
  6. F. V. R. Rozzi, “Enamel structure and development and its application in hominid evolution and taxonomy,” J. Hum. Evol. 35, 327–330 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. V. R. Rozzi, “Can enamel microstructure be used toestablish the presence of different species of plio-pleistocene hominids from omo, ethiopia?” J. Hum. Evol. 35, 543–576 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Watson, “A confocal optical microscope study of the morphology of the tooth/restoration interface using scotchbond 2 dentin adhesive,” J. Dent. Res. 68, 1124–1131 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  10. A. Boyde, “Scanning electron microscopy studies of the completed enamen surface. in rw fearnhead and mv steack, (eds): Tooth enamel ii. its composition, properties, and fundamental structure,” Bristol: johon Wright pp. 39–42 (1971).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  22. J. Krumm and S. Shafer, “Texture segmentation and shape in the same image,” IEEE Coference on Computer Vision pp. 121–127 (1995).
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    [Crossref]
  24. J. Koenderink, A. van Doon, and M. Stavridi, “Bidirectinal reflection distribution function expressed in terms of surface scattering modes,” European Conference on Computer Vision pp. 28–39 (1996).
  25. T. Leung and J. Malik, “On perpendicular texture: why do we see more flowers in the distance?” IEEE Conference on CVPR pp. 807–813 (1997).
  26. B. K. P. Horn and M. J. Brooks, “Shape from shading,” The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1989).
  27. J. Braga and J. F. Thackeray, “Early homo at kromdraai b: probabilistic and morphological analysis of the lower dentition,” Comptes Rendus Palevol 2, 269–279 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. JF, DJ de Ruiter, L B., and N van der Merwe, “Hominid fossils from kromdraai: a revised list of specimens discovered since 1938,” Ann Transv Mus 38, 43–56 (2001).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2012 (2)

D. Guatelli-Steinberg, B. Floyd, M. Dean, and D. Reid, “Enamel extension rate patterns in modern human teeth: two approaches designed to establish an integrated comparative context for fossil primates.” J. Hum. Evol. 63,  475:86 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Ferrero, A. M. Rabal, J. Campos, A. Pons, and M. L. Hernanz, “Spectral and geometrical variation of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of diffuse reflectance standards,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8535–8540 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

E. Bocaege and L. H. S. Hillson, “Technical note: a new three-dimensional technique for high resolution quantitative recording of perikymata.” Am J Phys Anthropol. 141, 498–503 (2010).

2007 (2)

J. Braga and Y. Heuze, “Quantifying variation in human dental development sequences: An evo-devo perspective,” Dental Perspectives on Human Evolution pp. 247–261 (2007).

R. S. Lacruz, “Enamel microstructure of the hominid kb 5223 from kromdraai, south africa,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 132, 175–182 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

R. S. Lacruz and T. G. Bromage, “Blackwell publishing ltd appositional enamel growth in molars of south african fossil hominids,” Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 209, 13–20 (2006).

2005 (1)

G.-S. D, R. DJ, B. TA, and L. CS, “Anterior tooth growth periods in neandertals were comparable to those of modern humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 102, 14197–14202 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Braga and J. F. Thackeray, “Early homo at kromdraai b: probabilistic and morphological analysis of the lower dentition,” Comptes Rendus Palevol 2, 269–279 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

T. JF, DJ de Ruiter, L B., and N van der Merwe, “Hominid fossils from kromdraai: a revised list of specimens discovered since 1938,” Ann Transv Mus 38, 43–56 (2001).

M. C. Dean and D. Reid, “Perikymata spacing and distribution on hominid anterior teeth,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 116, 209–215 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, and J. J. Koenderin, “Reflectance and texture of real-world surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graphics 18, 1–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

F. V. R. Rozzi, “Enamel structure and development and its application in hominid evolution and taxonomy,” J. Hum. Evol. 35, 327–330 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. V. R. Rozzi, “Can enamel microstructure be used toestablish the presence of different species of plio-pleistocene hominids from omo, ethiopia?” J. Hum. Evol. 35, 543–576 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

S. Hillson and S. Bond, “Relationship of enamel hypoplasia to the pattern of tooth crown growth: A discussion,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 104, 89–103 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. V. Rozzi, “Dental development in plio-pleistocene hominids enamel extenxion rate in fossil hominids,” Acadmie des sciences 35, 293–296 (1997).

