Abstract

Monitoring the vital signs of a developing embryo is very useful in avian breeding programs, especially during early days of incubation, so that dead or unfertilized eggs can be timely removed from incubator and new eggs can be placed in. A noninvasive system for detecting the vital signs of avian embryo through intact egg in early stage of incubation has been developed using laser speckle imaging (LSI). The system was based on the measurement of intensity fluctuations of speckle caused by the embryo’s blood flow in the intact egg under laser light illumination. This system was found to be feasible in imaging the vasculature in the egg as well as confirming its fertilization or survival from the second day to fifth day of incubation while other reported noninvasive methods cannot detect vital signs of the embryo until the sixth day of incubation.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. Lierz, O. Gooss, and H. M. Hafez, “Noninvasive heart rate measurement using a digital egg monitor in chicken and turkey embryos,” J. Avian Med. Surg.20(3), 141–146 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Akiyama, H. Mitsubayashi, H. Tazawa, and W. W. Burggren, “Heart rate responses to altered ambient oxygen in early (days 3-9) chick embryos in the intact egg,” J. Comp. Physiol. B169(2), 85–92 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Tazawa, T. Hiraguchi, T. Asakura, H. Fujii, and G. C. Whittow, “Noncontact measurements of avian embryo heart rate by means of the laser speckle: comparison with contact measurements,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.27(6), 580–586 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A. Liu, A. Nickerson, A. Troyer, X. Yin, R. Cary, K. Thornburg, R. Wang, and S. Rugonyi, “Quantifying blood flow and wall shear stresses in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts,” Comput. Struc.89(11-12), 855–867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Duce, F. Morrison, M. Welten, G. Baggott, and C. Tickle, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging study of live quail embryos during embryonic development,” Magn. Reson. Imaging29(1), 132–139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Review of laser speckle contrast techniques for visualizing tissue perfusion,” Lasers Med. Sci.24(4), 639–651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cheng and T. Q. Duong, “Simplified laser-speckle-imaging analysis method and its application to retinal blood flow imaging,” Opt. Lett.32(15), 2188–2190 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

P. Li, S. Ni, L. Zhang, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Imaging cerebral blood flow through the intact rat skull with temporal laser speckle imaging,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1824–1826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech.39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lierz, O. Gooss, and H. M. Hafez, “Noninvasive heart rate measurement using a digital egg monitor in chicken and turkey embryos,” J. Avian Med. Surg.20(3), 141–146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. L. Yeager, J. A. Franzosa, D. S. Millsap, J. L. Angell-Yeager, S. S. Heise, P. Wakhungu, J. Lim, H. T. Whelan, J. T. Eells, and D. S. Henshel, “Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development,” Photomed. Laser Surg.23(3), 268–272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. Akiyama, H. Mitsubayashi, H. Tazawa, and W. W. Burggren, “Heart rate responses to altered ambient oxygen in early (days 3-9) chick embryos in the intact egg,” J. Comp. Physiol. B169(2), 85–92 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

H. Tazawa, T. Hiraguchi, T. Asakura, H. Fujii, and G. C. Whittow, “Noncontact measurements of avian embryo heart rate by means of the laser speckle: comparison with contact measurements,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.27(6), 580–586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

H. Tazawa and S. Nakagawa, “Response of egg temperature, heart rate and blood pressure in the chick embryo to hypothermal stress,” J. Comp. Physiol. B155(2), 195–200 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, R.

R. Akiyama, H. Mitsubayashi, H. Tazawa, and W. W. Burggren, “Heart rate responses to altered ambient oxygen in early (days 3-9) chick embryos in the intact egg,” J. Comp. Physiol. B169(2), 85–92 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angell-Yeager, J. L.

R. L. Yeager, J. A. Franzosa, D. S. Millsap, J. L. Angell-Yeager, S. S. Heise, P. Wakhungu, J. Lim, H. T. Whelan, J. T. Eells, and D. S. Henshel, “Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development,” Photomed. Laser Surg.23(3), 268–272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asakura, T.

H. Tazawa, T. Hiraguchi, T. Asakura, H. Fujii, and G. C. Whittow, “Noncontact measurements of avian embryo heart rate by means of the laser speckle: comparison with contact measurements,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.27(6), 580–586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Baggott, G.

S. Duce, F. Morrison, M. Welten, G. Baggott, and C. Tickle, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging study of live quail embryos during embryonic development,” Magn. Reson. Imaging29(1), 132–139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bain, A.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beattie, K.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, P.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burggren, W. W.

