Abstract

Using the sectioning capability of third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy, we assessed the morphologic features of human adipocytes directly without fixation and labeling. At the plane of the largest cross-sectional area, both area-equivalent circular diameters (AECD) and perimeters of adipocytes were measured, and their statistical distributions were examined. We found, in patients with no cardiovascular risk factors, the average AECD of epicardial adipocytes were 70–90 μm with 11–17 μm standard deviations. In contrast, for patients with coronary artery disease, amounts of small-sized (AECD <40 µm) epicardial adipocytes were observed and the corresponding standard deviations of AECD were increased to 20–29 μm. Our results indicate that the THG tomography platform can be used to explore the histopathological features of adipocytes in clinical scenarios based on its superior resolution for virtual optical biopsy.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

M.-R. Tsai, S.-Y. Chen, D.-B. Shieh, P.-J. Lou, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2317–2328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

T.-D. Wang, W.-J. Lee, F.-Y. Shih, C.-H. Huang, W.-J. Chen, Y.-T. Lee, T. T.-F. Shih, and M.-F. Chen, “Association of epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis is region-specific and independent of conventional risk factors and intra-abdominal adiposity,” Atherosclerosis213(1), 279–287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ahmad, S. G. Adie, M. Wang, and S. A. Boppart, “Sonification of optical coherence tomography data and images,” Opt. Express18(10), 9934–9944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, A. Sonmez, G. Yee, M. Bazuine, M. Arroyo, A. Sherman, T. McLaughlin, G. Reaven, S. Cushman, and P. Tsao, “Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.7(4), 311–318 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res.70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. Eroglu, L. E. Sade, A. Yildirir, U. Bal, S. Ozbicer, A. S. Ozgul, H. Bozbas, A. Aydinalp, and H. Muderrisoglu, “Epicardial adipose tissue thickness by echocardiography is a marker for the presence and severity of coronary artery disease,” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.19(3), 211–217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Lee, W.-A. Tseng, F.-Y. Lo, T.-M. Liu, and H.-J. Tsai, “FoxD5 mediates anterior-posterior polarity through upstream modulator Fgf signaling during zebrafish somitogenesis,” Dev. Biol.336(2), 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Mahabadi, J. M. Massaro, G. A. Rosito, D. Levy, J. M. Murabito, P. A. Wolf, C. J. O’Donnell, C. S. Fox, and U. Hoffmann, “Association of pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: the Framingham Heart Study,” Eur. Heart J.30(7), 850–856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

G. A. Rosito, J. M. Massaro, U. Hoffmann, F. L. Ruberg, A. A. Mahabadi, R. S. Vasan, C. J. O’Donnell, and C. S. Fox, “Pericardial fat, visceral abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and vascular calcification in a community-based sample: the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation117(5), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dolinková, I. Dostálová, Z. Lacinová, D. Michalský, D. Haluzíková, M. Mráz, M. Kasalický, and M. Haluzík, “The endocrine profile of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of obese patients,” Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.291(1-2), 63–70 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mathieu, P. Pibarot, E. Larose, P. Poirier, A. Marette, and J. P. Després, “Visceral obesity and the heart,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.40(5), 821–836 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, S. Zhuo, J. Chen, R. Chen, and X. Jiang, “Multiphoton microscopic imaging of adipose tissue based on second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Scanning30(6), 452–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

T. McLaughlin, A. Sherman, P. Tsao, O. Gonzalez, G. Yee, C. Lamendola, G. M. Reaven, and S. W. Cushman, “Enhanced proportion of small adipose cells in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive obese individuals implicates impaired adipogenesis,” Diabetologia50(8), 1707–1715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. P. Bastard, M. Maachi, C. Lagathu, M. J. Kim, M. Caron, H. Vidal, J. Capeau, and B. Feve, “Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance,” Eur. Cytokine Netw.17(1), 4–12 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005

H. Hauner, “Secretory factors from human adipose tissue and their functional role,” Proc. Nutr. Soc.64(02), 163–169 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fantuzzi, “Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.115(5), 911–919, quiz 920 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

P. Wang, E. Mariman, J. Keijer, F. Bouwman, J. P. Noben, J. Robben, and J. Renes, “Profiling of the secreted proteins during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation leads to the identification of novel adipokines,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.61(18), 2405–2417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Fain, A. K. Madan, M. L. Hiler, P. Cheema, and S. W. Bahouth, “Comparison of the release of adipokines by adipose tissue, adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues of obese humans,” Endocrinology145(5), 2273–2282 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S. P. Weisberg, D. McCann, M. Desai, M. Rosenbaum, R. L. Leibel, and A. W. Ferrante., “Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue,” J. Clin. Invest.112(12), 1796–1808 (2003).
[PubMed]

K. E. Wellen and G. S. Hotamisligil, “Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue,” J. Clin. Invest.112(12), 1785–1788 (2003).
[PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

B. L. Wajchenberg, “Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: their relation to the metabolic syndrome,” Endocr. Rev.21(6), 697–738 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

G. S. Hotamisligil, P. Arner, J. F. Caro, R. L. Atkinson, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance,” J. Clin. Invest.95(5), 2409–2415 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

P. Björntorp, ““Portal” adipose tissue as a generator of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes,” Arteriosclerosis10(4), 493–496 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

Aguirre, A. D.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res.70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmad, A.

Arner, P.

G. S. Hotamisligil, P. Arner, J. F. Caro, R. L. Atkinson, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance,” J. Clin. Invest.95(5), 2409–2415 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arroyo, M.

A. Liu, A. Sonmez, G. Yee, M. Bazuine, M. Arroyo, A. Sherman, T. McLaughlin, G. Reaven, S. Cushman, and P. Tsao, “Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.7(4), 311–318 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, R. L.

G. S. Hotamisligil, P. Arner, J. F. Caro, R. L. Atkinson, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance,” J. Clin. Invest.95(5), 2409–2415 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydinalp, A.

