Abstract

Muco-ciliary transport in the human airway is a crucial defense mechanism for removing inhaled pathogens. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well-suited to monitor functional dynamics of cilia and mucus on the airway epithelium. Here we demonstrate several OCT-based methods upon an actively transporting in vitro bronchial epithelial model and ex vivo mouse trachea. We show quantitative flow imaging of optically turbid mucus, semi-quantitative analysis of the ciliary beat frequency, and functional imaging of the periciliary layer. These may translate to clinical methods for endoscopic monitoring of muco-ciliary transport in diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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2012 (1)

2011 (7)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg and R. K. Chhetri, “Digital dispersion compensation for ultrabroad-bandwidth single-camera spectral-domain polarization-sensitive OCT,” Proc. SPIE7889, 78891V (2011).

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Nolte, R. An, J. Turek, and K. Jeong, “Holographic tissue dynamics spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jonas, D. Bhattacharya, M. K. Khokha, and M. A. Choma, “Microfluidic characterization of cilia-driven fluid flow using optical coherence tomography-based particle tracking velocimetry,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 2022–2034 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express19(12), 11429–11440 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Shen, M. Wang, Y. H. Ji, Y. H. He, X. S. Dai, P. Li, and H. Ma, “Transverse flow velocity quantification using optical coherence tomography with correlation,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(4), 318–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

Y. Wang and R. Wang, “Autocorrelation optical coherence tomography for mapping transverse particle-flow velocity,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3538–3540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Hill, V. Swaminathan, A. Estes, J. Cribb, E. T. O’Brien, C. W. Davis, and R. Superfine, “Force generation and dynamics of individual cilia under external loading,” Biophys. J.98(1), 57–66 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jeong, J. J. Turek, and D. D. Nolte, “Speckle fluctuation spectroscopy of intracellular motion in living tissue using coherence-domain digital holography,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030514 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, C. M. Gallippi, F. Tsui, T. C. Nichols, K. N. Beicker, R. K. Chhetri, D. Spivak, A. Richardson, and T. H. Fischer, “Magnetic and contrast properties of labeled platelets for magnetomotive optical coherence tomography,” Biophys. J.99(7), 2374–2383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, S. A. Rinne, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase-resolved magnetomotive OCT for imaging nanomolar concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles in tissues,” Opt. Express16(15), 11525–11539 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. B. Antunes and N. A. Cohen, “Mucociliary clearance--a critical upper airway host defense mechanism and methods of assessment,” Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol.7(1), 5–10 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. H. Donaldson, W. D. Bennett, K. L. Zeman, M. R. Knowles, R. Tarran, and R. C. Boucher, “Mucus clearance and lung function in cystic fibrosis with hypertonic saline,” N. Engl. J. Med.354(3), 241–250 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. L. Fulcher, S. Gabriel, K. A. Burns, J. R. Yankaskas, and S. H. Randell, “Well-differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures,” Methods Mol. Med.107, 183–206 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. C. Hogg, F. Chu, S. Utokaparch, R. Woods, W. M. Elliott, L. Buzatu, R. M. Cherniack, R. M. Rogers, F. C. Sciurba, H. O. Coxson, and P. D. Paré, “The nature of small-airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” N. Engl. J. Med.350(26), 2645–2653 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Robertson, W. Stannard, C. Passant, C. O’Callaghan, and A. Banerjee, “What effect does isoflurane have upon ciliary beat pattern: an in vivo study,” Clin. Otolaryngol. Allied Sci.29(2), 157–160 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1998 (4)

H. Matsui, S. H. Randell, S. W. Peretti, C. W. Davis, and R. C. Boucher, “Coordinated clearance of periciliary liquid and mucus from airway surfaces,” J. Clin. Invest.102(6), 1125–1131 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.157(5 Pt 1), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

J. Schmitt, “OCT elastography: imaging microscopic deformation and strain of tissue,” Opt. Express3(6), 199–211 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Matsui, B. R. Grubb, R. Tarran, S. H. Randell, J. T. Gatzy, C. W. Davis, and R. C. Boucher, “Evidence for periciliary liquid layer depletion, not abnormal ion composition, in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis airways disease,” Cell95(7), 1005–1015 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

S. Gueron, K. Levit-Gurevich, N. Liron, and J. J. Blum, “Cilia internal mechanism and metachronal coordination as the result of hydrodynamical coupling,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.94(12), 6001–6006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.22(18), 1439–1441 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Shah, W. Sexauer, B. J. Ostrum, S. B. Fiel, and A. C. Friedman, “High-resolution CT in the acute exacerbation of cystic fibrosis: evaluation of acute findings, reversibility of those findings, and clinical correlation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.169(2), 375–380 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (2)

