Abstract

We present a method, termed distributed scanning OCT (DSOCT), which reduces the effects of patient motion on corneal biometry utilizing current-generation clinically available spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) systems. We first performed a pilot study of the power spectrum of normal patient axial eye motion based on repeated (M-mode) SDOCT. Using DSOCT to reduce the effects of patient motion, we conducted a preliminary patient study comparing the measured anterior and posterior corneal curvatures and the calculated corneal power to both corneal topography and Scheimpflug photography in normal subjects. The repeatability for the measured radius of curvature of both anterior and posterior surfaces as well as calculated corneal refractive power using DSOCT was comparable to those of both topography and Scheimpflug photography.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Olsen, “On the calculation of power from curvature of the cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.70(2), 152–154 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Schwiegerling, Field Guide to Visual and Ophthalmic Optics (SPIE, Bellingham, 2004).
  3. B. Seitz, A. Langenbucher, N. X. Nguyen, M. M. Kus, and M. Küchle, “Underestimation of intraocular lens power for cataract surgery after myopic photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology106(4), 693–702 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging the ocular anterior segment with real-time, full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 537–542 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. K. S. Leung, W.-M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M.-K. Tsang, and R. K. K. Tse, “Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology112(6), 980–984 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Bizheva, N. Hutchings, L. Sorbara, A. A. Moayed, and T. Simpson, “In vivo volumetric imaging of the human corneo-scleral limbus with spectral domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1794–02 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Tang, Y. Li, M. Avila, and D. Huang, “Measuring total corneal power before and after laser in situ keratomileusis with high-speed optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1843–1850 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Zhao, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “3D refraction correction and extraction of clinical parameters from spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the cornea,” Opt. Express18(9), 8923–8936 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. N. Kuo, R. P. McNabb, M. Zhao, F. Larocca, S. S. Stinnett, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Corneal biometry from volumetric SDOCT and comparison with existing clinical modalities,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1279–1290 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Tang, A. Chen, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Corneal power measurement with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(12), 2115–2122 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. “Device: RTVue Cam with Corneal Power Upgrade,” (FDA, 2011), http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf11/K111505.pdf .
  16. S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, I. Grulkowski, L. Remon, D. Pascual, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Optical distortion correction in optical coherence tomography for quantitative ocular anterior segment by three-dimensional imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 2782–2796 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, P. Pérez-Merino, N. Chia, A. de Castro, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Corneal topography from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3232–3247 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. Karnowski, B. J. Kaluzny, M. Szkulmowski, M. Gora, and M. Wojtkowski, “Corneal topography with high-speed swept source OCT in clinical examination,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(9), 2709–2720 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. D. Robinson, S. J. Chiu, C. A. Toth, J. Izatt, J. Y. Lo, and S. Farsiu, “Novel applications of super-resolution in medical imaging,” in Super-Resolution Imaging, P. Milanfar, ed. (CRC Press, 2010), pp. 383–412.
  21. F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, “Involuntary motions of the eye during monocular fixation,” J. Exp. Psychol.40(6), 687–701 (1950).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, “Involuntary eye movements during fixation,” J. Physiol.119(1), 1–17 (1953).
    [PubMed]
  23. J. Otero-Millan, X. G. Troncoso, S. L. Macknik, I. Serrano-Pedraza, and S. Martinez-Conde, “Saccades and microsaccades during visual fixation, exploration, and search: foundations for a common saccadic generator,” J. Vis.8(14), 21, 1–18 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. H. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(4), 496–500 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. F. La Rocca, S. J. Chiu, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Robust automatic segmentation of corneal layer boundaries in SDOCT images using graph theory and dynamic programming,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1524–1538 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. J. Chiu, X. T. Li, P. Nicholas, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation,” Opt. Express18(18), 19413–19428 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. V. Westphal, A. Rollins, S. Radhakrishnan, and J. Izatt, “Correction of geometric and refractive image distortions in optical coherence tomography applying Fermat’s principle,” Opt. Express10(9), 397–404 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  32. R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, M. Zhao, and J. A. Izatt, “Keratometric optical coherence tomography using fast distributed scan patterns,” presented at SPIE Photonics West, San Francisco, CA, Jan. 23–28, 2010.
  33. S. Farsiu, M. Elad, and P. Milanfar, “Constrained, globally optimal, multi-frame motion estimation,” in 2005 IEEE/SP 13th Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1396–1401.
  34. D. Malacara and Z. Malacara, Handbook of Optical Design (Marcel Dekker, 2004).
  35. V. A. D. P. Sicam, M. Dubbelman, and R. G. L. van der Heijde, “Spherical aberration of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the human cornea,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(3), 544–549 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-μm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett.29(1), 83–85 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).
  39. N. E. Norrby, “Unfortunate discrepancies,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.24(4), 433–434 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  40. J. D. Ho, C. Y. Tsai, R. J. F. Tsai, L. L. Kuo, I. L. Tsai, and S. W. Liou, “Validity of the keratometric index: evaluation by the Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(1), 137–145 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. T. Holladay, W. E. Hill, and A. Steinmueller, “Corneal power measurements using scheimpflug imaging in eyes with prior corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg.25(10), 862–868 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. L. Wang, A. M. Mahmoud, B. L. Anderson, D. D. Koch, and C. J. Roberts, “Total corneal power estimation: ray tracing method versus Gaussian optics formula,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1716–1722 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. M. Tang, L. Wang, D. D. Koch, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Intraocular lens power calculation after previous myopic laser vision correction based on corneal power measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.38(4), 589–594 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. N. Kuo, R. P. McNabb, M. Zhao, F. Larocca, S. S. Stinnett, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Corneal biometry from volumetric SDOCT and comparison with existing clinical modalities,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1279–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tang, L. Wang, D. D. Koch, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Intraocular lens power calculation after previous myopic laser vision correction based on corneal power measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.38(4), 589–594 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2010 (4)