S. Eroglu, L. E. Sade, A. Yildirir, U. Bal, S. Ozbicer, A. S. Ozgul, H. Bozbas, A. Aydinalp, and H. Muderrisoglu, “Epicardial adipose tissue thickness by echocardiography is a marker for the presence and severity of coronary artery disease,” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.19(3), 211–217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahouth, S. W.

J. N. Fain, A. K. Madan, M. L. Hiler, P. Cheema, and S. W. Bahouth, “Comparison of the release of adipokines by adipose tissue, adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues of obese humans,” Endocrinology145(5), 2273–2282 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bal, U.

S. Eroglu, L. E. Sade, A. Yildirir, U. Bal, S. Ozbicer, A. S. Ozgul, H. Bozbas, A. Aydinalp, and H. Muderrisoglu, “Epicardial adipose tissue thickness by echocardiography is a marker for the presence and severity of coronary artery disease,” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.19(3), 211–217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastard, J. P.

J. P. Bastard, M. Maachi, C. Lagathu, M. J. Kim, M. Caron, H. Vidal, J. Capeau, and B. Feve, “Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance,” Eur. Cytokine Netw.17(1), 4–12 (2006).
[PubMed]

Bazuine, M.

A. Liu, A. Sonmez, G. Yee, M. Bazuine, M. Arroyo, A. Sherman, T. McLaughlin, G. Reaven, S. Cushman, and P. Tsao, “Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.7(4), 311–318 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhat, R.

H. Mori, A. D. Borowsky, R. Bhat, C. M. Ghajar, M. Seiki, and M. J. Bissell, “Laser scanning-based tissue autofluorescence/fluorescence imaging (LS-TAFI), a new technique for analysis of microanatomy in whole-mount tissues,” Am. J. Pathol.180(6), 2249–2256 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bissell, M. J.

H. Mori, A. D. Borowsky, R. Bhat, C. M. Ghajar, M. Seiki, and M. J. Bissell, “Laser scanning-based tissue autofluorescence/fluorescence imaging (LS-TAFI), a new technique for analysis of microanatomy in whole-mount tissues,” Am. J. Pathol.180(6), 2249–2256 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Björntorp, P.

P. Björntorp, ““Portal” adipose tissue as a generator of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes,” Arteriosclerosis10(4), 493–496 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

A. Ahmad, S. G. Adie, M. Wang, and S. A. Boppart, “Sonification of optical coherence tomography data and images,” Opt. Express18(10), 9934–9944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borowsky, A. D.

H. Mori, A. D. Borowsky, R. Bhat, C. M. Ghajar, M. Seiki, and M. J. Bissell, “Laser scanning-based tissue autofluorescence/fluorescence imaging (LS-TAFI), a new technique for analysis of microanatomy in whole-mount tissues,” Am. J. Pathol.180(6), 2249–2256 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwman, F.

P. Wang, E. Mariman, J. Keijer, F. Bouwman, J. P. Noben, J. Robben, and J. Renes, “Profiling of the secreted proteins during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation leads to the identification of novel adipokines,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.61(18), 2405–2417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozbas, H.

S. Eroglu, L. E. Sade, A. Yildirir, U. Bal, S. Ozbicer, A. S. Ozgul, H. Bozbas, A. Aydinalp, and H. Muderrisoglu, “Epicardial adipose tissue thickness by echocardiography is a marker for the presence and severity of coronary artery disease,” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.19(3), 211–217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capeau, J.

J. P. Bastard, M. Maachi, C. Lagathu, M. J. Kim, M. Caron, H. Vidal, J. Capeau, and B. Feve, “Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance,” Eur. Cytokine Netw.17(1), 4–12 (2006).
[PubMed]

Caro, J. F.

G. S. Hotamisligil, P. Arner, J. F. Caro, R. L. Atkinson, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance,” J. Clin. Invest.95(5), 2409–2415 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caron, M.

J. P. Bastard, M. Maachi, C. Lagathu, M. J. Kim, M. Caron, H. Vidal, J. Capeau, and B. Feve, “Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance,” Eur. Cytokine Netw.17(1), 4–12 (2006).
[PubMed]

Cheema, P.

J. N. Fain, A. K. Madan, M. L. Hiler, P. Cheema, and S. W. Bahouth, “Comparison of the release of adipokines by adipose tissue, adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues of obese humans,” Endocrinology145(5), 2273–2282 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-K.

Chen, J.

Z. Huang, S. Zhuo, J. Chen, R. Chen, and X. Jiang, “Multiphoton microscopic imaging of adipose tissue based on second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Scanning30(6), 452–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-F.

T.-D. Wang, W.-J. Lee, F.-Y. Shih, C.-H. Huang, W.-J. Chen, Y.-T. Lee, T. T.-F. Shih, and M.-F. Chen, “Association of epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis is region-specific and independent of conventional risk factors and intra-abdominal adiposity,” Atherosclerosis213(1), 279–287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

Z. Huang, S. Zhuo, J. Chen, R. Chen, and X. Jiang, “Multiphoton microscopic imaging of adipose tissue based on second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Scanning30(6), 452–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.-U.

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-Y.

M.-R. Tsai, S.-Y. Chen, D.-B. Shieh, P.-J. Lou, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2317–2328 (2011).
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S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.-J.

T.-D. Wang, W.-J. Lee, F.-Y. Shih, C.-H. Huang, W.-J. Chen, Y.-T. Lee, T. T.-F. Shih, and M.-F. Chen, “Association of epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis is region-specific and independent of conventional risk factors and intra-abdominal adiposity,” Atherosclerosis213(1), 279–287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-S.

Chia, J.-S.

Chu, S.-W.