R. Akiyama, H. Mitsubayashi, H. Tazawa, and W. W. Burggren, “Heart rate responses to altered ambient oxygen in early (days 3-9) chick embryos in the intact egg,” J. Comp. Physiol. B169(2), 85–92 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cary, R.

A. Liu, A. Nickerson, A. Troyer, X. Yin, R. Cary, K. Thornburg, R. Wang, and S. Rugonyi, “Quantifying blood flow and wall shear stresses in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts,” Comput. Struc.89(11-12), 855–867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

Chudek, S.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, C.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davey, M.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, G.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Draijer, M.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Review of laser speckle contrast techniques for visualizing tissue perfusion,” Lasers Med. Sci.24(4), 639–651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duce, S.

S. Duce, F. Morrison, M. Welten, G. Baggott, and C. Tickle, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging study of live quail embryos during embryonic development,” Magn. Reson. Imaging29(1), 132–139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duong, T. Q.

Eells, J. T.

R. L. Yeager, J. A. Franzosa, D. S. Millsap, J. L. Angell-Yeager, S. S. Heise, P. Wakhungu, J. Lim, H. T. Whelan, J. T. Eells, and D. S. Henshel, “Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development,” Photomed. Laser Surg.23(3), 268–272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franzosa, J. A.

R. L. Yeager, J. A. Franzosa, D. S. Millsap, J. L. Angell-Yeager, S. S. Heise, P. Wakhungu, J. Lim, H. T. Whelan, J. T. Eells, and D. S. Henshel, “Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development,” Photomed. Laser Surg.23(3), 268–272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, H.

H. Tazawa, T. Hiraguchi, T. Asakura, H. Fujii, and G. C. Whittow, “Noncontact measurements of avian embryo heart rate by means of the laser speckle: comparison with contact measurements,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.27(6), 580–586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gooss, O.

M. Lierz, O. Gooss, and H. M. Hafez, “Noninvasive heart rate measurement using a digital egg monitor in chicken and turkey embryos,” J. Avian Med. Surg.20(3), 141–146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Groenendijk, B. C.

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech.39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafez, H. M.

M. Lierz, O. Gooss, and H. M. Hafez, “Noninvasive heart rate measurement using a digital egg monitor in chicken and turkey embryos,” J. Avian Med. Surg.20(3), 141–146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heise, S. S.

R. L. Yeager, J. A. Franzosa, D. S. Millsap, J. L. Angell-Yeager, S. S. Heise, P. Wakhungu, J. Lim, H. T. Whelan, J. T. Eells, and D. S. Henshel, “Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development,” Photomed. Laser Surg.23(3), 268–272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henshel, D. S.

R. L. Yeager, J. A. Franzosa, D. S. Millsap, J. L. Angell-Yeager, S. S. Heise, P. Wakhungu, J. Lim, H. T. Whelan, J. T. Eells, and D. S. Henshel, “Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development,” Photomed. Laser Surg.23(3), 268–272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hierck, B. P.

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech.39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiraguchi, T.

H. Tazawa, T. Hiraguchi, T. Asakura, H. Fujii, and G. C. Whittow, “Noncontact measurements of avian embryo heart rate by means of the laser speckle: comparison with contact measurements,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.27(6), 580–586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hondebrink, E.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Review of laser speckle contrast techniques for visualizing tissue perfusion,” Lasers Med. Sci.24(4), 639–651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaberi, N.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiger, K. T.

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech.39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P.

Li, X.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lierz, M.

M. Lierz, O. Gooss, and H. M. Hafez, “Noninvasive heart rate measurement using a digital egg monitor in chicken and turkey embryos,” J. Avian Med. Surg.20(3), 141–146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

R. L. Yeager, J. A. Franzosa, D. S. Millsap, J. L. Angell-Yeager, S. S. Heise, P. Wakhungu, J. Lim, H. T. Whelan, J. T. Eells, and D. S. Henshel, “Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development,” Photomed. Laser Surg.23(3), 268–272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindken, R.

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech.39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, A. Nickerson, A. Troyer, X. Yin, R. Cary, K. Thornburg, R. Wang, and S. Rugonyi, “Quantifying blood flow and wall shear stresses in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts,” Comput. Struc.89(11-12), 855–867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

Mahood, R.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, L.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millsap, D. S.