2009 (3)

2008 (4)

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(4), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ho, C. Y. Tsai, R. J. F. Tsai, L. L. Kuo, I. L. Tsai, and S. W. Liou, “Validity of the keratometric index: evaluation by the Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(1), 137–145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Otero-Millan, X. G. Troncoso, S. L. Macknik, I. Serrano-Pedraza, and S. Martinez-Conde, “Saccades and microsaccades during visual fixation, exploration, and search: foundations for a common saccadic generator,” J. Vis.8(14), 21, 1–18 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging the ocular anterior segment with real-time, full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 537–542 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Tang, Y. Li, M. Avila, and D. Huang, “Measuring total corneal power before and after laser in situ keratomileusis with high-speed optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1843–1850 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. D. P. Sicam, M. Dubbelman, and R. G. L. van der Heijde, “Spherical aberration of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the human cornea,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(3), 544–549 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. K. S. Leung, W.-M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M.-K. Tsang, and R. K. K. Tse, “Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology112(6), 980–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

B. Seitz, A. Langenbucher, N. X. Nguyen, M. M. Kus, and M. Küchle, “Underestimation of intraocular lens power for cataract surgery after myopic photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology106(4), 693–702 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. E. Norrby, “Unfortunate discrepancies,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.24(4), 433–434 (1998).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

T. Olsen, “On the calculation of power from curvature of the cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.70(2), 152–154 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, “Involuntary eye movements during fixation,” J. Physiol.119(1), 1–17 (1953).
[PubMed]

1950 (1)

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, “Involuntary motions of the eye during monocular fixation,” J. Exp. Psychol.40(6), 687–701 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, B. L.

L. Wang, A. M. Mahmoud, B. L. Anderson, D. D. Koch, and C. J. Roberts, “Total corneal power estimation: ray tracing method versus Gaussian optics formula,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1716–1722 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asrani, S.

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging the ocular anterior segment with real-time, full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 537–542 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avila, M.

M. Tang, Y. Li, M. Avila, and D. Huang, “Measuring total corneal power before and after laser in situ keratomileusis with high-speed optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1843–1850 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, A.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chan, W.-M.

C. K. S. Leung, W.-M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M.-K. Tsang, and R. K. K. Tse, “Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology112(6), 980–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, A.

M. Tang, A. Chen, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Corneal power measurement with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(12), 2115–2122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chia, N.

Chiu, S. J.

Choma, M.

Christopoulos, V.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, S. I.

C. K. S. Leung, W.-M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M.-K. Tsang, and R. K. K. Tse, “Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology112(6), 980–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

de Castro, A.

Dhaliwal, D. K.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, “Involuntary eye movements during fixation,” J. Physiol.119(1), 1–17 (1953).
[PubMed]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubbelman, M.

