Abstract

Reflectance spectra measured in Intralipid (IL) close to the source are sensitive to wavelength-dependent changes in reduced scattering coefficient (μs) and scattering phase function (PF). Experiments and simulations were performed using device designs with either single or separate optical fibers for delivery and collection of light in varying concentrations of IL. Spectral reflectance is not consistently linear with varying IL concentration, with PF-dependent effects observed for single fiber devices with diameters smaller than ten transport lengths and for separate source-detector devices that collected light at less than half of a transport length from the source. Similar effects are thought to be seen in tissue, limiting the ability to quantitatively compare spectra from different devices without compensation.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

2010

2009

S. C. Kanick, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Empirical model of the photon path length for a single fiber reflectance spectroscopy device,” Opt. Express17(2), 860–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, D. J. Robinson, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Monte Carlo analysis of single fiber reflectance spectroscopy: photon path length and sampling depth,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(22), 6991–7008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Garcia-Allende, V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, O. M. Conde, and B. W. Pogue, “Automated identification of tumor microscopic morphology based on macroscopically measured scatter signatures,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 041302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michels, F. Foschum, and A. Kienle, “Optical properties of fat emulsions,” Opt. Express16(8), 5907–5925 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Johns, C. A. Giller, D. C. German, and H. Liu, “Determination of reduced scattering coefficient of biological tissue from a needle-like probe,” Opt. Express13(13), 4828–4842 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3048–3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biol. Ther.3(3), 259–267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy,” Neuroimage23(Suppl 1), S275–S288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zaccanti, S. Del Bianco, and F. Martelli, “Measurements of optical properties of high-density media,” Appl. Opt.42(19), 4023–4030 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pyhtila, R. Graf, and A. Wax, “Determining nuclear morphology using an improved angle-resolved low coherence interferometry system,” Opt. Express11(25), 3473–3484 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasia,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol.6(5), 651–658 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

1999

1998

B. W. Pogue and G. Burke, “Fiber-optic bundle design for quantitative fluorescence measurement from tissue,” Appl. Opt.37(31), 7429–7436 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, and J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer84(6), 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

1995

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Saidi, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, “Mie and Rayleigh modeling of visible-light scattering in neonatal skin,” Appl. Opt.34(31), 7410–7418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys.19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1990

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A’Amar, O.

Amelink, A.

S. C. Kanick, D. J. Robinson, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Semi-empirical model of the effect of scattering on single fiber fluorescence intensity measured on a turbid medium,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(1), 137–152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Gamm, S. C. Kanick, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, D. J. Robinson, and A. Amelink, “Measurement of tissue scattering properties using multi-diameter single fiber reflectance spectroscopy: in silico sensitivity analysis,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(11), 3150–3166 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, U. A. Gamm, M. Schouten, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, D. J. Robinson, and A. Amelink, “Measurement of the reduced scattering coefficient of turbid media using single fiber reflectance spectroscopy: fiber diameter and phase function dependence,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1687–1702 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, U. A. Gamm, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, D. J. Robinson, and A. Amelink, “Method to quantitatively estimate wavelength-dependent scattering properties from multidiameter single fiber reflectance spectra measured in a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2997–2999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Empirical model of the photon path length for a single fiber reflectance spectroscopy device,” Opt. Express17(2), 860–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, D. J. Robinson, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Monte Carlo analysis of single fiber reflectance spectroscopy: photon path length and sampling depth,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(22), 6991–7008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3048–3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrillier, S.

B. Gélébart, E. Tinet, J. Tualle, and S. Avrillier, “Phase function simulation in tissue phantoms: a fractal approach,” Pure Appl. Opt.5(4), 377–388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bargo, P. R.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

Bigio, I. J.

Blair, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy,” Neuroimage23(Suppl 1), S275–S288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biol. Ther.3(3), 259–267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, J.

Brown, J. Q.

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, G.

Charvet, I.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Conde, O. M.

P. B. Garcia-Allende, V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, O. M. Conde, and B. W. Pogue, “Automated identification of tumor microscopic morphology based on macroscopically measured scatter signatures,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dadani, F.

Dale, A. M.

