Abstract

Elastic light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) is widely utilized to investigate cellular structures in cultured cells and various tissues. However, few imaging systems, especially endoscopic imaging systems, can implement LSS. It is the aim of this work to create a polarized multispectral imaging system based around a rigid endoscope to detect micrometer sized particles using LSS. The instrument first validated with different sized mono-disperse polystyrene microspheres, then an image is reconstructed based on LSS which shows the differentiation of different sized microspheres. Finally a preliminary experiment is conducted to demonstrate its capability to discriminate different types of cells.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

2011 (3)

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. B. Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 1: early and late spectral changes are indicative of the presence of apoptosis in cell cultures,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. Bobby Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 2: early spectral changes during apoptosis are linked to apoptotic volume decrease,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Suh, O. A’amar, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, S. Lee, I. Bigio, and J. E. Rosen, “Elastic light-scattering spectroscopy for discrimination of benign from malignant disease in thyroid nodules,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.18(5), 1300–1305 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Wood and D. S. Elson, “Polarization response measurement and simulation of rigid endoscopes,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(2), 463–470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

T. T. Wu and J. Y. Qu, “Assessment of the relative contribution of cellular components to the acetowhitening effect in cell cultures and suspensions using elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.46(21), 4834–4842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for apoptosis in cell cultures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(6), 1663–1670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, L. T. Perelman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, and C. W. Boone, “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE4617, 101–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med.7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

L. T. Perelman, G. Zonios, V. Backman, R. Gurjar, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative analysis of mucosal tissues in patients using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE3597, 474–479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, K. Gossage, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy with polarized light: is it sensitive to cellular and nuclear morphology,” Opt. Express5(13), 302–317 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt.37(16), 3586–3593 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A’amar, O.

H. Suh, O. A’amar, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, S. Lee, I. Bigio, and J. E. Rosen, “Elastic light-scattering spectroscopy for discrimination of benign from malignant disease in thyroid nodules,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.18(5), 1300–1305 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appelman, H. D.

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, L. T. Perelman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, and C. W. Boone, “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE4617, 101–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med.7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, G. Zonios, V. Backman, R. Gurjar, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative analysis of mucosal tissues in patients using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE3597, 474–479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, L. T. Perelman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, and C. W. Boone, “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE4617, 101–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med.7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bigio, I.

H. Suh, O. A’amar, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, S. Lee, I. Bigio, and J. E. Rosen, “Elastic light-scattering spectroscopy for discrimination of benign from malignant disease in thyroid nodules,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.18(5), 1300–1305 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. Bobby Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 2: early spectral changes during apoptosis are linked to apoptotic volume decrease,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. B. Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 1: early and late spectral changes are indicative of the presence of apoptosis in cell cultures,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for apoptosis in cell cultures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(6), 1663–1670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bobby Liu, W. H.

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. Bobby Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 2: early spectral changes during apoptosis are linked to apoptotic volume decrease,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bocklage, T. J.

Boone, C. W.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, L. T. Perelman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, and C. W. Boone, “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE4617, 101–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bown, S. G.

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, G.

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chicken, D. W.

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuttani, R.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cipolloni, P.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Correa, P.

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, A. L.

C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for apoptosis in cell cultures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(6), 1663–1670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med.7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, G. Zonios, V. Backman, R. Gurjar, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative analysis of mucosal tissues in patients using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE3597, 474–479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dorin, M. H.

Drezek, R.

Eick, A. A.

Elson, D. S.

Falzon, M.

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, H.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med.7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, G. Zonios, V. Backman, R. Gurjar, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative analysis of mucosal tissues in patients using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE3597, 474–479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fenoglio, C. M.

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freedman, S. D.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freyer, J. P.

Georgakoudi, I.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, L. T. Perelman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, and C. W. Boone, “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE4617, 101–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med.7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, H.

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldsmith, J. D.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopal, V.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, L. T. Perelman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, and C. W. Boone, “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE4617, 101–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gossage, K.

Greene, H. M.

Guo, L.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, L. T. Perelman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, and C. W. Boone, “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE4617, 101–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, G. Zonios, V. Backman, R. Gurjar, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative analysis of mucosal tissues in patients using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE3597, 474–479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gurjar, R. S.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med.7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haggitt, R. C.

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamano, T.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, S. R.

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanlon, E. B.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

hren, C.

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itani, S.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med.7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, G. Zonios, V. Backman, R. Gurjar, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative analysis of mucosal tissues in patients using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE3597, 474–479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. S.

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

Kalashnikov, M.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, L. T. Perelman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, and C. W. Boone, “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE4617, 101–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keshtgar, M. R.

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerer, L. M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lakhani, S.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, A. C.

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

H. Suh, O. A’amar, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, S. Lee, I. Bigio, and J. E. Rosen, “Elastic light-scattering spectroscopy for discrimination of benign from malignant disease in thyroid nodules,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.18(5), 1300–1305 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leyden, J.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lima, C.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. H. B.

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. B. Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 1: early and late spectral changes are indicative of the presence of apoptosis in cell cultures,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marina, O. C.