Duker, J. S.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Findl, O.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabriele, M. L.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ginsborg, B. L.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, “Involuntary eye movements during fixation,” J. Physiol.119(1), 1–17 (1953).
[PubMed]

Gora, M.

Gorczynska, I.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Hee, M. R.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, W. E.

J. T. Holladay, W. E. Hill, and A. Steinmueller, “Corneal power measurements using scheimpflug imaging in eyes with prior corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg.25(10), 862–868 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, J. D.

J. D. Ho, C. Y. Tsai, R. J. F. Tsai, L. L. Kuo, I. L. Tsai, and S. W. Liou, “Validity of the keratometric index: evaluation by the Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(1), 137–145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holladay, J. T.

J. T. Holladay, W. E. Hill, and A. Steinmueller, “Corneal power measurements using scheimpflug imaging in eyes with prior corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg.25(10), 862–868 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. Tang, L. Wang, D. D. Koch, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Intraocular lens power calculation after previous myopic laser vision correction based on corneal power measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.38(4), 589–594 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tang, A. Chen, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Corneal power measurement with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(12), 2115–2122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tang, Y. Li, M. Avila, and D. Huang, “Measuring total corneal power before and after laser in situ keratomileusis with high-speed optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1843–1850 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-μm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett.29(1), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Hutchings, N.

Ishikawa, H.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

A. N. Kuo, R. P. McNabb, M. Zhao, F. Larocca, S. S. Stinnett, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Corneal biometry from volumetric SDOCT and comparison with existing clinical modalities,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(6), 1279–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. La Rocca, S. J. Chiu, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Robust automatic segmentation of corneal layer boundaries in SDOCT images using graph theory and dynamic programming,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1524–1538 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, X. T. Li, P. Nicholas, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation,” Opt. Express18(18), 19413–19428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zhao, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “3D refraction correction and extraction of clinical parameters from spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the cornea,” Opt. Express18(9), 8923–8936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging the ocular anterior segment with real-time, full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 537–542 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-μm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett.29(1), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kagemann, L.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaluzny, B. J.

Karnowski, K.

Ko, C. Y.

C. K. S. Leung, W.-M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M.-K. Tsang, and R. K. K. Tse, “Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology112(6), 980–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, D. D.

M. Tang, L. Wang, D. D. Koch, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Intraocular lens power calculation after previous myopic laser vision correction based on corneal power measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.38(4), 589–594 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, A. M. Mahmoud, B. L. Anderson, D. D. Koch, and C. J. Roberts, “Total corneal power estimation: ray tracing method versus Gaussian optics formula,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1716–1722 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koizumi, H.

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(4), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Küchle, M.

B. Seitz, A. Langenbucher, N. X. Nguyen, M. M. Kus, and M. Küchle, “Underestimation of intraocular lens power for cataract surgery after myopic photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology106(4), 693–702 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, A. N.

Kuo, L. L.

J. D. Ho, C. Y. Tsai, R. J. F. Tsai, L. L. Kuo, I. L. Tsai, and S. W. Liou, “Validity of the keratometric index: evaluation by the Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(1), 137–145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kus, M. M.

B. Seitz, A. Langenbucher, N. X. Nguyen, M. M. Kus, and M. Küchle, “Underestimation of intraocular lens power for cataract surgery after myopic photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology106(4), 693–702 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

La Rocca, F.

Langenbucher, A.

B. Seitz, A. Langenbucher, N. X. Nguyen, M. M. Kus, and M. Küchle, “Underestimation of intraocular lens power for cataract surgery after myopic photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology106(4), 693–702 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larocca, F.

Leitgeb, R.

Leung, C. K. S.

C. K. S. Leung, W.-M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M.-K. Tsang, and R. K. K. Tse, “Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology112(6), 980–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. T.

Li, Y.

M. Tang, L. Wang, D. D. Koch, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Intraocular lens power calculation after previous myopic laser vision correction based on corneal power measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.38(4), 589–594 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tang, A. Chen, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Corneal power measurement with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(12), 2115–2122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tang, Y. Li, M. Avila, and D. Huang, “Measuring total corneal power before and after laser in situ keratomileusis with high-speed optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1843–1850 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, R. C.

Liou, S. W.

J. D. Ho, C. Y. Tsai, R. J. F. Tsai, L. L. Kuo, I. L. Tsai, and S. W. Liou, “Validity of the keratometric index: evaluation by the Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(1), 137–145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macknik, S. L.

