Abstract

Optical coherence tomography allows for dynamic, three-dimensional (3D+T) imaging of the heart within animal embryos. However, direct 3D+T imaging frame rates remain insufficient for cardiodynamic analysis. Previously, this limitation has been addressed by reconstructing 3D+T representations of the beating heart based on sets of two-dimensional image sequences (2D+T) acquired sequentially at high frame rate and in fixed (and parallel) planes throughout the heart. These methods either require additional hardware to trigger the acquisition of each 2D+T series to the same phase of the cardiac cycle or accumulate registration errors as the slices are synchronized retrospectively by pairs, without a gating signal. Here, we present a sequential turning acquisition and reconstruction (STAR) method for 3D+T imaging of periodically moving structures, which does not require any additional gating signal and is not prone to registration error accumulation. Similarly to other sequential cardiac imaging methods, multiple fast image series are consecutively acquired for different sections but in between acquisitions, the imaging plane is rotated around the center line instead of shifted along the direction perpendicular to the slices. As the central lines of all image-sequences coincide and represent measurements of the same spatial position, they can be used to accurately synchronize all the slices to a single inherent reference signal. We characterized the accuracy of our method on a simulated dynamic phantom and successfully imaged a beating embryonic rat heart. Potentially, this method can be applied for structural or Doppler imaging approaches with any direct space imaging modality such as computed tomography, ultrasound, or light microscopy.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

C. Happel, J. Thommes, L. Thrane, J. Maenner, T. Ortmaier, B. Heimann, and T. Yelbuz, “Rotationally acquired four-dimensional optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 096007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, M. J. Justice, and M. E. Dickinson, “Optical coherence tomography for live imaging of mammalian development,” Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.21, 579–84 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

I. V. Larina, K. Furushima, M. E. Dickinson, R. R. Behringer, and K. V. Larin, “Live imaging of rat embryos with doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 050506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Wang, K. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, “Efficient postacquisition synchronization of 4-D nongated cardiac images obtained from optical coherence tomography: application to 4-D reconstruction of the chick embryonic heart,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 044020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Liebling, and M. E. Dickinson, “Live imaging of early developmental processes in mammalian embryos with optical coherence tomography,” J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci.2, 253–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Larina, S. Ivers, S. Syed, M. Dickinson, and K. Larin, “Hemodynamic measurements from individual blood cells in early mammalian embryos with Doppler swept source OCT,” Opt. Lett.34, 986–8 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, D. L. Wilson, and A. M. Rollins, “High temporal resolution OCT using image-based retrospective gating,” Opt. Express17, 10786–10799 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dinkel, S. H. Bartling, J. Kuntz, M. Grasruck, A. Kopp-Schneider, M. Iwasaki, S. Dimmeler, R. Gupta, W. Semmler, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. Kiessling, “Intrinsic gating for small-animal computed tomography a robust ECG-less paradigm for deriving cardiac phase information and functional imaging,” Circulat. Cardiovasc. Imaging.1, 235–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmerman, R. Ankerhold, S. E. Fraser, M. Gharib, and M. E. Dickinson, “Rapid three-dimensional imaging and analysis of the beating embryonic heart reveals functional changes during development,” Dev. Dynam.235, 2940–2948 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

R. Jerecic, M. Bock, S. Nielles-Vallespin, C. Wacker, W. Bauer, and L. R. Schad, “ECG-gated Na-23-MRI of the human heart using a 3D-radial projection technique with ultra-short echo times,” Magn. Resonance Mater. Phys. Biol. Med.16, 297–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheterizat. Cardiovasc. Intervent.61, 84–94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Thompson and E. R. McVeigh, “Flow-gated phase-contrast MRI using radial acquisitions,” Magn. Resonance Med.52, 598–604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Larson, R. D. White, G. Laub, E. R. McVeigh, D. B. Li, and O. P. Simonetti, “Self-gated cardiac cine MRI,” Magn. Resonance Med.51, 93–102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Crowe, A. C. Larson, Q. Zhang, J. Carr, R. D. White, D. B. Li, and O. P. Simonetti, “Automated rectilinear self-gated cardiac cine imaging,” Magn. Resonance Med.52, 782–788 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Grass, R. Manzke, T. Nielsen, P. Koken, R. Proksa, M. Natanzon, and G. Shechter, “Helical cardiac cone beam reconstruction using retrospective ECG gating,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 3069–3084 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Markl, F. P. Chan, M. T. Alley, K. L. Wedding, M. T. Draney, C. J. Elkins, D. W. Parker, R. Wicker, C. A. Taylor, R. J. Herfkens, and N. J. Pelc, “Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI,” J. Magn. Resonance Imaging17, 499–506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Kachelrieß, D. A. Sennst, W. Maxlmoser, and W. A. Kalender, “Kymogram detection and kymogram-correlated image reconstruction from subsecond spiral computed tomography scans of the heart,” Med. Phys.29, 1489–1503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Yelbuz, M. Choma, L. Thrane, M. Kirby, and J. Izatt, “A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation106, 2771–2774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