Modell, M. D.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morson, B. C.

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

Mueller, M.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, L. T. Perelman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, and C. W. Boone, “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE4617, 101–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mulvey, C. S.

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. B. Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 1: early and late spectral changes are indicative of the presence of apoptosis in cell cultures,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. Bobby Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 2: early spectral changes during apoptosis are linked to apoptotic volume decrease,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for apoptosis in cell cultures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(6), 1663–1670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nusrat, A.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ollero, M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozden, N.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, L. T. Perelman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, and C. W. Boone, “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE4617, 101–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med.7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, G. Zonios, V. Backman, R. Gurjar, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative analysis of mucosal tissues in patients using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE3597, 474–479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pickard, D.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickard, D. C. O.

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pleskow, D. K.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powers, T. M.

Qiu, L.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, J. Y.

Ransohoff, D. F.

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Riddell, R. H.

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripley, P. M.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez-Diaz, E.

H. Suh, O. A’amar, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, S. Lee, I. Bigio, and J. E. Rosen, “Elastic light-scattering spectroscopy for discrimination of benign from malignant disease in thyroid nodules,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.18(5), 1300–1305 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, I. G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, J. E.

H. Suh, O. A’amar, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, S. Lee, I. Bigio, and J. E. Rosen, “Elastic light-scattering spectroscopy for discrimination of benign from malignant disease in thyroid nodules,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.18(5), 1300–1305 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacks, A.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanders, C. K.

Saunders, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seiler, M.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

Shields, S.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S. K.

C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for apoptosis in cell cultures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(6), 1663–1670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. O.

Sokolov, K.

Sommers, S. C.

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, H.

H. Suh, O. A’amar, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, S. Lee, I. Bigio, and J. E. Rosen, “Elastic light-scattering spectroscopy for discrimination of benign from malignant disease in thyroid nodules,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.18(5), 1300–1305 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

L. T. Perelman, G. Zonios, V. Backman, R. Gurjar, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative analysis of mucosal tissues in patients using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE3597, 474–479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vitkin, E.

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, L. T. Perelman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, and C. W. Boone, “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE4617, 101–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Waxman, A. G.

Waxman, D. J.

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. B. Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 1: early and late spectral changes are indicative of the presence of apoptosis in cell cultures,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. Bobby Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 2: early spectral changes during apoptosis are linked to apoptotic volume decrease,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, T. C.

Wu, T. T.

Yardley, J. H.

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaman, M. M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. Bobby Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 2: early spectral changes during apoptosis are linked to apoptotic volume decrease,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. B. Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 1: early and late spectral changes are indicative of the presence of apoptosis in cell cultures,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

L. T. Perelman, G. Zonios, V. Backman, R. Gurjar, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative analysis of mucosal tissues in patients using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE3597, 474–479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zsemlye, M. M.

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1)

H. Suh, O. A’amar, E. Rodriguez-Diaz, S. Lee, I. Bigio, and J. E. Rosen, “Elastic light-scattering spectroscopy for discrimination of benign from malignant disease in thyroid nodules,” Ann. Surg. Oncol.18(5), 1300–1305 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Hum. Pathol. (1)

R. H. Riddell, H. Goldman, D. F. Ransohoff, H. D. Appelman, C. M. Fenoglio, R. C. Haggitt, C. hren, P. Correa, S. R. Hamilton, B. C. Morson, S. C. Sommers, and J. H. Yardley, “Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications,” Hum. Pathol.14(11), 931–968 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for apoptosis in cell cultures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(6), 1663–1670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, D. C. O. Pickard, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, M. Falzon, I. J. Bigio, M. R. Keshtgar, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for intraoperative determination of sentinel lymph node status in the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(6), 1122–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. B. Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 1: early and late spectral changes are indicative of the presence of apoptosis in cell cultures,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Mulvey, K. Zhang, W. H. Bobby Liu, D. J. Waxman, and I. J. Bigio, “Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, part 2: early spectral changes during apoptosis are linked to apoptotic volume decrease,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(11), 117002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (2)

L. Qiu, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, E. Vitkin, J. Leyden, N. Ozden, S. Itani, L. Guo, A. Sacks, J. D. Goldsmith, M. D. Modell, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Nat. Med.16(5), 603–606, 1p, 606 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med.7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. T. Perelman, G. Zonios, V. Backman, R. Gurjar, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative analysis of mucosal tissues in patients using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE3597, 474–479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, L. T. Perelman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, and C. W. Boone, “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE4617, 101–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D. G. Ferris, Modern Colposcopy: Textbook and Atlas (Kendall Hunt, 2004).

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, E. Vitkin, L. Guo, E. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Coherent confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper BSu4B.3.

T. C. Wood and D. S. Elson, “Polarization characterisation of laparoscope systems for polarization resolved tissue imaging,” in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BTuD29.

X. Wang and S. Yazdanfar, “Endoscope objective lens with large entrance pupil diameter and high numerical aperture,” U.S. patent 7,821,720 (Oct. 26, 2010).