Cohen, D. W.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res.70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
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C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res.70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
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C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
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A. Liu, A. Sonmez, G. Yee, M. Bazuine, M. Arroyo, A. Sherman, T. McLaughlin, G. Reaven, S. Cushman, and P. Tsao, “Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.7(4), 311–318 (2010).
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Cushman, S. W.

T. McLaughlin, A. Sherman, P. Tsao, O. Gonzalez, G. Yee, C. Lamendola, G. M. Reaven, and S. W. Cushman, “Enhanced proportion of small adipose cells in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive obese individuals implicates impaired adipogenesis,” Diabetologia50(8), 1707–1715 (2007).
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S. P. Weisberg, D. McCann, M. Desai, M. Rosenbaum, R. L. Leibel, and A. W. Ferrante., “Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue,” J. Clin. Invest.112(12), 1796–1808 (2003).
[PubMed]

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P. Mathieu, P. Pibarot, E. Larose, P. Poirier, A. Marette, and J. P. Després, “Visceral obesity and the heart,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.40(5), 821–836 (2008).
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M. Dolinková, I. Dostálová, Z. Lacinová, D. Michalský, D. Haluzíková, M. Mráz, M. Kasalický, and M. Haluzík, “The endocrine profile of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of obese patients,” Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.291(1-2), 63–70 (2008).
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Dostálová, I.

M. Dolinková, I. Dostálová, Z. Lacinová, D. Michalský, D. Haluzíková, M. Mráz, M. Kasalický, and M. Haluzík, “The endocrine profile of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of obese patients,” Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.291(1-2), 63–70 (2008).
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S. Eroglu, L. E. Sade, A. Yildirir, U. Bal, S. Ozbicer, A. S. Ozgul, H. Bozbas, A. Aydinalp, and H. Muderrisoglu, “Epicardial adipose tissue thickness by echocardiography is a marker for the presence and severity of coronary artery disease,” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.19(3), 211–217 (2009).
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C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
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J. N. Fain, A. K. Madan, M. L. Hiler, P. Cheema, and S. W. Bahouth, “Comparison of the release of adipokines by adipose tissue, adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues of obese humans,” Endocrinology145(5), 2273–2282 (2004).
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S. P. Weisberg, D. McCann, M. Desai, M. Rosenbaum, R. L. Leibel, and A. W. Ferrante., “Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue,” J. Clin. Invest.112(12), 1796–1808 (2003).
[PubMed]

Feve, B.

J. P. Bastard, M. Maachi, C. Lagathu, M. J. Kim, M. Caron, H. Vidal, J. Capeau, and B. Feve, “Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance,” Eur. Cytokine Netw.17(1), 4–12 (2006).
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Fox, C. S.

A. A. Mahabadi, J. M. Massaro, G. A. Rosito, D. Levy, J. M. Murabito, P. A. Wolf, C. J. O’Donnell, C. S. Fox, and U. Hoffmann, “Association of pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: the Framingham Heart Study,” Eur. Heart J.30(7), 850–856 (2009).
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G. A. Rosito, J. M. Massaro, U. Hoffmann, F. L. Ruberg, A. A. Mahabadi, R. S. Vasan, C. J. O’Donnell, and C. S. Fox, “Pericardial fat, visceral abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and vascular calcification in a community-based sample: the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation117(5), 605–613 (2008).
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Fujimoto, J. G.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res.70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
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H. Mori, A. D. Borowsky, R. Bhat, C. M. Ghajar, M. Seiki, and M. J. Bissell, “Laser scanning-based tissue autofluorescence/fluorescence imaging (LS-TAFI), a new technique for analysis of microanatomy in whole-mount tissues,” Am. J. Pathol.180(6), 2249–2256 (2012).
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T. McLaughlin, A. Sherman, P. Tsao, O. Gonzalez, G. Yee, C. Lamendola, G. M. Reaven, and S. W. Cushman, “Enhanced proportion of small adipose cells in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive obese individuals implicates impaired adipogenesis,” Diabetologia50(8), 1707–1715 (2007).
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Habibovic, A.

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
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Haluzík, M.

M. Dolinková, I. Dostálová, Z. Lacinová, D. Michalský, D. Haluzíková, M. Mráz, M. Kasalický, and M. Haluzík, “The endocrine profile of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of obese patients,” Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.291(1-2), 63–70 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haluzíková, D.

M. Dolinková, I. Dostálová, Z. Lacinová, D. Michalský, D. Haluzíková, M. Mráz, M. Kasalický, and M. Haluzík, “The endocrine profile of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of obese patients,” Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.291(1-2), 63–70 (2008).
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R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
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H. Hauner, “Secretory factors from human adipose tissue and their functional role,” Proc. Nutr. Soc.64(02), 163–169 (2005).
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J. N. Fain, A. K. Madan, M. L. Hiler, P. Cheema, and S. W. Bahouth, “Comparison of the release of adipokines by adipose tissue, adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues of obese humans,” Endocrinology145(5), 2273–2282 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, U.

A. A. Mahabadi, J. M. Massaro, G. A. Rosito, D. Levy, J. M. Murabito, P. A. Wolf, C. J. O’Donnell, C. S. Fox, and U. Hoffmann, “Association of pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: the Framingham Heart Study,” Eur. Heart J.30(7), 850–856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Rosito, J. M. Massaro, U. Hoffmann, F. L. Ruberg, A. A. Mahabadi, R. S. Vasan, C. J. O’Donnell, and C. S. Fox, “Pericardial fat, visceral abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and vascular calcification in a community-based sample: the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation117(5), 605–613 (2008).
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K. E. Wellen and G. S. Hotamisligil, “Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue,” J. Clin. Invest.112(12), 1785–1788 (2003).
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C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, T.-Y.

Hu, C.-H.

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-H.