T. Leung and J. Malik, “On perpendicular texture: why do we see more flowers in the distance?” IEEE Conference on CVPR pp. 807–813 (1997).

1996 (1)

J. Koenderink, A. van Doon, and M. Stavridi, “Bidirectinal reflection distribution function expressed in terms of surface scattering modes,” European Conference on Computer Vision pp. 28–39 (1996).

1995 (3)

S. Nayar and M. Oren, “Visual apparence of matte surfaces,” Science 267, 1153–1156 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Krumm and S. Shafer, “Texture segmentation and shape in the same image,” IEEE Coference on Computer Vision pp. 121–127 (1995).

B. Super and A.C. Bovik, “Shape from texture using local sprctral moments,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Aalysis and Machine Intelligence 17, 333–343 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Nolin, K. Steffen, and J. Dozier, “Measurement and modeling of the bidirectional reflectance of snow, proceedings of igarss,” IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 94, 1919–1921 (1994).

1989 (1)

T. Watson, “A confocal optical microscope study of the morphology of the tooth/restoration interface using scotchbond 2 dentin adhesive,” J. Dent. Res. 68, 1124–1131 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

I. E. Barnes, “Replication techniques for the scanning electron microscope 2. clinical and laboratory procedures: interpretation,” J. Dent. 7, 25–37 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

I. E. Barnes, “Replication techniques for the scanning electron microscope 1. history, material and techniques,” J. Dent. 6, 327–341 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

B., L

T. JF, DJ de Ruiter, L B., and N van der Merwe, “Hominid fossils from kromdraai: a revised list of specimens discovered since 1938,” Ann Transv Mus 38, 43–56 (2001).

Barnes, I. E.

I. E. Barnes, “Replication techniques for the scanning electron microscope 2. clinical and laboratory procedures: interpretation,” J. Dent. 7, 25–37 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. E. Barnes, “Replication techniques for the scanning electron microscope 1. history, material and techniques,” J. Dent. 6, 327–341 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bocaege, E.

E. Bocaege and L. H. S. Hillson, “Technical note: a new three-dimensional technique for high resolution quantitative recording of perikymata.” Am J Phys Anthropol. 141, 498–503 (2010).

Bond, S.

S. Hillson and S. Bond, “Relationship of enamel hypoplasia to the pattern of tooth crown growth: A discussion,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 104, 89–103 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bovik, A.C.

B. Super and A.C. Bovik, “Shape from texture using local sprctral moments,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Aalysis and Machine Intelligence 17, 333–343 (1995).
[Crossref]

Boyde, A.

A. Boyde, “Scanning electron microscopy studies of the completed enamen surface. in rw fearnhead and mv steack, (eds): Tooth enamel ii. its composition, properties, and fundamental structure,” Bristol: johon Wright pp. 39–42 (1971).

Braga, J.

J. Braga and Y. Heuze, “Quantifying variation in human dental development sequences: An evo-devo perspective,” Dental Perspectives on Human Evolution pp. 247–261 (2007).

J. Braga and J. F. Thackeray, “Early homo at kromdraai b: probabilistic and morphological analysis of the lower dentition,” Comptes Rendus Palevol 2, 269–279 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bromage, T. G.

R. S. Lacruz and T. G. Bromage, “Blackwell publishing ltd appositional enamel growth in molars of south african fossil hominids,” Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 209, 13–20 (2006).

Brooks, M. J.

B. K. P. Horn and M. J. Brooks, “Shape from shading,” The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1989).

Campos, J.

CS, L.

G.-S. D, R. DJ, B. TA, and L. CS, “Anterior tooth growth periods in neandertals were comparable to those of modern humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 102, 14197–14202 (2005).
[Crossref]

D, G.-S.

G.-S. D, R. DJ, B. TA, and L. CS, “Anterior tooth growth periods in neandertals were comparable to those of modern humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 102, 14197–14202 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dana, K. J.

K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, and J. J. Koenderin, “Reflectance and texture of real-world surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graphics 18, 1–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dasgupta, B. R.

de Ruiter, DJ

T. JF, DJ de Ruiter, L B., and N van der Merwe, “Hominid fossils from kromdraai: a revised list of specimens discovered since 1938,” Ann Transv Mus 38, 43–56 (2001).

