Abstract

Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) have drawn much attention in recent years for biomedical imaging applications due to their desired physical properties including excellent photostability, high biocompatibility, extended far-red fluorescence emission, and ease of surface functionalization. Here we explore a new feature of FNDs, i.e. their photoacoustic emission capability, which may lead to potential applications of using FNDs as a dual imaging contrast agent for combined fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging modalities. We observed significant enhancement of photoacoustic emission from FNDs when they were conjugated with gold nanoparticles (GNPs).

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanoplate contrast agents for in vivo molecular photoacoustic imaging,” ACS Nano6(1), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Fang, V. Vaijayanthimala, C. A. Cheng, S. H. Yeh, C. F. Chang, C. L. Li, and H. C. Chang, “The exocytosis of fluorescent nanodiamond and its use as a long-term cell tracker,” Small7(23), 3363–3370 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Su, R. R. Bouchard, A. B. Karpiouk, J. D. Hazle, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2243–2254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

N. Mohan, Y. K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C. Y. Fang, and H. C. Chang, “Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(7), 843–847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Mohan, C. S. Chen, H. H. Hsieh, Y. C. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Leblond, S. C. Davis, P. A. Valdés, and B. W. Pogue, “Pre-clinical whole-body fluorescence imaging: Review of instruments, methods and applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B98(1), 77–94 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Hui, B. Zhang, Y. C. Chang, C. C. Chang, H. C. Chang, J. H. Hsu, K. Chang, and F. H. Chang, “Two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of lipid-encapsulated fluorescent nanodiamonds in living cells,” Opt. Express18(6), 5896–5905 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Wee, Y. W. Mau, C. Y. Fang, H. L. Hsu, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications,” Diamond Related Materials18(2-3), 567–573 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Zhang, Y. Q. Li, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Chang, C. S. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and H. C. Chang, “Receptor-mediated cellular uptake of folate-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds: a combined ensemble and single-particle study,” Small5(23), 2716–2721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

E. V. Shashkov, M. Everts, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “Quantum dots as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal contrast agents,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3953–3958 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

C. C. Fu, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, T. S. Lim, H. Y. Wu, P. K. Lin, P. K. Wei, P. H. Tsao, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Schrand, L. Dai, J. J. Schlager, S. M. Hussain, and E. Osawa, “Differential biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds,” Diamond Related Materials16(12), 2118–2123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. B. Nguyen, H. C. Chang, and V. W. K. Wu, “Adsorption and hydrolytic activity of lysozyme on diamond nanocrystallites,” Diamond Related Materials16(4-7), 872–876 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. J. Yu, M. W. Kang, H. C. Chang, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Kong, L. C. L. Huang, C. M. Hsu, W. H. Chen, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “High-affinity capture of proteins by diamond nanoparticles for mass spectrometric analysis,” Anal. Chem.77(1), 259–265 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

L. C. L. Huang and H. C. Chang, “Adsorption and immobilization of cytochrome c on nanodiamonds,” Langmuir20(14), 5879–5884 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

Y. Mita, “Change of absorption spectra in type-Ib diamond with heavy neutron irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(17), 11360–11364 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, and G. Toci, “Probe-beam deflection diagnostics of shock-waves generated during laser drilling,” Appl. Phys. B61(5), 505–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. Sullivan and A. C. Tam, “Profile of laser-produced acoustic pulse in a liquid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.75(2), 437–441 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Arnault, J. C.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Au, L.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barsalou, N.

S. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, R. Elliot, and N. Barsalou, “Nano-Lisa for in vitro diagnostic applications,” Proc. SPIE, 7899 (2011).

A. Conjusteau, A. Liopo, D. Tsyboulski, S. A. Ermilov, W. R. Elliott, N. Barsalou, S. M. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic sensor for nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (NanoLISA),” Proc. SPIE , 7899 (2011).

Bouchard, R. R.

Boudou, J. P.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, C.

A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. C.