T.-D. Wang, W.-J. Lee, F.-Y. Shih, C.-H. Huang, W.-J. Chen, Y.-T. Lee, T. T.-F. Shih, and M.-F. Chen, “Association of epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis is region-specific and independent of conventional risk factors and intra-abdominal adiposity,” Atherosclerosis213(1), 279–287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, S. Zhuo, J. Chen, R. Chen, and X. Jiang, “Multiphoton microscopic imaging of adipose tissue based on second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Scanning30(6), 452–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaworski, D. M.

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jetton, T. L.

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

Z. Huang, S. Zhuo, J. Chen, R. Chen, and X. Jiang, “Multiphoton microscopic imaging of adipose tissue based on second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Scanning30(6), 452–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasalický, M.

M. Dolinková, I. Dostálová, Z. Lacinová, D. Michalský, D. Haluzíková, M. Mráz, M. Kasalický, and M. Haluzík, “The endocrine profile of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of obese patients,” Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.291(1-2), 63–70 (2008).
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P. Wang, E. Mariman, J. Keijer, F. Bouwman, J. P. Noben, J. Robben, and J. Renes, “Profiling of the secreted proteins during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation leads to the identification of novel adipokines,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.61(18), 2405–2417 (2004).
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J. P. Bastard, M. Maachi, C. Lagathu, M. J. Kim, M. Caron, H. Vidal, J. Capeau, and B. Feve, “Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance,” Eur. Cytokine Netw.17(1), 4–12 (2006).
[PubMed]

Ko, C.-Y.

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacinová, Z.

M. Dolinková, I. Dostálová, Z. Lacinová, D. Michalský, D. Haluzíková, M. Mráz, M. Kasalický, and M. Haluzík, “The endocrine profile of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of obese patients,” Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.291(1-2), 63–70 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagathu, C.

J. P. Bastard, M. Maachi, C. Lagathu, M. J. Kim, M. Caron, H. Vidal, J. Capeau, and B. Feve, “Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance,” Eur. Cytokine Netw.17(1), 4–12 (2006).
[PubMed]

Lamendola, C.

T. McLaughlin, A. Sherman, P. Tsao, O. Gonzalez, G. Yee, C. Lamendola, G. M. Reaven, and S. W. Cushman, “Enhanced proportion of small adipose cells in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive obese individuals implicates impaired adipogenesis,” Diabetologia50(8), 1707–1715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langlois, G. D.

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larock, K.

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larose, E.

P. Mathieu, P. Pibarot, E. Larose, P. Poirier, A. Marette, and J. P. Després, “Visceral obesity and the heart,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.40(5), 821–836 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lausier, J.

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.-C.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res.70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Lee, W.-A. Tseng, F.-Y. Lo, T.-M. Liu, and H.-J. Tsai, “FoxD5 mediates anterior-posterior polarity through upstream modulator Fgf signaling during zebrafish somitogenesis,” Dev. Biol.336(2), 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W.-J.

T.-D. Wang, W.-J. Lee, F.-Y. Shih, C.-H. Huang, W.-J. Chen, Y.-T. Lee, T. T.-F. Shih, and M.-F. Chen, “Association of epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis is region-specific and independent of conventional risk factors and intra-abdominal adiposity,” Atherosclerosis213(1), 279–287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-T.

T.-D. Wang, W.-J. Lee, F.-Y. Shih, C.-H. Huang, W.-J. Chen, Y.-T. Lee, T. T.-F. Shih, and M.-F. Chen, “Association of epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis is region-specific and independent of conventional risk factors and intra-abdominal adiposity,” Atherosclerosis213(1), 279–287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leibel, R. L.

S. P. Weisberg, D. McCann, M. Desai, M. Rosenbaum, R. L. Leibel, and A. W. Ferrante., “Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue,” J. Clin. Invest.112(12), 1796–1808 (2003).
[PubMed]

Levy, D.

A. A. Mahabadi, J. M. Massaro, G. A. Rosito, D. Levy, J. M. Murabito, P. A. Wolf, C. J. O’Donnell, C. S. Fox, and U. Hoffmann, “Association of pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: the Framingham Heart Study,” Eur. Heart J.30(7), 850–856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Y.-H.

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-Y.

Lin, W.-L.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, A. Sonmez, G. Yee, M. Bazuine, M. Arroyo, A. Sherman, T. McLaughlin, G. Reaven, S. Cushman, and P. Tsao, “Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.7(4), 311–318 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.-W.

Liu, T.-M.

C.-K. Tsai, Y.-S. Chen, P.-C. Wu, T.-Y. Hsieh, H.-W. Liu, C.-Y. Yeh, W.-L. Lin, J.-S. Chia, and T.-M. Liu, “Imaging granularity of leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(9), 2234–2243 (2012).
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C.-K. Chen and T.-M. Liu, “Imaging morphodynamics of human blood cells in vivo with video-rate third harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2860–2865 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Lee, W.-A. Tseng, F.-Y. Lo, T.-M. Liu, and H.-J. Tsai, “FoxD5 mediates anterior-posterior polarity through upstream modulator Fgf signaling during zebrafish somitogenesis,” Dev. Biol.336(2), 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, F.-Y.

H.-C. Lee, W.-A. Tseng, F.-Y. Lo, T.-M. Liu, and H.-J. Tsai, “FoxD5 mediates anterior-posterior polarity through upstream modulator Fgf signaling during zebrafish somitogenesis,” Dev. Biol.336(2), 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lou, P.-J.

Luo, W.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.84(2), 85–97 (2004).
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Maachi, M.

J. P. Bastard, M. Maachi, C. Lagathu, M. J. Kim, M. Caron, H. Vidal, J. Capeau, and B. Feve, “Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance,” Eur. Cytokine Netw.17(1), 4–12 (2006).
[PubMed]

Madan, A. K.

J. N. Fain, A. K. Madan, M. L. Hiler, P. Cheema, and S. W. Bahouth, “Comparison of the release of adipokines by adipose tissue, adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues of obese humans,” Endocrinology145(5), 2273–2282 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahabadi, A. A.