Dean, M.

D. Guatelli-Steinberg, B. Floyd, M. Dean, and D. Reid, “Enamel extension rate patterns in modern human teeth: two approaches designed to establish an integrated comparative context for fossil primates.” J. Hum. Evol. 63,  475:86 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dean, M. C.

M. C. Dean and D. Reid, “Perikymata spacing and distribution on hominid anterior teeth,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 116, 209–215 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DJ, R.

G.-S. D, R. DJ, B. TA, and L. CS, “Anterior tooth growth periods in neandertals were comparable to those of modern humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 102, 14197–14202 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dozier, J.

A. Nolin, K. Steffen, and J. Dozier, “Measurement and modeling of the bidirectional reflectance of snow, proceedings of igarss,” IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 94, 1919–1921 (1994).

Ferrero, A.

Floyd, B.

D. Guatelli-Steinberg, B. Floyd, M. Dean, and D. Reid, “Enamel extension rate patterns in modern human teeth: two approaches designed to establish an integrated comparative context for fossil primates.” J. Hum. Evol. 63,  475:86 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guatelli-Steinberg, D.

D. Guatelli-Steinberg, B. Floyd, M. Dean, and D. Reid, “Enamel extension rate patterns in modern human teeth: two approaches designed to establish an integrated comparative context for fossil primates.” J. Hum. Evol. 63,  475:86 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hernanz, M. L.

Heuze, Y.

J. Braga and Y. Heuze, “Quantifying variation in human dental development sequences: An evo-devo perspective,” Dental Perspectives on Human Evolution pp. 247–261 (2007).

Hillson, L. H. S.

E. Bocaege and L. H. S. Hillson, “Technical note: a new three-dimensional technique for high resolution quantitative recording of perikymata.” Am J Phys Anthropol. 141, 498–503 (2010).

Hillson, S.

S. Hillson and S. Bond, “Relationship of enamel hypoplasia to the pattern of tooth crown growth: A discussion,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 104, 89–103 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hillson, Dental Anthropology (Cambridge University Press, 1996).
[Crossref]

Horn, B. K. P.

B. K. P. Horn and M. J. Brooks, “Shape from shading,” The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1989).

JF, T.

T. JF, DJ de Ruiter, L B., and N van der Merwe, “Hominid fossils from kromdraai: a revised list of specimens discovered since 1938,” Ann Transv Mus 38, 43–56 (2001).

Koenderin, J. J.

K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, and J. J. Koenderin, “Reflectance and texture of real-world surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graphics 18, 1–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Koenderink, J.

J. Koenderink, A. van Doon, and M. Stavridi, “Bidirectinal reflection distribution function expressed in terms of surface scattering modes,” European Conference on Computer Vision pp. 28–39 (1996).

Krumm, J.

J. Krumm and S. Shafer, “Texture segmentation and shape in the same image,” IEEE Coference on Computer Vision pp. 121–127 (1995).

Lacruz, R. S.

R. S. Lacruz, “Enamel microstructure of the hominid kb 5223 from kromdraai, south africa,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 132, 175–182 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. S. Lacruz and T. G. Bromage, “Blackwell publishing ltd appositional enamel growth in molars of south african fossil hominids,” Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 209, 13–20 (2006).

Leung, T.

T. Leung and J. Malik, “On perpendicular texture: why do we see more flowers in the distance?” IEEE Conference on CVPR pp. 807–813 (1997).

Malik, J.

T. Leung and J. Malik, “On perpendicular texture: why do we see more flowers in the distance?” IEEE Conference on CVPR pp. 807–813 (1997).

Nayar, S.

S. Nayar and M. Oren, “Visual apparence of matte surfaces,” Science 267, 1153–1156 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nayar, S. K.

K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, and J. J. Koenderin, “Reflectance and texture of real-world surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graphics 18, 1–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nicodemus, F.

Nolin, A.

A. Nolin, K. Steffen, and J. Dozier, “Measurement and modeling of the bidirectional reflectance of snow, proceedings of igarss,” IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 94, 1919–1921 (1994).

Oren, M.

S. Nayar and M. Oren, “Visual apparence of matte surfaces,” Science 267, 1153–1156 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pons, A.

Rabal, A. M.