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy,” Neuroimage23(Suppl 1), S275–S288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del Bianco, S.

Depeursinge, C.

Diamond, K.

Eick, A. A.

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, and J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer84(6), 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys.19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Follen, M.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasia,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol.6(5), 651–658 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, F. K.

Foschum, F.

Foster, T. H.

Franceschini, M. A.

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, “Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy,” Neuroimage23(Suppl 1), S275–S288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, and J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer84(6), 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuselier, T.

Gamm, U. A.

Garcia-Allende, P. B.

P. B. Garcia-Allende, V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, O. M. Conde, and B. W. Pogue, “Automated identification of tumor microscopic morphology based on macroscopically measured scatter signatures,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gélébart, B.

B. Gélébart, E. Tinet, J. Tualle, and S. Avrillier, “Phase function simulation in tissue phantoms: a fractal approach,” Pure Appl. Opt.5(4), 377–388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Georgakoudi, I.

Gerety, E. D.

German, D. C.

Giller, C. A.

Goldberg, M. J.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goodell, T. T.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graf, R.

Gross, J. D.

Hibst, R.

Hielscher, A. H.

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, and J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer84(6), 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. Boyer, A. H. Hielscher, and I. J. Bigio, “Influence of the scattering phase function on light transport measurements in turbid media performed with small source-detector separations,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 546–548 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoopes, P. J.

P. B. Garcia-Allende, V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, O. M. Conde, and B. W. Pogue, “Automated identification of tumor microscopic morphology based on macroscopically measured scatter signatures,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hull, E. L.

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 041302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Saidi, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, “Mie and Rayleigh modeling of visible-light scattering in neonatal skin,” Appl. Opt.34(31), 7410–7418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johns, M.

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, and J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer84(6), 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, “Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt.36(4), 949–957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanick, S. C.

S. C. Kanick, D. J. Robinson, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Semi-empirical model of the effect of scattering on single fiber fluorescence intensity measured on a turbid medium,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(1), 137–152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Gamm, S. C. Kanick, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, D. J. Robinson, and A. Amelink, “Measurement of tissue scattering properties using multi-diameter single fiber reflectance spectroscopy: in silico sensitivity analysis,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(11), 3150–3166 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, U. A. Gamm, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, D. J. Robinson, and A. Amelink, “Method to quantitatively estimate wavelength-dependent scattering properties from multidiameter single fiber reflectance spectra measured in a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2997–2999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, U. A. Gamm, M. Schouten, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, D. J. Robinson, and A. Amelink, “Measurement of the reduced scattering coefficient of turbid media using single fiber reflectance spectroscopy: fiber diameter and phase function dependence,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1687–1702 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Empirical model of the photon path length for a single fiber reflectance spectroscopy device,” Opt. Express17(2), 860–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, D. J. Robinson, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Monte Carlo analysis of single fiber reflectance spectroscopy: photon path length and sampling depth,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(22), 6991–7008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaspers, O. P.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Kim, A.

Kim, Y. L.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koval, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnaswamy, V.

V. Krishnaswamy, A. M. Laughney, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, “Dark-field scanning in situ spectroscopy platform for broadband imaging of resected tissue,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1911–1913 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Garcia-Allende, V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, O. M. Conde, and B. W. Pogue, “Automated identification of tumor microscopic morphology based on macroscopically measured scatter signatures,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kromin, A. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laughney, A. M.

Liu, H.

Liu, Y.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marquet, P.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marquet, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo local determination of tissue optical properties: applications to human brain,” Appl. Opt.38(22), 4939–4950 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

McBride, T. O.

Meda, P.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, R.

Moes, C. J.

Mourant, J. R.

Müller, M. G.

Ninni, P. D.

P. D. Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol.56(2), N21–N28 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ory, G.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterberg, U. L.

Padgett, N.

Palmer, G. M.

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weersink, M. S. Patterson, K. Diamond, S. Silver, and N. Padgett, “Noninvasive measurement of fluorophore concentration in turbid media with a simple fluorescence /reflectance ratio technique,” Appl. Opt.40(34), 6389–6395 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys.19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

Piguet, D.

Pogue, B. W.