J. Otero-Millan, X. G. Troncoso, S. L. Macknik, I. Serrano-Pedraza, and S. Martinez-Conde, “Saccades and microsaccades during visual fixation, exploration, and search: foundations for a common saccadic generator,” J. Vis.8(14), 21, 1–18 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmoud, A. M.

L. Wang, A. M. Mahmoud, B. L. Anderson, D. D. Koch, and C. J. Roberts, “Total corneal power estimation: ray tracing method versus Gaussian optics formula,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1716–1722 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

Martinez-Conde, S.

J. Otero-Millan, X. G. Troncoso, S. L. Macknik, I. Serrano-Pedraza, and S. Martinez-Conde, “Saccades and microsaccades during visual fixation, exploration, and search: foundations for a common saccadic generator,” J. Vis.8(14), 21, 1–18 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNabb, R. P.

Moayed, A. A.

Nguyen, N. X.

B. Seitz, A. Langenbucher, N. X. Nguyen, M. M. Kus, and M. Küchle, “Underestimation of intraocular lens power for cataract surgery after myopic photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology106(4), 693–702 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicholas, P.

Norrby, N. E.

N. E. Norrby, “Unfortunate discrepancies,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.24(4), 433–434 (1998).
[PubMed]

Olsen, T.

T. Olsen, “On the calculation of power from curvature of the cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.70(2), 152–154 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortiz, S.

Otero-Millan, J.

J. Otero-Millan, X. G. Troncoso, S. L. Macknik, I. Serrano-Pedraza, and S. Martinez-Conde, “Saccades and microsaccades during visual fixation, exploration, and search: foundations for a common saccadic generator,” J. Vis.8(14), 21, 1–18 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Pascual, D.

Pérez-Merino, P.

Pierce, M. C.

Pozonni, M. C.

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(4), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, S.

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, “Involuntary motions of the eye during monocular fixation,” J. Exp. Psychol.40(6), 687–701 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remon, L.

Riggs, L. A.

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, “Involuntary motions of the eye during monocular fixation,” J. Exp. Psychol.40(6), 687–701 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, C. J.

L. Wang, A. M. Mahmoud, B. L. Anderson, D. D. Koch, and C. J. Roberts, “Total corneal power estimation: ray tracing method versus Gaussian optics formula,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1716–1722 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A.

Rollins, A. M.

Sarunic, M.

Sarunic, M. V.

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging the ocular anterior segment with real-time, full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 537–542 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seitz, B.

B. Seitz, A. Langenbucher, N. X. Nguyen, M. M. Kus, and M. Küchle, “Underestimation of intraocular lens power for cataract surgery after myopic photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology106(4), 693–702 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serrano-Pedraza, I.

J. Otero-Millan, X. G. Troncoso, S. L. Macknik, I. Serrano-Pedraza, and S. Martinez-Conde, “Saccades and microsaccades during visual fixation, exploration, and search: foundations for a common saccadic generator,” J. Vis.8(14), 21, 1–18 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shure, M. A.

Sicam, V. A. D. P.

Siedlecki, D.

Simpson, T.

Sorbara, L.

Spaide, R. F.

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(4), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmueller, A.

J. T. Holladay, W. E. Hill, and A. Steinmueller, “Corneal power measurements using scheimpflug imaging in eyes with prior corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg.25(10), 862–868 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinnett, S. S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tang, M.

M. Tang, L. Wang, D. D. Koch, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Intraocular lens power calculation after previous myopic laser vision correction based on corneal power measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.38(4), 589–594 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tang, A. Chen, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Corneal power measurement with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(12), 2115–2122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tang, Y. Li, M. Avila, and D. Huang, “Measuring total corneal power before and after laser in situ keratomileusis with high-speed optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1843–1850 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Toth, C. A.

Troncoso, X. G.

J. Otero-Millan, X. G. Troncoso, S. L. Macknik, I. Serrano-Pedraza, and S. Martinez-Conde, “Saccades and microsaccades during visual fixation, exploration, and search: foundations for a common saccadic generator,” J. Vis.8(14), 21, 1–18 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, C. Y.

J. D. Ho, C. Y. Tsai, R. J. F. Tsai, L. L. Kuo, I. L. Tsai, and S. W. Liou, “Validity of the keratometric index: evaluation by the Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(1), 137–145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, I. L.

