Abstract

In phase-resolved OCT angiography blood flow is detected from phase changes in between A-scans that are obtained from the same location. In ophthalmology, this technique is vulnerable to eye motion. We address this problem by combining inter-B-scan phase-resolved OCT angiography with real-time eye tracking. A tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) at 840 nm provided eye tracking functionality and was combined with a phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system at 1040 nm. Real-time eye tracking corrected eye drift and prevented discontinuity artifacts from (micro)saccadic eye motion in OCT angiograms. This improved the OCT spot stability on the retina and consequently reduced the phase-noise, thereby enabling the detection of slower blood flows by extending the inter-B-scan time interval. In addition, eye tracking enabled the easy compounding of multiple data sets from the fovea of a healthy volunteer to create high-quality eye motion artifact-free angiograms. High-quality images are presented of two distinct layers of vasculature in the retina and the dense vasculature of the choroid. Additionally we present, for the first time, a phase-resolved OCT angiogram of the mesh-like network of the choriocapillaris containing typical pore openings.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

2010

2009

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ricco, M. Chen, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. Schuman, “Correcting motion artifacts in retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography via image registration,” Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv12(Pt 1), 100–107 (2009).
[PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun.208(4–6), 209–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1997

1995

1994

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101(3), 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

J. M. Olver, “Functional anatomy of the choroidal circulation: methyl methacrylate casting of human choroid,” Eye (Lond.)4(2), 262–272 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

A. W. Fryczkowski and M. D. Sherman, “Scanning electron microscopy of human ocular vascular casts: the submacular choriocapillaris,” Acta Anat. (Basel)132(4), 265–269 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

S. Yoneya and M. O. Tso, “Angioarchitecture of the human choroid,” Arch. Ophthalmol.105(5), 681–687 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[PubMed]

1965

M. H. Bernstein and M. J. Hollenberg, “Fine structure of the choriocappillaris and retinal capillaries,” Invest. Ophthalmol.4(6), 1016–1025 (1965).
[PubMed]

André, R.

T. Klein, W. Wieser, R. André, T. Pfeiffer, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz FDML OCT: snapshot retinal imaging at 6.7 million axial-scans per second,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82131E, 82131E-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arathorn, D. W.

Bajraszewski, T.

Bartlett, L. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J.

Barton, J. K.

Beaton, S.

Bernstein, M. H.

M. H. Bernstein and M. J. Hollenberg, “Fine structure of the choriocappillaris and retinal capillaries,” Invest. Ophthalmol.4(6), 1016–1025 (1965).
[PubMed]

Bonesi, M.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Burns, S.

Cable, A.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

S. Ricco, M. Chen, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. Schuman, “Correcting motion artifacts in retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography via image registration,” Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv12(Pt 1), 100–107 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. P.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun.208(4–6), 209–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choma, M.

Cobbold, R. S. C.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun.208(4–6), 209–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Costanza, M. A.

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. T. Rohrer, L. J. Tindel, R. S. Sobel, M. A. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology93(5), 611–617 (1986).
[PubMed]

Dave, D.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, D. W. Arathorn, P. Tiruveedhula, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “High-speed, image-based eye tracking with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2611–2622 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Angiography of the retina and the choroid with phase-resolved OCT using interval-optimized backstitched B-scans,” Opt. Express20(18), 20516–20534 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Vienola, B. Braaf, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “Real-time eye motion compensation for OCT imaging with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2950–2963 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett.25(2), 114–116 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

Drexler, W.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

T. Klein, W. Wieser, R. André, T. Pfeiffer, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz FDML OCT: snapshot retinal imaging at 6.7 million axial-scans per second,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82131E, 82131E-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, A.

Fercher, A.

Ferguson, R.

Ferguson, R. D.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, A. H. Patel, V. Vazquez, and D. Husain, “Angiography with a multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 026008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, and J. S. Schuman, “Tracking optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(18), 2139–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fingler, J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

Fryczkowski, A. W.

A. W. Fryczkowski and M. D. Sherman, “Scanning electron microscopy of human ocular vascular casts: the submacular choriocapillaris,” Acta Anat. (Basel)132(4), 265–269 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med.15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Gordon, M. L.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S. C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using the Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun.208(4–6), 209–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

Gragoudas, E. S.

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101(3), 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Grulkowski, I.

Guyer, D. R.

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101(3), 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Hammer, D.

Hammer, D. X.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, A. H. Patel, V. Vazquez, and D. Husain, “Angiography with a multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 026008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, and J. S. Schuman, “Tracking optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(18), 2139–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanson, S. R.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, L.

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, “Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Refract. Surg.21(5), S575–S580 (2005).
[PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hollenberg, M. J.

M. H. Bernstein and M. J. Hollenberg, “Fine structure of the choriocappillaris and retinal capillaries,” Invest. Ophthalmol.4(6), 1016–1025 (1965).
[PubMed]

Hong, Y.

Hope-Ross, M.

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology101(3), 529–533 (1994).
[PubMed]

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