Y. Y. Hui, B. Zhang, Y. C. Chang, C. C. Chang, H. C. Chang, J. H. Hsu, K. Chang, and F. H. Chang, “Two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of lipid-encapsulated fluorescent nanodiamonds in living cells,” Opt. Express18(6), 5896–5905 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Zhang, Y. Q. Li, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Chang, C. S. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and H. C. Chang, “Receptor-mediated cellular uptake of folate-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds: a combined ensemble and single-particle study,” Small5(23), 2716–2721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. F.

C. Y. Fang, V. Vaijayanthimala, C. A. Cheng, S. H. Yeh, C. F. Chang, C. L. Li, and H. C. Chang, “The exocytosis of fluorescent nanodiamond and its use as a long-term cell tracker,” Small7(23), 3363–3370 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, F. H.

Chang, H. C.

C. Y. Fang, V. Vaijayanthimala, C. A. Cheng, S. H. Yeh, C. F. Chang, C. L. Li, and H. C. Chang, “The exocytosis of fluorescent nanodiamond and its use as a long-term cell tracker,” Small7(23), 3363–3370 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Hui, B. Zhang, Y. C. Chang, C. C. Chang, H. C. Chang, J. H. Hsu, K. Chang, and F. H. Chang, “Two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of lipid-encapsulated fluorescent nanodiamonds in living cells,” Opt. Express18(6), 5896–5905 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Mohan, Y. K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C. Y. Fang, and H. C. Chang, “Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(7), 843–847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Mohan, C. S. Chen, H. H. Hsieh, Y. C. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Zhang, Y. Q. Li, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Chang, C. S. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and H. C. Chang, “Receptor-mediated cellular uptake of folate-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds: a combined ensemble and single-particle study,” Small5(23), 2716–2721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Wee, Y. W. Mau, C. Y. Fang, H. L. Hsu, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications,” Diamond Related Materials18(2-3), 567–573 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Fu, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, T. S. Lim, H. Y. Wu, P. K. Lin, P. K. Wei, P. H. Tsao, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. B. Nguyen, H. C. Chang, and V. W. K. Wu, “Adsorption and hydrolytic activity of lysozyme on diamond nanocrystallites,” Diamond Related Materials16(4-7), 872–876 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Kong, L. C. L. Huang, C. M. Hsu, W. H. Chen, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “High-affinity capture of proteins by diamond nanoparticles for mass spectrometric analysis,” Anal. Chem.77(1), 259–265 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Yu, M. W. Kang, H. C. Chang, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Huang and H. C. Chang, “Adsorption and immobilization of cytochrome c on nanodiamonds,” Langmuir20(14), 5879–5884 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, K.

Chang, Y. C.

Chang, Y. R.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. S.

N. Mohan, C. S. Chen, H. H. Hsieh, Y. C. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Zhang, Y. Q. Li, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Chang, C. S. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and H. C. Chang, “Receptor-mediated cellular uptake of folate-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds: a combined ensemble and single-particle study,” Small5(23), 2716–2721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. Y.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Fu, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, T. S. Lim, H. Y. Wu, P. K. Lin, P. K. Wei, P. H. Tsao, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. M.

S. J. Yu, M. W. Kang, H. C. Chang, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. H.

X. L. Kong, L. C. L. Huang, C. M. Hsu, W. H. Chen, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “High-affinity capture of proteins by diamond nanoparticles for mass spectrometric analysis,” Anal. Chem.77(1), 259–265 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. S.

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. Y.

N. Mohan, Y. K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C. Y. Fang, and H. C. Chang, “Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(7), 843–847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Zhang, Y. Q. Li, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Chang, C. S. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and H. C. Chang, “Receptor-mediated cellular uptake of folate-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds: a combined ensemble and single-particle study,” Small5(23), 2716–2721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, C. A.