S. Skare and J. L. R. Andersson, “On the effects of gating in diffusion imaging of the brain using single shot EPI,” Magn. Resonance Imaging19, 1125–1128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1990

T. A. Spraggins, “Wireless retrospective gating—application to cine cardiac imaging,” Magn. Resonance Imaging8, 675–681 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alley, M. T.

M. Markl, F. P. Chan, M. T. Alley, K. L. Wedding, M. T. Draney, C. J. Elkins, D. W. Parker, R. Wicker, C. A. Taylor, R. J. Herfkens, and N. J. Pelc, “Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI,” J. Magn. Resonance Imaging17, 499–506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, J. L. R.

S. Skare and J. L. R. Andersson, “On the effects of gating in diffusion imaging of the brain using single shot EPI,” Magn. Resonance Imaging19, 1125–1128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ankerhold, R.

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmerman, R. Ankerhold, S. E. Fraser, M. Gharib, and M. E. Dickinson, “Rapid three-dimensional imaging and analysis of the beating embryonic heart reveals functional changes during development,” Dev. Dynam.235, 2940–2948 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartling, S. H.

J. Dinkel, S. H. Bartling, J. Kuntz, M. Grasruck, A. Kopp-Schneider, M. Iwasaki, S. Dimmeler, R. Gupta, W. Semmler, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. Kiessling, “Intrinsic gating for small-animal computed tomography a robust ECG-less paradigm for deriving cardiac phase information and functional imaging,” Circulat. Cardiovasc. Imaging.1, 235–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, W.

R. Jerecic, M. Bock, S. Nielles-Vallespin, C. Wacker, W. Bauer, and L. R. Schad, “ECG-gated Na-23-MRI of the human heart using a 3D-radial projection technique with ultra-short echo times,” Magn. Resonance Mater. Phys. Biol. Med.16, 297–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Behringer, R. R.

I. V. Larina, K. Furushima, M. E. Dickinson, R. R. Behringer, and K. V. Larin, “Live imaging of rat embryos with doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 050506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berman, L.

G. M. Treece, R. W. Prager, A. H. Gee, C. J. C. Cash, and L. Berman, “Grey-scale gating for freehand 3D ultrasound,” in 2002 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE, 2002), pp. 993–996.

Bock, M.

R. Jerecic, M. Bock, S. Nielles-Vallespin, C. Wacker, W. Bauer, and L. R. Schad, “ECG-gated Na-23-MRI of the human heart using a 3D-radial projection technique with ultra-short echo times,” Magn. Resonance Mater. Phys. Biol. Med.16, 297–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bruining, N.

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheterizat. Cardiovasc. Intervent.61, 84–94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A. E.

Carr, J.

M. E. Crowe, A. C. Larson, Q. Zhang, J. Carr, R. D. White, D. B. Li, and O. P. Simonetti, “Automated rectilinear self-gated cardiac cine imaging,” Magn. Resonance Med.52, 782–788 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cash, C. J. C.

G. M. Treece, R. W. Prager, A. H. Gee, C. J. C. Cash, and L. Berman, “Grey-scale gating for freehand 3D ultrasound,” in 2002 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE, 2002), pp. 993–996.

Chan, F. P.

M. Markl, F. P. Chan, M. T. Alley, K. L. Wedding, M. T. Draney, C. J. Elkins, D. W. Parker, R. Wicker, C. A. Taylor, R. J. Herfkens, and N. J. Pelc, “Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI,” J. Magn. Resonance Imaging17, 499–506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choma, M.

T. Yelbuz, M. Choma, L. Thrane, M. Kirby, and J. Izatt, “A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation106, 2771–2774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, M. E.

M. E. Crowe, A. C. Larson, Q. Zhang, J. Carr, R. D. White, D. B. Li, and O. P. Simonetti, “Automated rectilinear self-gated cardiac cine imaging,” Magn. Resonance Med.52, 782–788 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Winter, S. A.