R. L. Yeager, J. A. Franzosa, D. S. Millsap, J. L. Angell-Yeager, S. S. Heise, P. Wakhungu, J. Lim, H. T. Whelan, J. T. Eells, and D. S. Henshel, “Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development,” Photomed. Laser Surg.23(3), 268–272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsubayashi, H.

R. Akiyama, H. Mitsubayashi, H. Tazawa, and W. W. Burggren, “Heart rate responses to altered ambient oxygen in early (days 3-9) chick embryos in the intact egg,” J. Comp. Physiol. B169(2), 85–92 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morrison, F.

S. Duce, F. Morrison, M. Welten, G. Baggott, and C. Tickle, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging study of live quail embryos during embryonic development,” Magn. Reson. Imaging29(1), 132–139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, S.

H. Tazawa and S. Nakagawa, “Response of egg temperature, heart rate and blood pressure in the chick embryo to hypothermal stress,” J. Comp. Physiol. B155(2), 195–200 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ni, S.

Nickerson, A.

A. Liu, A. Nickerson, A. Troyer, X. Yin, R. Cary, K. Thornburg, R. Wang, and S. Rugonyi, “Quantifying blood flow and wall shear stresses in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts,” Comput. Struc.89(11-12), 855–867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poelmann, R. E.

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech.39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rugonyi, S.

A. Liu, A. Nickerson, A. Troyer, X. Yin, R. Cary, K. Thornburg, R. Wang, and S. Rugonyi, “Quantifying blood flow and wall shear stresses in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts,” Comput. Struc.89(11-12), 855–867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, K.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaut, C.

S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steenbergen, W.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Review of laser speckle contrast techniques for visualizing tissue perfusion,” Lasers Med. Sci.24(4), 639–651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stekelenburg-de Vos, S.

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech.39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tazawa, H.

R. Akiyama, H. Mitsubayashi, H. Tazawa, and W. W. Burggren, “Heart rate responses to altered ambient oxygen in early (days 3-9) chick embryos in the intact egg,” J. Comp. Physiol. B169(2), 85–92 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tazawa, T. Hiraguchi, T. Asakura, H. Fujii, and G. C. Whittow, “Noncontact measurements of avian embryo heart rate by means of the laser speckle: comparison with contact measurements,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.27(6), 580–586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Tazawa and S. Nakagawa, “Response of egg temperature, heart rate and blood pressure in the chick embryo to hypothermal stress,” J. Comp. Physiol. B155(2), 195–200 (1985).
[CrossRef]

ten Hagen, T. L.

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech.39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tenent, S.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thornburg, K.

A. Liu, A. Nickerson, A. Troyer, X. Yin, R. Cary, K. Thornburg, R. Wang, and S. Rugonyi, “Quantifying blood flow and wall shear stresses in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts,” Comput. Struc.89(11-12), 855–867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tickle, C.

S. Duce, F. Morrison, M. Welten, G. Baggott, and C. Tickle, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging study of live quail embryos during embryonic development,” Magn. Reson. Imaging29(1), 132–139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Towers, M.

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troyer, A.

A. Liu, A. Nickerson, A. Troyer, X. Yin, R. Cary, K. Thornburg, R. Wang, and S. Rugonyi, “Quantifying blood flow and wall shear stresses in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts,” Comput. Struc.89(11-12), 855–867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ursem, N. T.

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech.39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Review of laser speckle contrast techniques for visualizing tissue perfusion,” Lasers Med. Sci.24(4), 639–651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vennemann, P.

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech.39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wakhungu, P.

R. L. Yeager, J. A. Franzosa, D. S. Millsap, J. L. Angell-Yeager, S. S. Heise, P. Wakhungu, J. Lim, H. T. Whelan, J. T. Eells, and D. S. Henshel, “Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development,” Photomed. Laser Surg.23(3), 268–272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

A. Liu, A. Nickerson, A. Troyer, X. Yin, R. Cary, K. Thornburg, R. Wang, and S. Rugonyi, “Quantifying blood flow and wall shear stresses in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts,” Comput. Struc.89(11-12), 855–867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welten, M.

S. Duce, F. Morrison, M. Welten, G. Baggott, and C. Tickle, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging study of live quail embryos during embryonic development,” Magn. Reson. Imaging29(1), 132–139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westerweel, J.

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech.39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whelan, H. T.

