Abstract

Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

R. Garrioch, C. Langlo, A. M. Dubis, R. F. Cooper, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Repeatability of in vivo parafoveal cone density and spacing measurements,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 632–643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Geng, A. Dubra, L. Yin, W. H. Merigan, R. Sharma, R. T. Libby, and D. R. Williams, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(4), 715–734 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (9)

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. Lee, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, A. E. Herde, J. C. Derby, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging cone photoreceptors in three dimensions and in time using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 748–763 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, J. S. Kroisamer, F. Felberer, H. Sattmann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Temporal changes of human cone photoreceptors observed in vivo with SLO/OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(1), 100–112 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Dees, A. Dubra, and R. C. Baraas, “Variability in parafoveal cone mosaic in normal trichromatic individuals,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(5), 1351–1358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vohnsen and D. Rativa, “Ultrasmall spot size scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1597–1609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, A. Pavaskar, J. Rha, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Spatial and temporal variation of rod photoreceptor reflectance in the human retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(9), 2577–2589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Ivers, C. Li, N. Patel, N. Sredar, X. Luo, H. Queener, R. S. Harwerth, and J. Porter, “Reproducibility of measuring lamina cribrosa pore geometry in human and nonhuman primates with in vivo adaptive optics imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5473–5480 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Merino, J. L. Duncan, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Observation of cone and rod photoreceptors in normal subjects and patients using a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2189–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (5)

2008 (1)

2007 (6)

2006 (5)

2005 (3)

2004 (4)

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. Kempen, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Friedman, R. C. Wolfs, B. J. O’Colmain, B. E. Klein, H. R. Taylor, S. West, M. C. Leske, P. Mitchell, N. Congdon, J. Kempen, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of open-angle glaucoma among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 532–538 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.29(18), 2142–2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc.198(2), 82–87 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

T. Wilson and S. J. Hewlett, “The use of annular pupil plane filters to tune the imaging properties in confocal microscopy,” J. Mod. Opt.37(12), 2025–2046 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

M. Alpern, C. C. Ching, and K. Kitahara, “The directional sensitivity of retinal rods,” J. Physiol.343, 577–592 (1983).
[PubMed]

1975 (1)

J. A. Van Loo and J. M. Enoch, “The scotopic Stiles-Crawford effect,” Vision Res.15(8-9), 1005–1009 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

1963 (1)

1950 (1)

J. E. Birren, R. C. Casperson, and J. Botwinick, “Age changes in pupil size,” J. Gerontol.5(3), 216–221 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1879 (1)

L. Rayleigh, “Investigations in optics with special reference to the spectroscope,” Philos. Mag.5(8), 261–274 (1879).

Ahamd, K.

Ahnelt, P. K.

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, C. C. Ching, and K. Kitahara, “The directional sensitivity of retinal rods,” J. Physiol.343, 577–592 (1983).
[PubMed]

Artal, P.

Baraas, R. C.

Besecker, J. R.

Bigelow, C. E.

Birren, J. E.

J. E. Birren, R. C. Casperson, and J. Botwinick, “Age changes in pupil size,” J. Gerontol.5(3), 216–221 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloom, B.

Botwinick, J.

J. E. Birren, R. C. Casperson, and J. Botwinick, “Age changes in pupil size,” J. Gerontol.5(3), 216–221 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bower, B. A.

Brown, J. M.

Buffington, A.

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Carlini, A. R.

Carroll, J.

Casperson, R. C.

J. E. Birren, R. C. Casperson, and J. Botwinick, “Age changes in pupil size,” J. Gerontol.5(3), 216–221 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Ching, C. C.

M. Alpern, C. C. Ching, and K. Kitahara, “The directional sensitivity of retinal rods,” J. Physiol.343, 577–592 (1983).
[PubMed]

Choi, S.

Choi, S. S.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Congdon, N.

D. S. Friedman, R. C. Wolfs, B. J. O’Colmain, B. E. Klein, H. R. Taylor, S. West, M. C. Leske, P. Mitchell, N. Congdon, J. Kempen, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of open-angle glaucoma among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 532–538 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, R. F.

de Jong, P. T.

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. Kempen, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dees, E. W.

Delori, F.

Delori, F. C.

Derby, J. C.

Doble, N.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly Iii, W.