V. Krishnaswamy, A. M. Laughney, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, “Dark-field scanning in situ spectroscopy platform for broadband imaging of resected tissue,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1911–1913 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Garcia-Allende, V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, O. M. Conde, and B. W. Pogue, “Automated identification of tumor microscopic morphology based on macroscopically measured scatter signatures,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 041302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, E. D. Gerety, S. B. Poplack, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Spectroscopic diffuse optical tomography for the quantitative assessment of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in breast tissue,” Appl. Opt.38(25), 5480–5490 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and G. Burke, “Fiber-optic bundle design for quantitative fluorescence measurement from tissue,” Appl. Opt.37(31), 7429–7436 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poplack, S. B.

Prahl, S. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pyhtila, J.

Ramanujam, N.

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, R.

Richards-Kortum, R.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasia,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol.6(5), 651–658 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, D. J.

Roodenburg, J. L. N.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, H. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roy, M.

Saidi, I. S.

Samkoe, K. S.

P. B. Garcia-Allende, V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, O. M. Conde, and B. W. Pogue, “Automated identification of tumor microscopic morphology based on macroscopically measured scatter signatures,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schouten, M.

Silver, S.

Sleven, R. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasia,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol.6(5), 651–658 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St. Ghislain, M.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

S. C. Kanick, D. J. Robinson, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Semi-empirical model of the effect of scattering on single fiber fluorescence intensity measured on a turbid medium,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(1), 137–152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, U. A. Gamm, M. Schouten, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, D. J. Robinson, and A. Amelink, “Measurement of the reduced scattering coefficient of turbid media using single fiber reflectance spectroscopy: fiber diameter and phase function dependence,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1687–1702 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, U. A. Gamm, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, D. J. Robinson, and A. Amelink, “Method to quantitatively estimate wavelength-dependent scattering properties from multidiameter single fiber reflectance spectra measured in a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2997–2999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Gamm, S. C. Kanick, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, D. J. Robinson, and A. Amelink, “Measurement of tissue scattering properties using multi-diameter single fiber reflectance spectroscopy: in silico sensitivity analysis,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(11), 3150–3166 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Empirical model of the photon path length for a single fiber reflectance spectroscopy device,” Opt. Express17(2), 860–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, D. J. Robinson, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Monte Carlo analysis of single fiber reflectance spectroscopy: photon path length and sampling depth,” Phys. Med. Biol.54(22), 6991–7008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3048–3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thueler, P.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tinet, E.

B. Gélébart, E. Tinet, J. Tualle, and S. Avrillier, “Phase function simulation in tissue phantoms: a fractal approach,” Pure Appl. Opt.5(4), 377–388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Tromberg, B. J.

Tualle, J.

B. Gélébart, E. Tinet, J. Tualle, and S. Avrillier, “Phase function simulation in tissue phantoms: a fractal approach,” Pure Appl. Opt.5(4), 377–388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van der Wal, J. E.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J.

van Marie, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Vermeulen, B.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vishwanath, K.

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wali, R. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

Weersink, R.

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys.19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Witjes, M. J. H.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, “Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Oral Oncol.44(1), 65–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Zaccanti, G.

Zhang, Q.

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm,” Appl. Opt.30(31), 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and G. Burke, “Fiber-optic bundle design for quantitative fluorescence measurement from tissue,” Appl. Opt.37(31), 7429–7436 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Saidi, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, “Mie and Rayleigh modeling of visible-light scattering in neonatal skin,” Appl. Opt.34(31), 7410–7418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marquet, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo local determination of tissue optical properties: applications to human brain,” Appl. Opt.38(22), 4939–4950 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, E. D. Gerety, S. B. Poplack, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Spectroscopic diffuse optical tomography for the quantitative assessment of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in breast tissue,” Appl. Opt.38(25), 5480–5490 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, “Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt.36(4), 949–957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt.40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weersink, M. S. Patterson, K. Diamond, S. Silver, and N. Padgett, “Noninvasive measurement of fluorophore concentration in turbid media with a simple fluorescence /reflectance ratio technique,” Appl. Opt.40(34), 6389–6395 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zaccanti, S. Del Bianco, and F. Martelli, “Measurements of optical properties of high-density media,” Appl. Opt.42(19), 4023–4030 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, “Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media,” Appl. Opt.46(29), 7317–7328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.43(15), 3048–3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Cancer

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, and J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer84(6), 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Biol. Ther.