Reid, D.

D. Guatelli-Steinberg, B. Floyd, M. Dean, and D. Reid, “Enamel extension rate patterns in modern human teeth: two approaches designed to establish an integrated comparative context for fossil primates.” J. Hum. Evol. 63,  475:86 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. C. Dean and D. Reid, “Perikymata spacing and distribution on hominid anterior teeth,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 116, 209–215 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rozzi, F. V.

F. V. Rozzi, “Dental development in plio-pleistocene hominids enamel extenxion rate in fossil hominids,” Acadmie des sciences 35, 293–296 (1997).

Rozzi, F. V. R.

F. V. R. Rozzi, “Enamel structure and development and its application in hominid evolution and taxonomy,” J. Hum. Evol. 35, 327–330 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. V. R. Rozzi, “Can enamel microstructure be used toestablish the presence of different species of plio-pleistocene hominids from omo, ethiopia?” J. Hum. Evol. 35, 543–576 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shafer, S.

J. Krumm and S. Shafer, “Texture segmentation and shape in the same image,” IEEE Coference on Computer Vision pp. 121–127 (1995).

Stavridi, M.

J. Koenderink, A. van Doon, and M. Stavridi, “Bidirectinal reflection distribution function expressed in terms of surface scattering modes,” European Conference on Computer Vision pp. 28–39 (1996).

Steffen, K.

A. Nolin, K. Steffen, and J. Dozier, “Measurement and modeling of the bidirectional reflectance of snow, proceedings of igarss,” IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 94, 1919–1921 (1994).

Super, B.

B. Super and A.C. Bovik, “Shape from texture using local sprctral moments,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Aalysis and Machine Intelligence 17, 333–343 (1995).
[Crossref]

TA, B.

G.-S. D, R. DJ, B. TA, and L. CS, “Anterior tooth growth periods in neandertals were comparable to those of modern humans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 102, 14197–14202 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thackeray, J. F.

J. Braga and J. F. Thackeray, “Early homo at kromdraai b: probabilistic and morphological analysis of the lower dentition,” Comptes Rendus Palevol 2, 269–279 (2003).
[Crossref]

van der Merwe, N

T. JF, DJ de Ruiter, L B., and N van der Merwe, “Hominid fossils from kromdraai: a revised list of specimens discovered since 1938,” Ann Transv Mus 38, 43–56 (2001).

van Doon, A.

J. Koenderink, A. van Doon, and M. Stavridi, “Bidirectinal reflection distribution function expressed in terms of surface scattering modes,” European Conference on Computer Vision pp. 28–39 (1996).

van Ginneken, B.

K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, and J. J. Koenderin, “Reflectance and texture of real-world surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graphics 18, 1–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Watson, T.

T. Watson, “A confocal optical microscope study of the morphology of the tooth/restoration interface using scotchbond 2 dentin adhesive,” J. Dent. Res. 68, 1124–1131 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilen, L.

Yuan, M.

M. Yuan, “Perikymata counts in two modern human sample populations,” Ph.D. thesis, Columbia UniversityNew York (2000).

Acadmie des sciences (1)

F. V. Rozzi, “Dental development in plio-pleistocene hominids enamel extenxion rate in fossil hominids,” Acadmie des sciences 35, 293–296 (1997).

ACM Trans. Graphics (1)

K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, and J. J. Koenderin, “Reflectance and texture of real-world surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graphics 18, 1–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Am J Phys Anthropol. (1)

E. Bocaege and L. H. S. Hillson, “Technical note: a new three-dimensional technique for high resolution quantitative recording of perikymata.” Am J Phys Anthropol. 141, 498–503 (2010).

Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (3)

S. Hillson and S. Bond, “Relationship of enamel hypoplasia to the pattern of tooth crown growth: A discussion,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 104, 89–103 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Lacruz, “Enamel microstructure of the hominid kb 5223 from kromdraai, south africa,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 132, 175–182 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Dean and D. Reid, “Perikymata spacing and distribution on hominid anterior teeth,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 116, 209–215 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1)

R. S. Lacruz and T. G. Bromage, “Blackwell publishing ltd appositional enamel growth in molars of south african fossil hominids,” Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 209, 13–20 (2006).