C. Y. Fang, V. Vaijayanthimala, C. A. Cheng, S. H. Yeh, C. F. Chang, C. L. Li, and H. C. Chang, “The exocytosis of fluorescent nanodiamond and its use as a long-term cell tracker,” Small7(23), 3363–3370 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, E. C.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobley, C. M.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conjusteau, A.

A. Conjusteau, A. Liopo, D. Tsyboulski, S. A. Ermilov, W. R. Elliott, N. Barsalou, S. M. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic sensor for nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (NanoLISA),” Proc. SPIE , 7899 (2011).

Curmi, P. A.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, L.

A. M. Schrand, L. Dai, J. J. Schlager, S. M. Hussain, and E. Osawa, “Differential biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds,” Diamond Related Materials16(12), 2118–2123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L. M.

A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S. C.

F. Leblond, S. C. Davis, P. A. Valdés, and B. W. Pogue, “Pre-clinical whole-body fluorescence imaging: Review of instruments, methods and applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B98(1), 77–94 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Druon, F.

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elliot, R.

S. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, R. Elliot, and N. Barsalou, “Nano-Lisa for in vitro diagnostic applications,” Proc. SPIE, 7899 (2011).

Elliott, W. R.

A. Conjusteau, A. Liopo, D. Tsyboulski, S. A. Ermilov, W. R. Elliott, N. Barsalou, S. M. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic sensor for nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (NanoLISA),” Proc. SPIE , 7899 (2011).

Emelianov, S.

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanoplate contrast agents for in vivo molecular photoacoustic imaging,” ACS Nano6(1), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S. Y.

Ermilov, S. A.

A. Conjusteau, A. Liopo, D. Tsyboulski, S. A. Ermilov, W. R. Elliott, N. Barsalou, S. M. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic sensor for nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (NanoLISA),” Proc. SPIE , 7899 (2011).

Everts, M.

E. V. Shashkov, M. Everts, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “Quantum dots as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal contrast agents,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3953–3958 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faklaris, O.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, C. Y.

C. Y. Fang, V. Vaijayanthimala, C. A. Cheng, S. H. Yeh, C. F. Chang, C. L. Li, and H. C. Chang, “The exocytosis of fluorescent nanodiamond and its use as a long-term cell tracker,” Small7(23), 3363–3370 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Mohan, Y. K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C. Y. Fang, and H. C. Chang, “Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(7), 843–847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Zhang, Y. Q. Li, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Chang, C. S. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and H. C. Chang, “Receptor-mediated cellular uptake of folate-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds: a combined ensemble and single-particle study,” Small5(23), 2716–2721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Wee, Y. W. Mau, C. Y. Fang, H. L. Hsu, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications,” Diamond Related Materials18(2-3), 567–573 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fann, W.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Fu, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, T. S. Lim, H. Y. Wu, P. K. Lin, P. K. Wei, P. H. Tsao, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Favazza, C.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frey, W.

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, C. C.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Fu, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, T. S. Lim, H. Y. Wu, P. K. Lin, P. K. Wei, P. H. Tsao, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galanzha, E. I.

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Shashkov, M. Everts, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “Quantum dots as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal contrast agents,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3953–3958 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrot, D.

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georges, P.

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gesset, C.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, H.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glickman, R. D.

A. Conjusteau, A. Liopo, D. Tsyboulski, S. A. Ermilov, W. R. Elliott, N. Barsalou, S. M. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic sensor for nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (NanoLISA),” Proc. SPIE , 7899 (2011).

S. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, R. Elliot, and N. Barsalou, “Nano-Lisa for in vitro diagnostic applications,” Proc. SPIE, 7899 (2011).

Green, C.

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanoplate contrast agents for in vivo molecular photoacoustic imaging,” ACS Nano6(1), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, C. C.

T. L. Wee, Y. W. Mau, C. Y. Fang, H. L. Hsu, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications,” Diamond Related Materials18(2-3), 567–573 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Kong, L. C. L. Huang, C. M. Hsu, W. H. Chen, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “High-affinity capture of proteins by diamond nanoparticles for mass spectrometric analysis,” Anal. Chem.77(1), 259–265 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hazle, J. D.