J. D. Ho, C. Y. Tsai, R. J. F. Tsai, L. L. Kuo, I. L. Tsai, and S. W. Liou, “Validity of the keratometric index: evaluation by the Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(1), 137–145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, R. J. F.

J. D. Ho, C. Y. Tsai, R. J. F. Tsai, L. L. Kuo, I. L. Tsai, and S. W. Liou, “Validity of the keratometric index: evaluation by the Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(1), 137–145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, M.-K.

C. K. S. Leung, W.-M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M.-K. Tsang, and R. K. K. Tse, “Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology112(6), 980–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tse, R. K. K.

C. K. S. Leung, W.-M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M.-K. Tsang, and R. K. K. Tse, “Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology112(6), 980–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Heijde, R. G. L.

Wang, L.

M. Tang, L. Wang, D. D. Koch, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Intraocular lens power calculation after previous myopic laser vision correction based on corneal power measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.38(4), 589–594 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, A. M. Mahmoud, B. L. Anderson, D. D. Koch, and C. J. Roberts, “Total corneal power estimation: ray tracing method versus Gaussian optics formula,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1716–1722 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, V.

Wojtkowski, M.

K. Karnowski, B. J. Kaluzny, M. Szkulmowski, M. Gora, and M. Wojtkowski, “Corneal topography with high-speed swept source OCT in clinical examination,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(9), 2709–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, P. Pérez-Merino, N. Chia, A. de Castro, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Corneal topography from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3232–3247 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, I. Grulkowski, L. Remon, D. Pascual, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Optical distortion correction in optical coherence tomography for quantitative ocular anterior segment by three-dimensional imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 2782–2796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, J.

C. K. S. Leung, W.-M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M.-K. Tsang, and R. K. K. Tse, “Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology112(6), 980–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yun, S. H.

Zhao, M.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.146(4), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (3)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging the ocular anterior segment with real-time, full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 537–542 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

T. Olsen, “On the calculation of power from curvature of the cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.70(2), 152–154 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, “Investigation of dispersion effects in ocular media by multiple wavelength partial coherence interferometry,” Exp. Eye Res.66(1), 25–33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

L. Wang, A. M. Mahmoud, B. L. Anderson, D. D. Koch, and C. J. Roberts, “Total corneal power estimation: ray tracing method versus Gaussian optics formula,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(3), 1716–1722 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (5)

M. Tang, L. Wang, D. D. Koch, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Intraocular lens power calculation after previous myopic laser vision correction based on corneal power measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.38(4), 589–594 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. E. Norrby, “Unfortunate discrepancies,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.24(4), 433–434 (1998).
[PubMed]

J. D. Ho, C. Y. Tsai, R. J. F. Tsai, L. L. Kuo, I. L. Tsai, and S. W. Liou, “Validity of the keratometric index: evaluation by the Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.34(1), 137–145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tang, A. Chen, Y. Li, and D. Huang, “Corneal power measurement with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.36(12), 2115–2122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tang, Y. Li, M. Avila, and D. Huang, “Measuring total corneal power before and after laser in situ keratomileusis with high-speed optical coherence tomography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.32(11), 1843–1850 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Psychol. (1)

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, “Involuntary motions of the eye during monocular fixation,” J. Exp. Psychol.40(6), 687–701 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Physiol. (1)

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, “Involuntary eye movements during fixation,” J. Physiol.119(1), 1–17 (1953).
[PubMed]

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

J. T. Holladay, W. E. Hill, and A. Steinmueller, “Corneal power measurements using scheimpflug imaging in eyes with prior corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg.25(10), 862–868 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vis. (1)

J. Otero-Millan, X. G. Troncoso, S. L. Macknik, I. Serrano-Pedraza, and S. Martinez-Conde, “Saccades and microsaccades during visual fixation, exploration, and search: foundations for a common saccadic generator,” J. Vis.8(14), 21, 1–18 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

B. Seitz, A. Langenbucher, N. X. Nguyen, M. M. Kus, and M. Küchle, “Underestimation of intraocular lens power for cataract surgery after myopic photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology106(4), 693–702 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. S. Leung, W.-M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M.-K. Tsang, and R. K. K. Tse, “Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology112(6), 980–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

M. Zhao, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “3D refraction correction and extraction of clinical parameters from spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the cornea,” Opt. Express18(9), 8923–8936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, X. T. Li, P. Nicholas, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation,” Opt. Express18(18), 19413–19428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, A. Rollins, S. Radhakrishnan, and J. Izatt, “Correction of geometric and refractive image distortions in optical coherence tomography applying Fermat’s principle,” Opt. Express10(9), 397–404 (2002).
[PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, I. Grulkowski, L. Remon, D. Pascual, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Optical distortion correction in optical coherence tomography for quantitative ocular anterior segment by three-dimensional imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 2782–2796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

J. Schwiegerling, Field Guide to Visual and Ophthalmic Optics (SPIE, Bellingham, 2004).

“Device: RTVue Cam with Corneal Power Upgrade,” (FDA, 2011), http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf11/K111505.pdf .