Ann Transv Mus (1)

T. JF, DJ de Ruiter, L B., and N van der Merwe, “Hominid fossils from kromdraai: a revised list of specimens discovered since 1938,” Ann Transv Mus 38, 43–56 (2001).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Comptes Rendus Palevol (1)

J. Braga and J. F. Thackeray, “Early homo at kromdraai b: probabilistic and morphological analysis of the lower dentition,” Comptes Rendus Palevol 2, 269–279 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dental Perspectives on Human Evolution (1)

J. Braga and Y. Heuze, “Quantifying variation in human dental development sequences: An evo-devo perspective,” Dental Perspectives on Human Evolution pp. 247–261 (2007).

European Conference on Computer Vision (1)

J. Koenderink, A. van Doon, and M. Stavridi, “Bidirectinal reflection distribution function expressed in terms of surface scattering modes,” European Conference on Computer Vision pp. 28–39 (1996).

IEEE Coference on Computer Vision (1)

J. Krumm and S. Shafer, “Texture segmentation and shape in the same image,” IEEE Coference on Computer Vision pp. 121–127 (1995).

IEEE Conference on CVPR (1)

T. Leung and J. Malik, “On perpendicular texture: why do we see more flowers in the distance?” IEEE Conference on CVPR pp. 807–813 (1997).

IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (1)

A. Nolin, K. Steffen, and J. Dozier, “Measurement and modeling of the bidirectional reflectance of snow, proceedings of igarss,” IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 94, 1919–1921 (1994).

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Aalysis and Machine Intelligence (1)

B. Super and A.C. Bovik, “Shape from texture using local sprctral moments,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Aalysis and Machine Intelligence 17, 333–343 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Dent. (2)

I. E. Barnes, “Replication techniques for the scanning electron microscope 1. history, material and techniques,” J. Dent. 6, 327–341 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. E. Barnes, “Replication techniques for the scanning electron microscope 2. clinical and laboratory procedures: interpretation,” J. Dent. 7, 25–37 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dent. Res. (1)

T. Watson, “A confocal optical microscope study of the morphology of the tooth/restoration interface using scotchbond 2 dentin adhesive,” J. Dent. Res. 68, 1124–1131 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hum. Evol. (3)

D. Guatelli-Steinberg, B. Floyd, M. Dean, and D. Reid, “Enamel extension rate patterns in modern human teeth: two approaches designed to establish an integrated comparative context for fossil primates.” J. Hum. Evol. 63,  475:86 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Micro-roughness off the crown: (a) Image of perikymata, (b) 3D profile of the selected area in (a), (c) 2D profile segment on figure(b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of Shadow Types.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Determination of the number of images Nimages with zero viewing angle. (b) Determining the number of normals for a viewing angle θ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spot image obtained (×10).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Principle of reading 2D profile of the tooth. (b) 2D profile of the lower right permanent central incisor of KB5223, a fossil hominin from Kromdraai B (South Africa).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Medium shot profile of a step profile total tooth, (b) Representation of the medium plane of the 3D topography of a region, the crown of the tooth.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Principle of image reconstruction of the texture of an area.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Alignment of the normal mean plane, with the bisector of the angle between the camera and the source.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Surface texture of the lower right permanent central incisor of KB5223 (see Fig. 13), a fossil hominin from Kromdraai B (South Africa) (see Fig. 5(b)).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Optical system for measuring perikymata.(b) Optical schematic for measuring perikymata.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Surface texture of the lower right permanent central incisor of KB5223, a fossil hominin from Kromdraai B (South Africa).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Images of perikymata and profile of a line. (b) Perikymata tally of the tooth. (c) Period perikymata area explored.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The lower right permanent central incisor of KB5223, a fossil hominin from Kromdraai B (South Africa) (views 1 to 4), (1) vestibular, (2) distal, (3) lingual, (4) mesial.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Periodicity of perikymata the lower right permanent central incisor of KB5223, a fossil hominin from Kromdraai B (South Africa).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

The lower right permanent lateral incisor of KB5223, a fossil hominin from Kromdraai B (South Africa) (views 1 to 4), (1) vestibular, (2) distal, (3) lingual, (4) mesial.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Periodicity of perikymata the lower right permanent lateral incisor of KB5223, a fossil hominin from Kromdraai B (South Africa).

Equations (1)

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N images = Δ Z δ ; δ : the depth of field

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