R. L. Yeager, J. A. Franzosa, D. S. Millsap, J. L. Angell-Yeager, S. S. Heise, P. Wakhungu, J. Lim, H. T. Whelan, J. T. Eells, and D. S. Henshel, “Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development,” Photomed. Laser Surg.23(3), 268–272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whittow, G. C.

H. Tazawa, T. Hiraguchi, T. Asakura, H. Fujii, and G. C. Whittow, “Noncontact measurements of avian embryo heart rate by means of the laser speckle: comparison with contact measurements,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.27(6), 580–586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yeager, R. L.

R. L. Yeager, J. A. Franzosa, D. S. Millsap, J. L. Angell-Yeager, S. S. Heise, P. Wakhungu, J. Lim, H. T. Whelan, J. T. Eells, and D. S. Henshel, “Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development,” Photomed. Laser Surg.23(3), 268–272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

A. Liu, A. Nickerson, A. Troyer, X. Yin, R. Cary, K. Thornburg, R. Wang, and S. Rugonyi, “Quantifying blood flow and wall shear stresses in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts,” Comput. Struc.89(11-12), 855–867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, S.

Zhang, L.

Comput. Struc. (1)

A. Liu, A. Nickerson, A. Troyer, X. Yin, R. Cary, K. Thornburg, R. Wang, and S. Rugonyi, “Quantifying blood flow and wall shear stresses in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts,” Comput. Struc.89(11-12), 855–867 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Anat. (1)

X. Li, J. Liu, M. Davey, S. Duce, N. Jaberi, G. Liu, G. Davidson, S. Tenent, R. Mahood, P. Brown, C. Cunningham, A. Bain, K. Beattie, L. McDonald, K. Schmidt, M. Towers, C. Tickle, and S. Chudek, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos,” J. Anat.211(6), 798–809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Avian Med. Surg. (1)

M. Lierz, O. Gooss, and H. M. Hafez, “Noninvasive heart rate measurement using a digital egg monitor in chicken and turkey embryos,” J. Avian Med. Surg.20(3), 141–146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomech. (1)

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech.39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Physiol. B (2)

H. Tazawa and S. Nakagawa, “Response of egg temperature, heart rate and blood pressure in the chick embryo to hypothermal stress,” J. Comp. Physiol. B155(2), 195–200 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Akiyama, H. Mitsubayashi, H. Tazawa, and W. W. Burggren, “Heart rate responses to altered ambient oxygen in early (days 3-9) chick embryos in the intact egg,” J. Comp. Physiol. B169(2), 85–92 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Review of laser speckle contrast techniques for visualizing tissue perfusion,” Lasers Med. Sci.24(4), 639–651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magn. Reson. Imaging (1)

S. Duce, F. Morrison, M. Welten, G. Baggott, and C. Tickle, “Micro-magnetic resonance imaging study of live quail embryos during embryonic development,” Magn. Reson. Imaging29(1), 132–139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

H. Tazawa, T. Hiraguchi, T. Asakura, H. Fujii, and G. C. Whittow, “Noncontact measurements of avian embryo heart rate by means of the laser speckle: comparison with contact measurements,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.27(6), 580–586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photomed. Laser Surg. (1)

R. L. Yeager, J. A. Franzosa, D. S. Millsap, J. L. Angell-Yeager, S. S. Heise, P. Wakhungu, J. Lim, H. T. Whelan, J. T. Eells, and D. S. Henshel, “Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development,” Photomed. Laser Surg.23(3), 268–272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of the laser speckle imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of the same egg on the third day of incubation using different methods. (a) LSI blood flow maps of the embryo obtained through intact egg. (b) Color image of the same egg after removing its shell. (c) Raw laser speckle image before removing the shell. (d) Color image obtained through intact egg under white light illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LSI blood flow maps of chicken embryo in an intact egg on different days during the early embryonic stage: (a) on the first day of incubation, (b) on the second day of incubation, (c) on the third day of incubation, (d) on the fourth day of incubation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LSI blood flow maps of embryo within the egg on the 2nd day of incubation during cooling process at 5°C: (a) imaged when the egg was normally incubated, (b) imaged when the egg has been cooled for 50 min, (c) imaged when the egg has been cooled for 60 min, (d) imaged when the egg has been cooled for 70 min.

Equations (2)

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C= σ I ¯ = i=1 N ( I i I ¯ ) 2 N1 I ¯ = N i=1 N I i 2 ( i=1 N I i ) 2 N( N1 ) i=1 N I i N ,
C= [ exp( 2x )1+2x ]/2 x 2 ,x=T/ τ c .

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