M. D. Robinson, S. J. Chiu, C. A. Toth, J. Izatt, J. Y. Lo, and S. Farsiu, “Novel applications of super-resolution in medical imaging,” in Super-Resolution Imaging, P. Milanfar, ed. (CRC Press, 2010), pp. 383–412.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, M. Zhao, and J. A. Izatt, “Keratometric optical coherence tomography using fast distributed scan patterns,” presented at SPIE Photonics West, San Francisco, CA, Jan. 23–28, 2010.

S. Farsiu, M. Elad, and P. Milanfar, “Constrained, globally optimal, multi-frame motion estimation,” in 2005 IEEE/SP 13th Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1396–1401.

D. Malacara and Z. Malacara, Handbook of Optical Design (Marcel Dekker, 2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical schematic of the commercial SDOCT system used. CL, collimating lens; FL, focusing lens; TFL, telecentric focusing lens; M, mirror; GP, orthogonal X-Y scanning galvanometer pair

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Distributed scan SDOCT pattern used in the study. Each point on the plot is in the correct lateral spatial location while the color of each point indicates the time at which it was taken. (B) A 10x zoom of the central region of the scan. Here the individual points can be distinguished. Note the distinctly different times at which spatially adjacent points are taken.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) The first 540 lines of data acquired from the scan pattern illustrated in Fig. 2. Each small corneal profile contained 100 lines of data from 5 different radial slices. The full distributed volume was acquired in 1.1 seconds. (B) Each acquired corneal profile consisted of 100 active lines and 10 inactive lines. Five slightly offset profiles were used to reconstruct the final corneal slice. The centers of all five profiles of a given slice were automatically registered to one another to provide axial and lateral translation information. This was done for all twenty radial slices. (C) Using the information from the middle diagram, all A-scans were automatically shifted back to their correct axial and lateral positions to reconstruct all twenty meridians. The anterior and posterior surfaces were automatically segmented for all twenty meridians. This information was used to calculate the surface curvatures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results from pilot patient axial motion study consisting of 4 subjects with 2 scans per subject. (A) Representative M-scan data comprising 40,000 repeated A-scans acquired at the same location near the apex of a subject’s cornea. The integration time per A-scan was 50 µs, and the total acquisition time was 2 seconds. (B) Scaled average amplitude spectrum of the patient motion data. Axial patient motion drops below 1 µm amplitude for frequencies above ~25 Hz

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Single reconstructed meridian of 8.00 mm glass sphere phantom. (B) Single reconstructed meridian of 7.70 mm RGP contact.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between DSOCT, topography and Scheimpflug photography for measured corneal anterior surface radii of curvatures. Shown differences are the mean and standard deviation of paired differences between devices. Starting from the bottom left and going clockwise: Topography – DSOCT; DSOCT – Scheimpflug photography; Scheimpflug photography – Topography

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between DSOCT, topography and Scheimpflug photography for reported and calculated corneal refractive power. Shown differences are the mean and standard deviation of paired differences between devices. Starting from the bottom left and going clockwise: Topography – DSOCT; DSOCT – Scheimpflug photography; Scheimpflug photography – Topography

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 DSOCT Measured Posterior Radii of Curvature (rp) and Central Thicknesses for RGP Contact Lenses

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Anterior and Posterior Curvatures and Central Corneal Thicknesses

Tables Icon

Table 3 Power Calculations

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( z z 0 )= c ( ( x x 0 ) 2 + ( y y 0 ) 2 ) 2 1+ 1(1+k)* c 2 * ( ( x x 0 ) 2 + ( y y 0 ) 2 ) 2
Φ TL = n c n a r a + n q n c r p CCT( n c n a )( n q n c ) n c r a r p
Φ KEP = n c r a * Φ TL n c r a CCT( n c n a )

Metrics