A. Wanner, M. Salathé, and T. G. O’Riordan, “Mucociliary clearance in the airways,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.154(6 Pt 1), 1868–1902 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. H. Raphael, D. A. Selwyn, S. D. Mottram, J. A. Langton, and C. O’Callaghan, “Effects of 3 MAC of halothane, enflurane and isoflurane on cilia beat frequency of human nasal epithelium in vitro,” Br. J. Anaesth.76(1), 116–121 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. A. Regnis, M. Robinson, D. L. Bailey, P. Cook, P. Hooper, H. K. Chan, I. Gonda, G. Bautovich, and P. T. Bye, “Mucociliary clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis and in normal subjects,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.150(1), 66–71 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993 (3)

G. C. Smaldone, W. M. Foster, T. G. O’Riordan, M. S. Messina, R. J. Perry, and E. G. Langenback, “Regional impairment of mucociliary clearance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Chest103(5), 1390–1396 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Hein and W. R. O’Brien, “Current time-domain methods for assessing tissue motion by analysis from reflected ultrasound echoes-a review,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control40(2), 84–102 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

T. Aikawa, S. Shimura, H. Sasaki, M. Ebina, and T. Takishima, “Marked goblet cell hyperplasia with mucus accumulation in the airways of patients who died of severe acute asthma attack,” Chest101(4), 916–921 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Lansley, M. J. Sanderson, and E. R. Dirksen, “Control of the beat cycle of respiratory tract cilia by Ca2+ and cAMP,” Am. J. Physiol.263(2 Pt 1), L232–L242 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

L. N. Bohs and G. E. Trahey, “A novel method for angle independent ultrasonic imaging of blood flow and tissue motion,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.38(3), 280–286 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. Puchelle, J. M. Zahm, and D. Quemada, “Rheological properties controlling mucociliary frequency and respiratory mucus transport,” Biorheology24(6), 557–563 (1987).
[PubMed]

1980 (1)

W. M. Foster, E. Langenback, and E. H. Bergofsky, “Measurement of tracheal and bronchial mucus velocities in man: relation to lung clearance,” J. Appl. Physiol.48(6), 965–971 (1980).
[PubMed]

1979 (1)

B. R. Manawadu, S. R. Mostow, and F. M. LaForce, “Impairment of tracheal ring ciliary activity by halothane,” Anesth. Analg.58(6), 500–504 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aikawa, T.

T. Aikawa, S. Shimura, H. Sasaki, M. Ebina, and T. Takishima, “Marked goblet cell hyperplasia with mucus accumulation in the airways of patients who died of severe acute asthma attack,” Chest101(4), 916–921 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, R.

D. D. Nolte, R. An, J. Turek, and K. Jeong, “Holographic tissue dynamics spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(8), 087004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antunes, M. B.

M. B. Antunes and N. A. Cohen, “Mucociliary clearance--a critical upper airway host defense mechanism and methods of assessment,” Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol.7(1), 5–10 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

Armstrong, J. J.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, D. L.

J. A. Regnis, M. Robinson, D. L. Bailey, P. Cook, P. Hooper, H. K. Chan, I. Gonda, G. Bautovich, and P. T. Bye, “Mucociliary clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis and in normal subjects,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.150(1), 66–71 (1994).
[PubMed]

Baker, V. A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldwin, C.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, A.

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R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest138(4), 984–988 (2010).
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Kinasewitz, G. T.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest138(4), 984–988 (2010).
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Tearney, G. J.

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Supplementary Material (7)