A. A. Mahabadi, J. M. Massaro, G. A. Rosito, D. Levy, J. M. Murabito, P. A. Wolf, C. J. O’Donnell, C. S. Fox, and U. Hoffmann, “Association of pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: the Framingham Heart Study,” Eur. Heart J.30(7), 850–856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Rosito, J. M. Massaro, U. Hoffmann, F. L. Ruberg, A. A. Mahabadi, R. S. Vasan, C. J. O’Donnell, and C. S. Fox, “Pericardial fat, visceral abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and vascular calcification in a community-based sample: the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation117(5), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marette, A.

P. Mathieu, P. Pibarot, E. Larose, P. Poirier, A. Marette, and J. P. Després, “Visceral obesity and the heart,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.40(5), 821–836 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariman, E.

P. Wang, E. Mariman, J. Keijer, F. Bouwman, J. P. Noben, J. Robben, and J. Renes, “Profiling of the secreted proteins during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation leads to the identification of novel adipokines,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.61(18), 2405–2417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massaro, J. M.

A. A. Mahabadi, J. M. Massaro, G. A. Rosito, D. Levy, J. M. Murabito, P. A. Wolf, C. J. O’Donnell, C. S. Fox, and U. Hoffmann, “Association of pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: the Framingham Heart Study,” Eur. Heart J.30(7), 850–856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Rosito, J. M. Massaro, U. Hoffmann, F. L. Ruberg, A. A. Mahabadi, R. S. Vasan, C. J. O’Donnell, and C. S. Fox, “Pericardial fat, visceral abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and vascular calcification in a community-based sample: the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation117(5), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathieu, P.

P. Mathieu, P. Pibarot, E. Larose, P. Poirier, A. Marette, and J. P. Després, “Visceral obesity and the heart,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.40(5), 821–836 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCann, D.

S. P. Weisberg, D. McCann, M. Desai, M. Rosenbaum, R. L. Leibel, and A. W. Ferrante., “Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue,” J. Clin. Invest.112(12), 1796–1808 (2003).
[PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, T.

A. Liu, A. Sonmez, G. Yee, M. Bazuine, M. Arroyo, A. Sherman, T. McLaughlin, G. Reaven, S. Cushman, and P. Tsao, “Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.7(4), 311–318 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. McLaughlin, A. Sherman, P. Tsao, O. Gonzalez, G. Yee, C. Lamendola, G. M. Reaven, and S. W. Cushman, “Enhanced proportion of small adipose cells in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive obese individuals implicates impaired adipogenesis,” Diabetologia50(8), 1707–1715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michalský, D.

M. Dolinková, I. Dostálová, Z. Lacinová, D. Michalský, D. Haluzíková, M. Mráz, M. Kasalický, and M. Haluzík, “The endocrine profile of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of obese patients,” Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.291(1-2), 63–70 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mondelblatt, A. E.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res.70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mori, H.

H. Mori, A. D. Borowsky, R. Bhat, C. M. Ghajar, M. Seiki, and M. J. Bissell, “Laser scanning-based tissue autofluorescence/fluorescence imaging (LS-TAFI), a new technique for analysis of microanatomy in whole-mount tissues,” Am. J. Pathol.180(6), 2249–2256 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mráz, M.

M. Dolinková, I. Dostálová, Z. Lacinová, D. Michalský, D. Haluzíková, M. Mráz, M. Kasalický, and M. Haluzík, “The endocrine profile of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of obese patients,” Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.291(1-2), 63–70 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muderrisoglu, H.

S. Eroglu, L. E. Sade, A. Yildirir, U. Bal, S. Ozbicer, A. S. Ozgul, H. Bozbas, A. Aydinalp, and H. Muderrisoglu, “Epicardial adipose tissue thickness by echocardiography is a marker for the presence and severity of coronary artery disease,” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.19(3), 211–217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murabito, J. M.

A. A. Mahabadi, J. M. Massaro, G. A. Rosito, D. Levy, J. M. Murabito, P. A. Wolf, C. J. O’Donnell, C. S. Fox, and U. Hoffmann, “Association of pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: the Framingham Heart Study,” Eur. Heart J.30(7), 850–856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noben, J. P.

P. Wang, E. Mariman, J. Keijer, F. Bouwman, J. P. Noben, J. Robben, and J. Renes, “Profiling of the secreted proteins during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation leads to the identification of novel adipokines,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.61(18), 2405–2417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donnell, C. J.

A. A. Mahabadi, J. M. Massaro, G. A. Rosito, D. Levy, J. M. Murabito, P. A. Wolf, C. J. O’Donnell, C. S. Fox, and U. Hoffmann, “Association of pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: the Framingham Heart Study,” Eur. Heart J.30(7), 850–856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Rosito, J. M. Massaro, U. Hoffmann, F. L. Ruberg, A. A. Mahabadi, R. S. Vasan, C. J. O’Donnell, and C. S. Fox, “Pericardial fat, visceral abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and vascular calcification in a community-based sample: the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation117(5), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbicer, S.

S. Eroglu, L. E. Sade, A. Yildirir, U. Bal, S. Ozbicer, A. S. Ozgul, H. Bozbas, A. Aydinalp, and H. Muderrisoglu, “Epicardial adipose tissue thickness by echocardiography is a marker for the presence and severity of coronary artery disease,” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.19(3), 211–217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozgul, A. S.

S. Eroglu, L. E. Sade, A. Yildirir, U. Bal, S. Ozbicer, A. S. Ozgul, H. Bozbas, A. Aydinalp, and H. Muderrisoglu, “Epicardial adipose tissue thickness by echocardiography is a marker for the presence and severity of coronary artery disease,” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.19(3), 211–217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peshavaria, M.

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pibarot, P.