Homan, K.

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homan, K. A.

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanoplate contrast agents for in vivo molecular photoacoustic imaging,” ACS Nano6(1), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, H. H.

N. Mohan, C. S. Chen, H. H. Hsieh, Y. C. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. M.

X. L. Kong, L. C. L. Huang, C. M. Hsu, W. H. Chen, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “High-affinity capture of proteins by diamond nanoparticles for mass spectrometric analysis,” Anal. Chem.77(1), 259–265 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, H. L.

T. L. Wee, Y. W. Mau, C. Y. Fang, H. L. Hsu, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications,” Diamond Related Materials18(2-3), 567–573 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. H.

Huang, H. J.

A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L. C. L.

X. L. Kong, L. C. L. Huang, C. M. Hsu, W. H. Chen, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “High-affinity capture of proteins by diamond nanoparticles for mass spectrometric analysis,” Anal. Chem.77(1), 259–265 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Huang and H. C. Chang, “Adsorption and immobilization of cytochrome c on nanodiamonds,” Langmuir20(14), 5879–5884 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hui, Y. Y.

N. Mohan, Y. K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C. Y. Fang, and H. C. Chang, “Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(7), 843–847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Hui, B. Zhang, Y. C. Chang, C. C. Chang, H. C. Chang, J. H. Hsu, K. Chang, and F. H. Chang, “Two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of lipid-encapsulated fluorescent nanodiamonds in living cells,” Opt. Express18(6), 5896–5905 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hussain, S. M.

A. M. Schrand, L. Dai, J. J. Schlager, S. M. Hussain, and E. Osawa, “Differential biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds,” Diamond Related Materials16(12), 2118–2123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irinopoulou, T.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, V.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, M. W.

S. J. Yu, M. W. Kang, H. C. Chang, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karpiouk, A. B.

Kim, C.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, X. L.

X. L. Kong, L. C. L. Huang, C. M. Hsu, W. H. Chen, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “High-affinity capture of proteins by diamond nanoparticles for mass spectrometric analysis,” Anal. Chem.77(1), 259–265 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruizinga, P.

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leblond, F.

F. Leblond, S. C. Davis, P. A. Valdés, and B. W. Pogue, “Pre-clinical whole-body fluorescence imaging: Review of instruments, methods and applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B98(1), 77–94 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. Y.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Fu, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, T. S. Lim, H. Y. Wu, P. K. Lin, P. K. Wei, P. H. Tsao, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C. L.

C. Y. Fang, V. Vaijayanthimala, C. A. Cheng, S. H. Yeh, C. F. Chang, C. L. Li, and H. C. Chang, “The exocytosis of fluorescent nanodiamond and its use as a long-term cell tracker,” Small7(23), 3363–3370 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. Q.

B. L. Zhang, Y. Q. Li, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Chang, C. S. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and H. C. Chang, “Receptor-mediated cellular uptake of folate-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds: a combined ensemble and single-particle study,” Small5(23), 2716–2721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, T. S.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Fu, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, T. S. Lim, H. Y. Wu, P. K. Lin, P. K. Wei, P. H. Tsao, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, P. K.

C. C. Fu, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, T. S. Lim, H. Y. Wu, P. K. Lin, P. K. Wei, P. H. Tsao, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liopo, A.

A. Conjusteau, A. Liopo, D. Tsyboulski, S. A. Ermilov, W. R. Elliott, N. Barsalou, S. M. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic sensor for nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (NanoLISA),” Proc. SPIE , 7899 (2011).

Luke, G. P.

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanoplate contrast agents for in vivo molecular photoacoustic imaging,” ACS Nano6(1), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maswadi, S.

S. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, R. Elliot, and N. Barsalou, “Nano-Lisa for in vitro diagnostic applications,” Proc. SPIE, 7899 (2011).