Drexler, W.

Dubis, A. M.

Dubra, A.

Y. Geng, A. Dubra, L. Yin, W. H. Merigan, R. Sharma, R. T. Libby, and D. R. Williams, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(4), 715–734 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Garrioch, C. Langlo, A. M. Dubis, R. F. Cooper, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Repeatability of in vivo parafoveal cone density and spacing measurements,” Optom. Vis. Sci.89(5), 632–643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, A. Pavaskar, J. Rha, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Spatial and temporal variation of rod photoreceptor reflectance in the human retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(9), 2577–2589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Dees, A. Dubra, and R. C. Baraas, “Variability in parafoveal cone mosaic in normal trichromatic individuals,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(5), 1351–1358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Z. Harvey, “Registration of 2d images from fast scanning ophthalmic instruments,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.6204, 60–71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo autofluorescence imaging of the human and macaque retinal pigment epithelial cell mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(3), 1350–1359 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahamd, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Opt. Express14(16), 7144–7158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, J. L.

Elsner, A. E.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express14(10), 4552–4569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(10), 4380–4394 (2006).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Friedman, R. C. Wolfs, B. J. O’Colmain, B. E. Klein, H. R. Taylor, S. West, M. C. Leske, P. Mitchell, N. Congdon, J. Kempen, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of open-angle glaucoma among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 532–538 (2004).
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J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo autofluorescence imaging of the human and macaque retinal pigment epithelial cell mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(3), 1350–1359 (2009).
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J. H. Kempen, B. J. O’Colmain, M. C. Leske, S. M. Haffner, R. Klein, S. E. Moss, H. R. Taylor, R. F. Hamman, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 552–563 (2004).
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D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. Kempen, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(4), 564–572 (2004).
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Olivier, S. S.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(5), 2080–2092 (2006).
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A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
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K. M. Ivers, C. Li, N. Patel, N. Sredar, X. Luo, H. Queener, R. S. Harwerth, and J. Porter, “Reproducibility of measuring lamina cribrosa pore geometry in human and nonhuman primates with in vivo adaptive optics imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5473–5480 (2011).
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Pircher, M.

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K. M. Ivers, C. Li, N. Patel, N. Sredar, X. Luo, H. Queener, R. S. Harwerth, and J. Porter, “Reproducibility of measuring lamina cribrosa pore geometry in human and nonhuman primates with in vivo adaptive optics imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5473–5480 (2011).
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A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
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J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo autofluorescence imaging of the human and macaque retinal pigment epithelial cell mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(3), 1350–1359 (2009).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (9)

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
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D. Merino, J. L. Duncan, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Observation of cone and rod photoreceptors in normal subjects and patients using a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2189–2201 (2011).
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B. Vohnsen and D. Rativa, “Ultrasmall spot size scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1597–1609 (2011).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, S. Lee, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, A. E. Herde, J. C. Derby, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging cone photoreceptors in three dimensions and in time using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 748–763 (2011).
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M. Pircher, J. S. Kroisamer, F. Felberer, H. Sattmann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Temporal changes of human cone photoreceptors observed in vivo with SLO/OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(1), 100–112 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Geng, A. Dubra, L. Yin, W. H. Merigan, R. Sharma, R. T. Libby, and D. R. Williams, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(4), 715–734 (2012).
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BMC Ophthalmol. (1)

D. Scoles, D. C. Gray, J. J. Hunter, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, R. T. Libby, S. Russell, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging—histology comparison,” BMC Ophthalmol.9, 9 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (5)

K. M. Ivers, C. Li, N. Patel, N. Sredar, X. Luo, H. Queener, R. S. Harwerth, and J. Porter, “Reproducibility of measuring lamina cribrosa pore geometry in human and nonhuman primates with in vivo adaptive optics imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5473–5480 (2011).
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J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo autofluorescence imaging of the human and macaque retinal pigment epithelial cell mosaic,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.50(3), 1350–1359 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
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J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
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A. S. Vilupuru, N. V. Rangaswamy, L. J. Frishman, E. L. Smith, R. S. Harwerth, and A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for in vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1417–1425 (2007).
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Ophthalmology (1)

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
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Opt. Express (12)