P. Mathieu, P. Pibarot, E. Larose, P. Poirier, A. Marette, and J. P. Després, “Visceral obesity and the heart,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.40(5), 821–836 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poirier, P.

P. Mathieu, P. Pibarot, E. Larose, P. Poirier, A. Marette, and J. P. Després, “Visceral obesity and the heart,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.40(5), 821–836 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pratley, R. E.

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puoris’haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reaven, G.

A. Liu, A. Sonmez, G. Yee, M. Bazuine, M. Arroyo, A. Sherman, T. McLaughlin, G. Reaven, S. Cushman, and P. Tsao, “Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.7(4), 311–318 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reaven, G. M.

T. McLaughlin, A. Sherman, P. Tsao, O. Gonzalez, G. Yee, C. Lamendola, G. M. Reaven, and S. W. Cushman, “Enhanced proportion of small adipose cells in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive obese individuals implicates impaired adipogenesis,” Diabetologia50(8), 1707–1715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renes, J.

P. Wang, E. Mariman, J. Keijer, F. Bouwman, J. P. Noben, J. Robben, and J. Renes, “Profiling of the secreted proteins during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation leads to the identification of novel adipokines,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.61(18), 2405–2417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robben, J.

P. Wang, E. Mariman, J. Keijer, F. Bouwman, J. P. Noben, J. Robben, and J. Renes, “Profiling of the secreted proteins during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation leads to the identification of novel adipokines,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.61(18), 2405–2417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, P.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenbaum, M.

S. P. Weisberg, D. McCann, M. Desai, M. Rosenbaum, R. L. Leibel, and A. W. Ferrante., “Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue,” J. Clin. Invest.112(12), 1796–1808 (2003).
[PubMed]

Rosito, G. A.

A. A. Mahabadi, J. M. Massaro, G. A. Rosito, D. Levy, J. M. Murabito, P. A. Wolf, C. J. O’Donnell, C. S. Fox, and U. Hoffmann, “Association of pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: the Framingham Heart Study,” Eur. Heart J.30(7), 850–856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Rosito, J. M. Massaro, U. Hoffmann, F. L. Ruberg, A. A. Mahabadi, R. S. Vasan, C. J. O’Donnell, and C. S. Fox, “Pericardial fat, visceral abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and vascular calcification in a community-based sample: the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation117(5), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruberg, F. L.

G. A. Rosito, J. M. Massaro, U. Hoffmann, F. L. Ruberg, A. A. Mahabadi, R. S. Vasan, C. J. O’Donnell, and C. S. Fox, “Pericardial fat, visceral abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and vascular calcification in a community-based sample: the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation117(5), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sade, L. E.

S. Eroglu, L. E. Sade, A. Yildirir, U. Bal, S. Ozbicer, A. S. Ozgul, H. Bozbas, A. Aydinalp, and H. Muderrisoglu, “Epicardial adipose tissue thickness by echocardiography is a marker for the presence and severity of coronary artery disease,” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.19(3), 211–217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Satish, B.

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, C.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scolaro, L.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seiki, M.

H. Mori, A. D. Borowsky, R. Bhat, C. M. Ghajar, M. Seiki, and M. J. Bissell, “Laser scanning-based tissue autofluorescence/fluorescence imaging (LS-TAFI), a new technique for analysis of microanatomy in whole-mount tissues,” Am. J. Pathol.180(6), 2249–2256 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherman, A.

A. Liu, A. Sonmez, G. Yee, M. Bazuine, M. Arroyo, A. Sherman, T. McLaughlin, G. Reaven, S. Cushman, and P. Tsao, “Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.7(4), 311–318 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. McLaughlin, A. Sherman, P. Tsao, O. Gonzalez, G. Yee, C. Lamendola, G. M. Reaven, and S. W. Cushman, “Enhanced proportion of small adipose cells in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive obese individuals implicates impaired adipogenesis,” Diabetologia50(8), 1707–1715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shieh, D.-B.

Shih, F.-Y.

T.-D. Wang, W.-J. Lee, F.-Y. Shih, C.-H. Huang, W.-J. Chen, Y.-T. Lee, T. T.-F. Shih, and M.-F. Chen, “Association of epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis is region-specific and independent of conventional risk factors and intra-abdominal adiposity,” Atherosclerosis213(1), 279–287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, T. T.-F.

T.-D. Wang, W.-J. Lee, F.-Y. Shih, C.-H. Huang, W.-J. Chen, Y.-T. Lee, T. T.-F. Shih, and M.-F. Chen, “Association of epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis is region-specific and independent of conventional risk factors and intra-abdominal adiposity,” Atherosclerosis213(1), 279–287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sideleva, O.

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singletary, K. W.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonmez, A.

A. Liu, A. Sonmez, G. Yee, M. Bazuine, M. Arroyo, A. Sherman, T. McLaughlin, G. Reaven, S. Cushman, and P. Tsao, “Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.7(4), 311–318 (2010).
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G. S. Hotamisligil, P. Arner, J. F. Caro, R. L. Atkinson, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance,” J. Clin. Invest.95(5), 2409–2415 (1995).
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D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.-K.

M.-R. Tsai, S.-Y. Chen, D.-B. Shieh, P.-J. Lou, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2317–2328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tharp, W. G.

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, C.-K.

Tsai, H.-J.

H.-C. Lee, W.-A. Tseng, F.-Y. Lo, T.-M. Liu, and H.-J. Tsai, “FoxD5 mediates anterior-posterior polarity through upstream modulator Fgf signaling during zebrafish somitogenesis,” Dev. Biol.336(2), 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M.-R.

Tsai, T.-H.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res.70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsao, P.