Maswadi, S. M.

A. Conjusteau, A. Liopo, D. Tsyboulski, S. A. Ermilov, W. R. Elliott, N. Barsalou, S. M. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic sensor for nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (NanoLISA),” Proc. SPIE , 7899 (2011).

Mau, Y. W.

T. L. Wee, Y. W. Mau, C. Y. Fang, H. L. Hsu, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications,” Diamond Related Materials18(2-3), 567–573 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mita, Y.

Y. Mita, “Change of absorption spectra in type-Ib diamond with heavy neutron irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(17), 11360–11364 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohan, N.

N. Mohan, Y. K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C. Y. Fang, and H. C. Chang, “Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(7), 843–847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Mohan, C. S. Chen, H. H. Hsieh, Y. C. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, H. M.

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. T. B.

T. T. B. Nguyen, H. C. Chang, and V. W. K. Wu, “Adsorption and hydrolytic activity of lysozyme on diamond nanocrystallites,” Diamond Related Materials16(4-7), 872–876 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Omacr Sawa, E.

A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. Conjusteau, A. Liopo, D. Tsyboulski, S. A. Ermilov, W. R. Elliott, N. Barsalou, S. M. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic sensor for nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (NanoLISA),” Proc. SPIE , 7899 (2011).

Osawa, E.

A. M. Schrand, L. Dai, J. J. Schlager, S. M. Hussain, and E. Osawa, “Differential biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds,” Diamond Related Materials16(12), 2118–2123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pini, R.

R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, and G. Toci, “Probe-beam deflection diagnostics of shock-waves generated during laser drilling,” Appl. Phys. B61(5), 505–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

F. Leblond, S. C. Davis, P. A. Valdés, and B. W. Pogue, “Pre-clinical whole-body fluorescence imaging: Review of instruments, methods and applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B98(1), 77–94 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salimbeni, R.

R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, and G. Toci, “Probe-beam deflection diagnostics of shock-waves generated during laser drilling,” Appl. Phys. B61(5), 505–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, T.

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlager, J. J.

A. M. Schrand, L. Dai, J. J. Schlager, S. M. Hussain, and E. Osawa, “Differential biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds,” Diamond Related Materials16(12), 2118–2123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrand, A. M.

A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Schrand, L. Dai, J. J. Schlager, S. M. Hussain, and E. Osawa, “Differential biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds,” Diamond Related Materials16(12), 2118–2123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sennour, M.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shashkov, E. V.

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Shashkov, M. Everts, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “Quantum dots as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal contrast agents,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3953–3958 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K. H.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Souza, M.

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanoplate contrast agents for in vivo molecular photoacoustic imaging,” ACS Nano6(1), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J. L.

Sullivan, B.

B. Sullivan and A. C. Tam, “Profile of laser-produced acoustic pulse in a liquid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.75(2), 437–441 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tam, A. C.

B. Sullivan and A. C. Tam, “Profile of laser-produced acoustic pulse in a liquid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.75(2), 437–441 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tauc, P.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorel, A.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toci, G.

R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, and G. Toci, “Probe-beam deflection diagnostics of shock-waves generated during laser drilling,” Appl. Phys. B61(5), 505–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Treussart, F.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Truby, R.

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanoplate contrast agents for in vivo molecular photoacoustic imaging,” ACS Nano6(1), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. S.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsao, P. H.

C. C. Fu, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, T. S. Lim, H. Y. Wu, P. K. Lin, P. K. Wei, P. H. Tsao, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsyboulski, D.

A. Conjusteau, A. Liopo, D. Tsyboulski, S. A. Ermilov, W. R. Elliott, N. Barsalou, S. M. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic sensor for nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (NanoLISA),” Proc. SPIE , 7899 (2011).

Tzeng, Y. K.

N. Mohan, Y. K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C. Y. Fang, and H. C. Chang, “Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(7), 843–847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaijayanthimala, V.