B. Cense, E. Koperda, J. M. Brown, O. P. Kocaoglu, W. Gao, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Volumetric retinal imaging with ultrahigh-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics using two broadband light sources,” Opt. Express17(5), 4095–4111 (2009).
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J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express14(10), 4552–4569 (2006).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
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A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express10(9), 405–412 (2002).
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D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,” Opt. Express14(8), 3354–3367 (2006).
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D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahamd, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Opt. Express14(16), 7144–7158 (2006).
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Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(10), 4380–4394 (2006).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Binary annular pupil transmission masks with various relative inner radii ε (top) and the corresponding PSFs when used in diffraction-limited circularly symmetric lenses (bottom). The microscopy dimensionless coordinates u and v, defined in Eq. (2), are expressed in units of Airy disk radii (A.R).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transverse resolution (left), axial resolution (center) and energy detected (right) in a confocal scanning instrument, as a function of the detector size for various relative pupil obscuration radii (ε), in terms of Airy disk radii (A.R.). The energy detected plots were generated assuming identical number of photons reaching the sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MTF of a confocal microscope with different apodizing binary mask combinations (one per row) with different radii (indicated by color) and pinhole sizes (one per column). These plots were calculated assuming 680 nm light, an eye with 17 mm focal length imaged through a 7.75 mm pupil diameter. The cut off spatial frequency (fmax) for an incoherent imaging system with uniform illumination (i.e. a flood illumination fundus camera) is provided for reference.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Registered averages of foveal cone photoreceptor AOSLO images. Each column corresponds to a different apodization mask normalized radius ε, while each row corresponds to a different apodization configuration. For each ε all images show the same retinal location. Image contrast has been stretched for display purposes only. Scale bar is 10μm across.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The top row shows the radial spectra of the foveal cone photoreceptor images in Fig. 4, with each column corresponding to a different apodizing mask inner radius ε, normalized to unit amplitude at zero frequency. The second row shows the ratios of the normalized spectra from images acquired with annular pupil(s) to the ones with full circular pupils. The cutoff spatial frequency for a non-scanning incoherent imaging system and the peak frequency associated to the cones are indicated for reference.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Registered averages of photoreceptor AOSLO images at 10° temporal from fixation. Each column corresponds to a different apodization mask normalized radius ε, while each row corresponds to a different apodization configuration. For each ε all images show the same retinal location. Image contrast has been stretched for display purposes only. Scale bar is 10μm across.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Radial spectra of the rod-dominated images in Fig. 6, with each column representing a different ε. The second row shows ratios of the normalized spectra from images taken with annular pupil(s) to the spectra of images taken with circular pupils.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Normalized autocorrelation central lobe FWHM changes due to pupil apodization corresponding to images in Fig. 4. Negative values indicate FWHM reduction that can be interpreted as sharpening of the image features.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured relative average image intensities for images collected with constant PMT gain compared against predicted values (in parenthesis) according to the SCE measured objectively at fixation (ρ = 0.11 mm−2) [43]. A Gaussian intensity profile at the illumination pupil (σ = 2.9 mm) and a one Airy disk confocal aperture were assumed.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Cone counts for the images in Fig. 4. The manual counts are averages (and standard deviation) from 6 counts by 3 different observers.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Normalized autocorrelation central lobe FWHM changes due to pupil apodization corresponding to images in Fig. 6. Negative values indicate FWHM reduction, that can be interpreted as sharpening of the image features.

Tables Icon

Table 5 Measured relative average photoreceptor intensities for images collected with constant PMT gain compared against predicted values (in parenthesis) corresponding to Fig. 6. The values used to describe the SCE are the best fit to our experimental data (ρcones = 0.15 mm−2 and ρrods = 0.11 mm−2) assuming a Gaussian intensity profile at the illumination pupil (σ = 2.9 mm) and a one Airy disk confocal aperture.

Tables Icon

Table 6 Ratios of the average image intensity from cones to that of rods

Tables Icon

Table 7 Rod counts for the images in Fig. 6. The manual counts are averages (and standard deviation) from 4 values by 2 different individuals.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

h 1  ​(v,u) ε 1 J 0 ( vρ ) e iu ρ 2 /2 ρ dρ ,
v= 2π λ ( a f ) x 2 + y 2 ,  u= 2π λ ( a f ) 2 z.
I | h illumination | 2 ( | h imaging | 2 p ),

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