A. Liu, A. Sonmez, G. Yee, M. Bazuine, M. Arroyo, A. Sherman, T. McLaughlin, G. Reaven, S. Cushman, and P. Tsao, “Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.7(4), 311–318 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. McLaughlin, A. Sherman, P. Tsao, O. Gonzalez, G. Yee, C. Lamendola, G. M. Reaven, and S. W. Cushman, “Enhanced proportion of small adipose cells in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive obese individuals implicates impaired adipogenesis,” Diabetologia50(8), 1707–1715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, W.-A.

H.-C. Lee, W.-A. Tseng, F.-Y. Lo, T.-M. Liu, and H.-J. Tsai, “FoxD5 mediates anterior-posterior polarity through upstream modulator Fgf signaling during zebrafish somitogenesis,” Dev. Biol.336(2), 232–245 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasan, R. S.

G. A. Rosito, J. M. Massaro, U. Hoffmann, F. L. Ruberg, A. A. Mahabadi, R. S. Vasan, C. J. O’Donnell, and C. S. Fox, “Pericardial fat, visceral abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and vascular calcification in a community-based sample: the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation117(5), 605–613 (2008).
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J. P. Bastard, M. Maachi, C. Lagathu, M. J. Kim, M. Caron, H. Vidal, J. Capeau, and B. Feve, “Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance,” Eur. Cytokine Netw.17(1), 4–12 (2006).
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B. L. Wajchenberg, “Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: their relation to the metabolic syndrome,” Endocr. Rev.21(6), 697–738 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

Wang, P.

P. Wang, E. Mariman, J. Keijer, F. Bouwman, J. P. Noben, J. Robben, and J. Renes, “Profiling of the secreted proteins during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation leads to the identification of novel adipokines,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.61(18), 2405–2417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.-D.

T.-D. Wang, W.-J. Lee, F.-Y. Shih, C.-H. Huang, W.-J. Chen, Y.-T. Lee, T. T.-F. Shih, and M.-F. Chen, “Association of epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis is region-specific and independent of conventional risk factors and intra-abdominal adiposity,” Atherosclerosis213(1), 279–287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res.70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weisberg, S. P.

S. P. Weisberg, D. McCann, M. Desai, M. Rosenbaum, R. L. Leibel, and A. W. Ferrante., “Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue,” J. Clin. Invest.112(12), 1796–1808 (2003).
[PubMed]

Wellen, K. E.

K. E. Wellen and G. S. Hotamisligil, “Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue,” J. Clin. Invest.112(12), 1785–1788 (2003).
[PubMed]

Wolf, P. A.

A. A. Mahabadi, J. M. Massaro, G. A. Rosito, D. Levy, J. M. Murabito, P. A. Wolf, C. J. O’Donnell, C. S. Fox, and U. Hoffmann, “Association of pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: the Framingham Heart Study,” Eur. Heart J.30(7), 850–856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.-S.

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064041 (2008).
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Wu, P.-C.

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
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Yee, G.

A. Liu, A. Sonmez, G. Yee, M. Bazuine, M. Arroyo, A. Sherman, T. McLaughlin, G. Reaven, S. Cushman, and P. Tsao, “Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.7(4), 311–318 (2010).
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T. McLaughlin, A. Sherman, P. Tsao, O. Gonzalez, G. Yee, C. Lamendola, G. M. Reaven, and S. W. Cushman, “Enhanced proportion of small adipose cells in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive obese individuals implicates impaired adipogenesis,” Diabetologia50(8), 1707–1715 (2007).
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Yeh, C.-Y.

Yildirir, A.

S. Eroglu, L. E. Sade, A. Yildirir, U. Bal, S. Ozbicer, A. S. Ozgul, H. Bozbas, A. Aydinalp, and H. Muderrisoglu, “Epicardial adipose tissue thickness by echocardiography is a marker for the presence and severity of coronary artery disease,” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.19(3), 211–217 (2009).
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Zhou, C.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res.70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
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Zhuo, S.

Z. Huang, S. Zhuo, J. Chen, R. Chen, and X. Jiang, “Multiphoton microscopic imaging of adipose tissue based on second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Scanning30(6), 452–456 (2008).
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Am. J. Pathol.

H. Mori, A. D. Borowsky, R. Bhat, C. M. Ghajar, M. Seiki, and M. J. Bissell, “Laser scanning-based tissue autofluorescence/fluorescence imaging (LS-TAFI), a new technique for analysis of microanatomy in whole-mount tissues,” Am. J. Pathol.180(6), 2249–2256 (2012).
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Arteriosclerosis

P. Björntorp, ““Portal” adipose tissue as a generator of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes,” Arteriosclerosis10(4), 493–496 (1990).
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Atherosclerosis

T.-D. Wang, W.-J. Lee, F.-Y. Shih, C.-H. Huang, W.-J. Chen, Y.-T. Lee, T. T.-F. Shih, and M.-F. Chen, “Association of epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis is region-specific and independent of conventional risk factors and intra-abdominal adiposity,” Atherosclerosis213(1), 279–287 (2010).
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Biomed. Opt. Express

Breast Cancer Res. Treat.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat.84(2), 85–97 (2004).
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Cancer Res.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res.70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
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R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res.70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
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Cell. Mol. Life Sci.

P. Wang, E. Mariman, J. Keijer, F. Bouwman, J. P. Noben, J. Robben, and J. Renes, “Profiling of the secreted proteins during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation leads to the identification of novel adipokines,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci.61(18), 2405–2417 (2004).
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Circulation

G. A. Rosito, J. M. Massaro, U. Hoffmann, F. L. Ruberg, A. A. Mahabadi, R. S. Vasan, C. J. O’Donnell, and C. S. Fox, “Pericardial fat, visceral abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and vascular calcification in a community-based sample: the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation117(5), 605–613 (2008).
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Dev. Biol.

H.-C. Lee, W.-A. Tseng, F.-Y. Lo, T.-M. Liu, and H.-J. Tsai, “FoxD5 mediates anterior-posterior polarity through upstream modulator Fgf signaling during zebrafish somitogenesis,” Dev. Biol.336(2), 232–245 (2009).
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Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.