J. Qi, D. S. Elson, and C. Barriere, “Polarized multispectral imaging in a rigid endoscope based on polarized light scattering spectroscopy,” in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper BW4B.7.

C. F. Boliren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured Mueller matrices for the Storz laparoscope (a) with normal crystal window; (b) with fused silica window. Each sub-image shows one element of the matrix across the whole field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) sketch of collection geometry of a rigid endoscope. A collection solid angle Ω is defined by the entrance pupil and working distance. The scattered light rays within this solid angle are collected. θb in this figure is the supplementary angle of θ; (b) the blue polar plot is the angular scattering intensity distribution of 5 µm polystyrene microsphere at 532 nm. If several peaks and troughs are collected by the endoscope, the eventual signal suffers from a reduction in modulation caused by the integration over the collection solid angle; (c) lab reference coordinate system used for modeling the scattering process. (d) Sketch of the substitution of a lab reference coordinate system for θ and φ. xobj, yobj, xcoll and ycoll were substituted for θ and φ based on analytic geometry. The plane of scattering is plotted as the red triangle. (xobj, yobj, 0) refers to the position of a scatterer on the sample plane within the system FoV, and (xcoll, ycoll, z0) indicates the position of a point inside the entrance pupil S. φ0 is 90°, and thus the polarization direction is parallel to x. The angle between the plane of scattering and the y-z plane φ′ can be derived first. φ is the angle between the polarization direction and the scattering plane. φ is derived according to the relationship φ = φ0-φ′. In the figure, with φ0 = 90°, φ and φ′ are complementary angles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scattering spectra of different sized polystyrene microsphere samples. (a) Experimental and (b) simulated spectrum of 1 µm diameter microspheres in water; (c-f) Experimental scattering spectrum of 0.5µm, 2µm, 6µm and 10 µm microspheres in water.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Representative polarization and spectrally resolved images from the stack of raw images used to extract the scattering spectra. The upper sample contains 0.5 µm microspheres and the lower one contains 1 µm microspheres. The region marked by blue and green squares was used to generate scattering spectra in (b); (b) The scattering spectra of the 0.5 µm (blue) and 1 µm microspheres (green), with the spectral regions around 660 nm and 540 nm used to construct the ratiometric images indicated by the blue rectangles; (c) The ratiometric image after intensity merging. The ratios for the 0.5 μm and 1 μm microspheres are around 2 and 1.25 respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation in scattering spectra of 6 µm microspheres extracted at five different 10 by 10 pixel regions as indicated by the five red squares in the central image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a), (b) Schematic for parallel illumination and fiber illumination respectively; (c), (d) Scattering angle distribution for parallel illumination and fiber illumination respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulated scattering spectra of 1 µm (a), 6 µm (b) at different scattering angles: 165° (red), 166° (cyan), 170° (blue) and 175° (black) respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photos of cell suspension recorded with a phase contrast microscope. (a) OSEC2 cell suspension; (b) OSEC2 cells in 20% BSA; (c) A549 cells; (d) A549 cells in 20% BSA. The concentration of cells in (a-d) is the same.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Scattering spectra of three batches of (a) OSEC2 and (b) A549cells in 20% BSA solution

Equations (11)

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DoP( λ )=  I ( λ ) I ( λ ) I ( λ )+ I ( λ )  .
[ E i2 E i1 ]=[ cosφ sinφ ] E i .
[ E S2 E S1 ]=[ S 2 (θ) 0 0 S 1 (θ) ][ E i2 E i1 ].
[ E S E S ]=[ cosφ sinφ sinφ cosφ ][ E S2 E S1 ].
[ E S E S ]=[ cosφ sinφ sinφ cosφ ][ S 2 (θ) 0 0 S 1 (θ) ][ cosφ sinφ ] E i =[ S 2 (θ) cos 2 φ+ S 1 (θ) sin 2 φ S 2 (θ)sinφcosφ S 1 (θ)sinφcosφ ] E i .
I = I0 k 2 r 2 ( | S 2 | 2 cos 4 φ+ | S1 | 2 sin 4 φ2Re( S 1 S 2 * ) sin 2 φ cos 2 φ),
I = I 0 k 2 r 2 ( | S 2 | 2 + | S 1 | 2 +2Re( S 1 S 2 * )) sin 2 φ cos 2 φ.
ΔI= I0 k 2 r 2 { ( | S 2 | 2 sin 2 φ | S 1 | 2 cos 2 φ )( sin 2 φ cos 2 φ )4Re( S 1 S 2 * ) sin 2 φ cos 2 φ }
ΔI(λ)=T(λ)* Ω ΔI(λ,θ,φ)dΩ
ΔI(λ)=T(λ)* Ω [ ΔI(λ,dia,θ,φ)×F(dia)d(dia) ]dΩ .
ΔI(λ, x obj , y obj )=T(λ)* S [ ΔI(λ,dia, x coll , y coll , x obj , y obj )×F(dia)d(dia) ]dS ,

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