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biol. Ther.3(3), 259–267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasia,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol.6(5), 651–658 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties,” J. Biomed. Opt.8(3), 495–503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(4), 041302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Garcia-Allende, V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, O. M. Conde, and B. W. Pogue, “Automated identification of tumor microscopic morphology based on macroscopically measured scatter signatures,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Med. Phys.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys.19(4), 879–888 (1992).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber optic geometries of reflectance devices that measure light close to the source fiber. Single fiber measurements obtained using same fiber optic to deliver and collect light with diameter given by df. Separate source detector devices have core-to-core separations given by rho. Light transport from source to detectors show geometry-specific dependence on the probability of scattering events specified by the scattering phase function. Polar plot shows phase function for Intralipid at 400 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical properties of Intralipid optical phantoms. A) shows reduced scattering coefficient vs. wavelength for selected IL dilutions. B) scattering phase function of IL at selected wavelengths. Right column shows wavelength-dependent metrics of PF: C) anisotropy, D) ratio of the first and second moments of the phase function, and the E) probability of large angle backscatter events. This study assumes that reduced scattering coefficient linearly relates to dilutions of IL, while PF-related parameters are dilution independent.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Analysis of spectral scattering features observed in experimentally measured reflectance collected by single fiber reflectance device. Left hand column presents calibrated reflectance spectra as measured with single fiber diameters of A) 0.2 (x marks), B) 0.4 (circle marks), and C) 1.0 mm (square marks). Each panel shows spectra measured from dilutions of IL resulting in volume particle concentrations of [0.455, 0.568, 0.908, 1.135, 1.476, 2.951, 4.540]% that are indicated by colors [red, blue, green, yellow, magenta, cyan, and black], respectively. Middle column shows selected spectra measured by each fiber in D) 4.54% and E) 0.454%, with each spectra normalized at 400 nm for comparative purposes. Right hand column shows the average number of scattering events experienced by photons at discrete wavelengths for spectra in F) 4.54% and G) 0.454% phantoms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between experimentally measured single fiber reflectance intensity and scattering properties in IL phantoms. Left hand column shows reflectance intensities vs. reduced scattering coefficient for fiber diameters of A) 0.2, B) 0.4, and C) 1.0 mm. Panel D) shows reflectance intensities vs. dimensionless reduced scattering for all measured fibers. In this plot color indicates different wavelengths and can be used to interpret the phase function specific proportionalities between reflectance intensity and reduced scattering coefficient, with colors transitioning from blue (at 400 nm) to red (at 800 nm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Analysis of spectral scattering features observed in simulated reflectance spectra collected by devices with separate source and detector. Left hand column shows dimensionless reflectance spectra returned using selected source detector separations of A) 0.2 (x marks), B) 0.4 (circle marks), and C) 1.0 mm (square marks). Each panel shows spectra simulated from dilutions of IL resulting in volume particle concentrations of [0.455, 0.568, 0.908, 1.135, 1.476, 2.951, 4.540]% that are indicated by colors [blue, red, green, yellow, magenta, cyan, and black], respectively. Middle column shows spectra returned by 3 selected source-detector separations in D) 4.54% and E) 0.454% phantoms, with the spectra normalized at 400 nm for comparative purposes. Right hand column shows the average number of scattering events experienced by photons at discrete wavelengths for spectra in F) 4.54% and G) 0.454% phantoms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between reflectance intensity returned by simulations of separate source-detector geometries and scattering properties in IL phantoms. Left hand column shows reflectance intensities vs. reduced scattering coefficient for source-detector separations of A) 0.2, B) 0.4, and C) 2.0 mm. Panel D) shows reflectance intensities vs. dimensionless reduced scattering for all measured separations. In this plot color indicates different wavelengths with [400, 500, 600, 700, 800] nm indicated by [blue, green yellow, black, red], respectively. Vertical dashed lines indicate the empirically identified threshold for observed PF-sensitivity of the reflectance at small dimensionless scattering values.

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