A. Liu, A. Sonmez, G. Yee, M. Bazuine, M. Arroyo, A. Sherman, T. McLaughlin, G. Reaven, S. Cushman, and P. Tsao, “Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats,” Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res.7(4), 311–318 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diabetologia

T. McLaughlin, A. Sherman, P. Tsao, O. Gonzalez, G. Yee, C. Lamendola, G. M. Reaven, and S. W. Cushman, “Enhanced proportion of small adipose cells in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive obese individuals implicates impaired adipogenesis,” Diabetologia50(8), 1707–1715 (2007).
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Endocr. Rev.

B. L. Wajchenberg, “Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: their relation to the metabolic syndrome,” Endocr. Rev.21(6), 697–738 (2000).
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Endocrinology

D. M. Jaworski, O. Sideleva, H. M. Stradecki, G. D. Langlois, A. Habibovic, B. Satish, W. G. Tharp, J. Lausier, K. Larock, T. L. Jetton, M. Peshavaria, and R. E. Pratley, “Sexually dimorphic diet-induced insulin resistance in obese tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)-deficient mice,” Endocrinology152(4), 1300–1313 (2011).
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J. N. Fain, A. K. Madan, M. L. Hiler, P. Cheema, and S. W. Bahouth, “Comparison of the release of adipokines by adipose tissue, adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues of obese humans,” Endocrinology145(5), 2273–2282 (2004).
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Eur. Cytokine Netw.

J. P. Bastard, M. Maachi, C. Lagathu, M. J. Kim, M. Caron, H. Vidal, J. Capeau, and B. Feve, “Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance,” Eur. Cytokine Netw.17(1), 4–12 (2006).
[PubMed]

Eur. Heart J.

A. A. Mahabadi, J. M. Massaro, G. A. Rosito, D. Levy, J. M. Murabito, P. A. Wolf, C. J. O’Donnell, C. S. Fox, and U. Hoffmann, “Association of pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: the Framingham Heart Study,” Eur. Heart J.30(7), 850–856 (2009).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.

P. Mathieu, P. Pibarot, E. Larose, P. Poirier, A. Marette, and J. P. Després, “Visceral obesity and the heart,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.40(5), 821–836 (2008).
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G. Fantuzzi, “Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.115(5), 911–919, quiz 920 (2005).
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J. Biomed. Opt.

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Invest.

G. S. Hotamisligil, P. Arner, J. F. Caro, R. L. Atkinson, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance,” J. Clin. Invest.95(5), 2409–2415 (1995).
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K. E. Wellen and G. S. Hotamisligil, “Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue,” J. Clin. Invest.112(12), 1785–1788 (2003).
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S. P. Weisberg, D. McCann, M. Desai, M. Rosenbaum, R. L. Leibel, and A. W. Ferrante., “Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue,” J. Clin. Invest.112(12), 1796–1808 (2003).
[PubMed]

Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.

M. Dolinková, I. Dostálová, Z. Lacinová, D. Michalský, D. Haluzíková, M. Mráz, M. Kasalický, and M. Haluzík, “The endocrine profile of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of obese patients,” Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.291(1-2), 63–70 (2008).
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Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.

S. Eroglu, L. E. Sade, A. Yildirir, U. Bal, S. Ozbicer, A. S. Ozgul, H. Bozbas, A. Aydinalp, and H. Muderrisoglu, “Epicardial adipose tissue thickness by echocardiography is a marker for the presence and severity of coronary artery disease,” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis.19(3), 211–217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
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Proc. Nutr. Soc.

H. Hauner, “Secretory factors from human adipose tissue and their functional role,” Proc. Nutr. Soc.64(02), 163–169 (2005).
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Scanning

Z. Huang, S. Zhuo, J. Chen, R. Chen, and X. Jiang, “Multiphoton microscopic imaging of adipose tissue based on second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Scanning30(6), 452–456 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Differential interference contrast, (b) DAPI staining, and (c) Oil Red O staining images of mediastinal adipose tissue from a patient undergoing cardiac surgery. (d) A superimposition image of (a)-(c). (e) Combined SHG (green) and THG (magenta) images of adipose tissues. The yellow contour represents the boundary of the adipocyte at its largest cross-section. Fields of view: (a)-(d) 445 × 344 µm. (e) 240 × 240 µm. Laser pixel dwell time in (e) was 320 ns.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A THG tomography of adipose tissues at different z-axial distances. The imaging depth of (a) was 80 µm away from the top of tissues. Each section plane was separated by 30 μm in axial distance. Fields of view: 720 × 720 µm. Laser pixel dwell times were 320 ns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

THG images of adipocytes in epicardial adipose tissue (on the surface of right ventricular free wall) from patients with (a) no cardiovascular risk factors and (b) with CAD. Fields of view: 720 × 720 µm. Laser pixel dwell times were 320 ns.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Histograms and statistics of the sizes (area-equivalent circular diameters) of adipocytes from (a), (b) two patients with no cardiovascular risk factors and (c), (d) three CAD patients. (a), (c) show size histograms of epicardial adipocytes obtained from the surface of right ventricle (RV) and N represents the number of adipocytes analyzed. Box charts (b), (d) illustrate the average (square), median (line in box), variance (box), and ranges of adipocyte sizes measured at different locations within a sample and at different fat tissues in a patient. Adipose tissues were obtained from the surface of right ventricle (RV), subcutaneous tissue of chest wall (Chest), and mediastinal fat (Medi).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Statistical results on (a) area-equivalent circular diameter, (b) perimeter, (c) compression ratio, and (d) eccentricity of RV epicardial adipocytes obtained from no-risk-factor (black) and CAD (red) patients.

Equations (1)

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R= A π ( s/ 2π ) 2 ,

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