C. Y. Fang, V. Vaijayanthimala, C. A. Cheng, S. H. Yeh, C. F. Chang, C. L. Li, and H. C. Chang, “The exocytosis of fluorescent nanodiamond and its use as a long-term cell tracker,” Small7(23), 3363–3370 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdés, P. A.

F. Leblond, S. C. Davis, P. A. Valdés, and B. W. Pogue, “Pre-clinical whole-body fluorescence imaging: Review of instruments, methods and applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B98(1), 77–94 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vannini, M.

R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, and G. Toci, “Probe-beam deflection diagnostics of shock-waves generated during laser drilling,” Appl. Phys. B61(5), 505–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vreeland, E.

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanoplate contrast agents for in vivo molecular photoacoustic imaging,” ACS Nano6(1), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wee, T. L.

T. L. Wee, Y. W. Mau, C. Y. Fang, H. L. Hsu, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications,” Diamond Related Materials18(2-3), 567–573 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P. K.

C. C. Fu, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, T. S. Lim, H. Y. Wu, P. K. Lin, P. K. Wei, P. H. Tsao, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H. Y.

C. C. Fu, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, T. S. Lim, H. Y. Wu, P. K. Lin, P. K. Wei, P. H. Tsao, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, V. W. K.

T. T. B. Nguyen, H. C. Chang, and V. W. K. Wu, “Adsorption and hydrolytic activity of lysozyme on diamond nanocrystallites,” Diamond Related Materials16(4-7), 872–876 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. C.

N. Mohan, C. S. Chen, H. H. Hsieh, Y. C. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y. N.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

N. Mohan, Y. K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C. Y. Fang, and H. C. Chang, “Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(7), 843–847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, S. H.

C. Y. Fang, V. Vaijayanthimala, C. A. Cheng, S. H. Yeh, C. F. Chang, C. L. Li, and H. C. Chang, “The exocytosis of fluorescent nanodiamond and its use as a long-term cell tracker,” Small7(23), 3363–3370 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, S. J.

S. J. Yu, M. W. Kang, H. C. Chang, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y. C.

S. J. Yu, M. W. Kang, H. C. Chang, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, B. L.

B. L. Zhang, Y. Q. Li, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Chang, C. S. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and H. C. Chang, “Receptor-mediated cellular uptake of folate-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds: a combined ensemble and single-particle study,” Small5(23), 2716–2721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q. A.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zharov, V. P.

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Shashkov, M. Everts, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “Quantum dots as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal contrast agents,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3953–3958 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (3)

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, “Silver nanoplate contrast agents for in vivo molecular photoacoustic imaging,” ACS Nano6(1), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Y. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. A. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. N. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano4(8), 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

N. Mohan, Y. K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C. Y. Fang, and H. C. Chang, “Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(7), 843–847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

X. L. Kong, L. C. L. Huang, C. M. Hsu, W. H. Chen, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “High-affinity capture of proteins by diamond nanoparticles for mass spectrometric analysis,” Anal. Chem.77(1), 259–265 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, and G. Toci, “Probe-beam deflection diagnostics of shock-waves generated during laser drilling,” Appl. Phys. B61(5), 505–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Diamond Related Materials (3)

A. M. Schrand, L. Dai, J. J. Schlager, S. M. Hussain, and E. Osawa, “Differential biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds,” Diamond Related Materials16(12), 2118–2123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. T. B. Nguyen, H. C. Chang, and V. W. K. Wu, “Adsorption and hydrolytic activity of lysozyme on diamond nanocrystallites,” Diamond Related Materials16(4-7), 872–876 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Wee, Y. W. Mau, C. Y. Fang, H. L. Hsu, C. C. Han, and H. C. Chang, “Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications,” Diamond Related Materials18(2-3), 567–573 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

B. Sullivan and A. C. Tam, “Profile of laser-produced acoustic pulse in a liquid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.75(2), 437–441 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. J. Yu, M. W. Kang, H. C. Chang, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