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheterizat. Cardiovasc. Intervent.61, 84–94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Degertekin, M.

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheterizat. Cardiovasc. Intervent.61, 84–94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, M.

I. Larina, S. Ivers, S. Syed, M. Dickinson, and K. Larin, “Hemodynamic measurements from individual blood cells in early mammalian embryos with Doppler swept source OCT,” Opt. Lett.34, 986–8 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, “Nonuniform temporal alignment of slice sequences for four-dimensional imaging of cyclically deforming embryonic structures,” in 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro, 2006 (2006), pp. 1156–1159.
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, M. E.

I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, M. J. Justice, and M. E. Dickinson, “Optical coherence tomography for live imaging of mammalian development,” Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.21, 579–84 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Larina, K. Furushima, M. E. Dickinson, R. R. Behringer, and K. V. Larin, “Live imaging of rat embryos with doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 050506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Liebling, and M. E. Dickinson, “Live imaging of early developmental processes in mammalian embryos with optical coherence tomography,” J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci.2, 253–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmerman, R. Ankerhold, S. E. Fraser, M. Gharib, and M. E. Dickinson, “Rapid three-dimensional imaging and analysis of the beating embryonic heart reveals functional changes during development,” Dev. Dynam.235, 2940–2948 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimmeler, S.

J. Dinkel, S. H. Bartling, J. Kuntz, M. Grasruck, A. Kopp-Schneider, M. Iwasaki, S. Dimmeler, R. Gupta, W. Semmler, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. Kiessling, “Intrinsic gating for small-animal computed tomography a robust ECG-less paradigm for deriving cardiac phase information and functional imaging,” Circulat. Cardiovasc. Imaging.1, 235–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dinkel, J.

J. Dinkel, S. H. Bartling, J. Kuntz, M. Grasruck, A. Kopp-Schneider, M. Iwasaki, S. Dimmeler, R. Gupta, W. Semmler, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. Kiessling, “Intrinsic gating for small-animal computed tomography a robust ECG-less paradigm for deriving cardiac phase information and functional imaging,” Circulat. Cardiovasc. Imaging.1, 235–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Draney, M. T.

M. Markl, F. P. Chan, M. T. Alley, K. L. Wedding, M. T. Draney, C. J. Elkins, D. W. Parker, R. Wicker, C. A. Taylor, R. J. Herfkens, and N. J. Pelc, “Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI,” J. Magn. Resonance Imaging17, 499–506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, I.

M. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. Wilson, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, “4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14, 736–748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elkins, C. J.

M. Markl, F. P. Chan, M. T. Alley, K. L. Wedding, M. T. Draney, C. J. Elkins, D. W. Parker, R. Wicker, C. A. Taylor, R. J. Herfkens, and N. J. Pelc, “Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI,” J. Magn. Resonance Imaging17, 499–506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forouhar, A.

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, “Nonuniform temporal alignment of slice sequences for four-dimensional imaging of cyclically deforming embryonic structures,” in 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro, 2006 (2006), pp. 1156–1159.
[CrossRef]

Forouhar, A. S.

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmerman, R. Ankerhold, S. E. Fraser, M. Gharib, and M. E. Dickinson, “Rapid three-dimensional imaging and analysis of the beating embryonic heart reveals functional changes during development,” Dev. Dynam.235, 2940–2948 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S.

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, “Nonuniform temporal alignment of slice sequences for four-dimensional imaging of cyclically deforming embryonic structures,” in 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro, 2006 (2006), pp. 1156–1159.
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S. E.

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmerman, R. Ankerhold, S. E. Fraser, M. Gharib, and M. E. Dickinson, “Rapid three-dimensional imaging and analysis of the beating embryonic heart reveals functional changes during development,” Dev. Dynam.235, 2940–2948 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furushima, K.

I. V. Larina, K. Furushima, M. E. Dickinson, R. R. Behringer, and K. V. Larin, “Live imaging of rat embryos with doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 050506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gargesha, M.

Gee, A. H.

G. M. Treece, R. W. Prager, A. H. Gee, C. J. C. Cash, and L. Berman, “Grey-scale gating for freehand 3D ultrasound,” in 2002 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE, 2002), pp. 993–996.

Gharib, M.