» Media 1: AVI (3330 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3170 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (2439 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3867 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (2205 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (1959 KB)     
» Media 7: AVI (4147 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative OCT images of airway models. (a) B-mode (x-z) OCT of ex vivo mouse trachea. (b) M-mode (time-z) OCT of ex vivo mouse trachea associated with panel (a). The apparent location of the periciliary layer (PCL) is indicated by regions of rapid speckle fluctuation. (c) Diagram of geometry used for opening and subsequently imaging the mouse trachea. (d) B-mode OCT of in vitro hBE model with thick mucus at an air-liquid interface. The porous membrane is highly optically scattering, while the hBE cells are observed as a more weakly scattering layer immediately above the membrane. The thick mucus layer above the hBE cells is also optically scattering due to cellular detritus. (e) M-mode OCT of the in vitro model associated with panel (d). The apparent PCL is located immediately above the hBE cell layer, as expected. (f) Representative histology section of an in vitro hBE culture showing the detailed structure of the epithelium; this culture exhibited a thinner mucus layer than the one depicted in (d) and (e).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Diagram of cilia beat pattern during the effective stroke (red) and the recovery stroke (green) [37]. (b) Cartoon illustrating dynamic light scattering from cilia during OCT imaging. Hundreds of cilia are simultaneously illuminated by the OCT beam. The coordinated beat pattern of a few cilia are illustrated, showing how the relative axial spacing between cilia (Δz) rapidly changes during one beat cycle. The OCT signal fluctuates when Δz changes by λ/2≈400 nm. This is why we expect to observe many fluctuations during a single beat cycle, giving rise to an apparent fluctuation rate many times greater than the CBF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Depth-resolved mucus flow imaging of an in vitro hBE culture with hurricane-like mucus motion. (a) Cartoon illustrating the OCT image plane off-center from the hurricane. (b) Microscopy (x-y) of 1 µm fluorescent beads trapped in mucus in an hBE culture exhibiting hurricane motion, 2 second exposure. (c) Video comprised of a B-mode (x-z) OCT time series at 2 × real time (Media 1). (d) Corresponding transverse velocity map, vx, computed using cross-correlation. (e) Axial velocity map, vz. All scale bars are 200 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transverse mucus flow imaging of an in vitro hBE culture with hurricane-like motion. (a) Cartoon illustrating the OCT imaging scan pattern across the hurricane. (b) The depth-averaged velocity vx obtained by OCT, mapped across the x-y surface of the culture, shows the reversal of flow direction across the eye of the hurricane. (c) Maximum intensity projection of a time series of microscopy images of the same hurricane. (d) and (e) Velocity components vx and vy obtained by microscopy, respectively. The same velocity and spatial scales are used in (b), (d), and (e).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative beat frequency analyses for in vitro and ex vivo models cleared of mucus. Results are shown before and after isoflurane treatment to slow cilia beating, from M-mode images (left images) to corresponding Fourier spectra (middle images) to median frequency ωm (right plots). Yellow arrows indicate the depth position of the apparent PCL before isoflurane treatment; after treatment the activity is dramatically slowed within the PCL.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Peak median frequency ωm within the PCL for ex vivo and in vivo airways before and after isoflurane treatment. Mean and standard deviation were evaluated over 10 images each at 2-3 independent locations per sample.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dynamic OCT imaging of in vitro hBE model with clear mucus using speckle fluctuation contrast in the 0.1−1 Hz band. High standard deviation at the borders of the hBE cells indicates ciliary activity. Lower left scale bars are 100µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dynamic OCT imaging of an in vitro hBE model at varying time scales spanning 3 decades. (a) Video at 10 × real time (Media 2). (b) Standard deviation image in the 0.02−0.2 Hz band. On these long time scales mucus transport is rapid, and high variance is seen throughout the mucus. (c) Video at 1 × real time (Media 3). (d) Standard deviation image in the 0.4−5 Hz band. At these intermediate time scales we observe particle tracks from scatterers within the mucus. (e) Video at 0.2 × real time (Media 4). (f) Standard deviation image in the 3.3−17 Hz band. At these short time scales mucus transport appears frozen, and ciliary activity within the PCL becomes more evident, as indicated by the white arrow.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dynamic OCT of ex vivo trachea using speckle fluctuation contrast in the 0.1−1 Hz band. (a) Image in plane A where the luminal surface is the rightmost vertical surface. (b) Image in plane B with luminal surfaces in the center. (c) Cartoon diagram of imaging geometry. In both (a) and (b), luminal (mucosal; ciliated) tissue surfaces have high standard deviation, in comparison to serosal (non-ciliated) tissue surfaces. (d) Scanning electron microscopy of mouse trachea showing characteristic patchiness of ciliation. (e) Image of mouse trachea luminal side up (according to diagram of Fig. 1(c)), showing patchy regions of rapid fluctuation corresponding to ciliary activity. Panels (a), (b), and (e) have the same scale.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dynamic OCT imaging of cut open ex vivo mouse trachea (imaging geometry of Fig. 1(c)) at varying time scales spanning 3 decades. (a) Video at 10 × real time (Media 5). (b) Standard deviation image in the 0.02−0.2 Hz band. (c) Video at 1 × real time (Media 6). (d) Standard deviation image in the 0.2−2.5 Hz band. (e) Video at 0.2 × real time (Media 7). (f) Standard deviation image in the 2−20 Hz band. Because this healthy mouse lacked a thick mucus layer, the ciliary activity is highly contrasted at all time scales.

Equations (3)

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ρ ( x , z ) = z 0 Z / 2 z 0 + Z / 2 d z x 0 X / 2 x 0 + X / 2 d x I 1 ( x , z ) I 2 ( x x , z z ) [ ( z 0 Z / 2 z 0 + Z / 2 d z x 0 X / 2 x 0 + X / 2 d x I 1 2 ( x , z ) ) ( z 0 Z / 2 z 0 + Z / 2 d z x 0 X / 2 x 0 + X / 2 d x I 2 2 ( x , z ) ) ] 1 / 2 ,
| { I ( ω C t ) } | 2 = S ( ω ω C ) + S D C δ ( ω ) + σ ˜
σ 2 = 1 N n = 0 N 1 | x ( n Δ t ) | 2 ( 1 N n = 0 N 1 x ( n Δ t ) ) 2 = 1 N 2 k = 0 N 1 | X ( k Δ f ) | 2 1 N 2 | X ( 0 ) | 2 = 1 N 2 k = 1 N 1 | X ( k Δ f ) | 2

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