F. Leblond, S. C. Davis, P. A. Valdés, and B. W. Pogue, “Pre-clinical whole-body fluorescence imaging: Review of instruments, methods and applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B98(1), 77–94 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

A. M. Schrand, H. J. Huang, C. Carlson, J. J. Schlager, E. Omacr Sawa, S. M. Hussain, and L. M. Dai, “Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?” J. Phys. Chem. B111(1), 2–7 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

L. C. L. Huang and H. C. Chang, “Adsorption and immobilization of cytochrome c on nanodiamonds,” Langmuir20(14), 5879–5884 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (3)

E. V. Shashkov, M. Everts, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “Quantum dots as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal contrast agents,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3953–3958 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Mohan, C. S. Chen, H. H. Hsieh, Y. C. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

Y. Mita, “Change of absorption spectra in type-Ib diamond with heavy neutron irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(17), 11360–11364 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. C. Fu, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, T. S. Lim, H. Y. Wu, P. K. Lin, P. K. Wei, P. H. Tsao, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(3), 727–732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (3)

C. Y. Fang, V. Vaijayanthimala, C. A. Cheng, S. H. Yeh, C. F. Chang, C. L. Li, and H. C. Chang, “The exocytosis of fluorescent nanodiamond and its use as a long-term cell tracker,” Small7(23), 3363–3370 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Zhang, Y. Q. Li, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Chang, C. S. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and H. C. Chang, “Receptor-mediated cellular uptake of folate-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds: a combined ensemble and single-particle study,” Small5(23), 2716–2721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

K. M. Stantz, “Imaging hypoxia using 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Photons Plus Ultrasound, Imaging and Sensing 2010, 7564 (2010).

L. V. Wang, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and G. Stoica, “High-resolution photoacoustic tomography in vivo,” IEEE, ISBI, 1204–1207 (2006).

S. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, R. Elliot, and N. Barsalou, “Nano-Lisa for in vitro diagnostic applications,” Proc. SPIE, 7899 (2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Nitrogen-vacancy centers can be produced in type-Ib diamond nanocrystallites under irradiation of 40-keV He+ ion beam and followed by vacuum annealing at 800 °C. The nitrogen-vacancy centers of the FNDs are responsible for their fluorescence emission; (b) Absorption spectrum of type Ib diamond at 77 K due to nitrogen-vacancy centers (green) [28] and measured fluorescence emission spectrum of FNDs (red); and (c) Schematic diagram of conjugation of FNDs with GNPs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A typical layout of the experiment setup for fluorescence measurements of FNDs or FND-5GNP conjugates in deionized water. A supercontinuum fiber laser was used as an excitation source and a spectrometer was used for the measurements of fluorescence spectra of the samples. 1 denotes a sample cell; 2 a microscope objective; 3 a dichroic mirror; 4 a broad band reflection mirror; 5 a long-pass filter; 6 a focusing lens; 7 a bandpass filter; and 8 a fiber-coupled spectrometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The schematic setup for the photoacoustic signal measurements. A tunable optical parametric oscillator used as the excitation source was directed to a row of sample wells containing FNDs, GNPs, FND-5GNP, and pure deionized water, respectively. The photoacoustic signal from each sample was detected using a probe beam deflection technique. For that, the change in the direction of a probe laser beam was monitored with a position sensitive detector to detect the photoacoustic signal from the sample that causes the refractive index gradient in the water tank.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photoacoustic measurement results. The raw data of the photoacoustic emission are shown for (a) FNDs, (b) GNPs and (c) FND-5GNP conjugates under a single shot of the excitation laser pulse. (d) The accumulated photoacoustic signal strength from FNDs, GNPs, and FND-5GNP conjugates with excitation wavelengths at 530 and 565 nm for 10 laser pulses, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence emission from FNDs and FND-5GNP conjugates when excited at 565 nm (a) and 530nm (b).

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