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmerman, R. Ankerhold, S. E. Fraser, M. Gharib, and M. E. Dickinson, “Rapid three-dimensional imaging and analysis of the beating embryonic heart reveals functional changes during development,” Dev. Dynam.235, 2940–2948 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, “Nonuniform temporal alignment of slice sequences for four-dimensional imaging of cyclically deforming embryonic structures,” in 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro, 2006 (2006), pp. 1156–1159.
[CrossRef]

Ghosn, M.

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grasruck, M.

J. Dinkel, S. H. Bartling, J. Kuntz, M. Grasruck, A. Kopp-Schneider, M. Iwasaki, S. Dimmeler, R. Gupta, W. Semmler, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. Kiessling, “Intrinsic gating for small-animal computed tomography a robust ECG-less paradigm for deriving cardiac phase information and functional imaging,” Circulat. Cardiovasc. Imaging.1, 235–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grass, M.

M. Grass, R. Manzke, T. Nielsen, P. Koken, R. Proksa, M. Natanzon, and G. Shechter, “Helical cardiac cone beam reconstruction using retrospective ECG gating,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 3069–3084 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, R.

J. Dinkel, S. H. Bartling, J. Kuntz, M. Grasruck, A. Kopp-Schneider, M. Iwasaki, S. Dimmeler, R. Gupta, W. Semmler, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. Kiessling, “Intrinsic gating for small-animal computed tomography a robust ECG-less paradigm for deriving cardiac phase information and functional imaging,” Circulat. Cardiovasc. Imaging.1, 235–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hamers, R.

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheterizat. Cardiovasc. Intervent.61, 84–94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Happel, C.

C. Happel, J. Thommes, L. Thrane, J. Maenner, T. Ortmaier, B. Heimann, and T. Yelbuz, “Rotationally acquired four-dimensional optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 096007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heimann, B.

C. Happel, J. Thommes, L. Thrane, J. Maenner, T. Ortmaier, B. Heimann, and T. Yelbuz, “Rotationally acquired four-dimensional optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 096007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herfkens, R. J.

M. Markl, F. P. Chan, M. T. Alley, K. L. Wedding, M. T. Draney, C. J. Elkins, D. W. Parker, R. Wicker, C. A. Taylor, R. J. Herfkens, and N. J. Pelc, “Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI,” J. Magn. Resonance Imaging17, 499–506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

M. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. Wilson, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, “4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14, 736–748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivers, S.

Iwasaki, M.

J. Dinkel, S. H. Bartling, J. Kuntz, M. Grasruck, A. Kopp-Schneider, M. Iwasaki, S. Dimmeler, R. Gupta, W. Semmler, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. Kiessling, “Intrinsic gating for small-animal computed tomography a robust ECG-less paradigm for deriving cardiac phase information and functional imaging,” Circulat. Cardiovasc. Imaging.1, 235–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J.

T. Yelbuz, M. Choma, L. Thrane, M. Kirby, and J. Izatt, “A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation106, 2771–2774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, M.

M. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. Wilson, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, “4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14, 736–748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, M. W.

Jerecic, R.

R. Jerecic, M. Bock, S. Nielles-Vallespin, C. Wacker, W. Bauer, and L. R. Schad, “ECG-gated Na-23-MRI of the human heart using a 3D-radial projection technique with ultra-short echo times,” Magn. Resonance Mater. Phys. Biol. Med.16, 297–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J. Y.

Justice, M. J.

I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, M. J. Justice, and M. E. Dickinson, “Optical coherence tomography for live imaging of mammalian development,” Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.21, 579–84 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kachelrieß, M.

M. Kachelrieß, D. A. Sennst, W. Maxlmoser, and W. A. Kalender, “Kymogram detection and kymogram-correlated image reconstruction from subsecond spiral computed tomography scans of the heart,” Med. Phys.29, 1489–1503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalender, W. A.

M. Kachelrieß, D. A. Sennst, W. Maxlmoser, and W. A. Kalender, “Kymogram detection and kymogram-correlated image reconstruction from subsecond spiral computed tomography scans of the heart,” Med. Phys.29, 1489–1503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kauczor, H.-U.

J. Dinkel, S. H. Bartling, J. Kuntz, M. Grasruck, A. Kopp-Schneider, M. Iwasaki, S. Dimmeler, R. Gupta, W. Semmler, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. Kiessling, “Intrinsic gating for small-animal computed tomography a robust ECG-less paradigm for deriving cardiac phase information and functional imaging,” Circulat. Cardiovasc. Imaging.1, 235–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiessling, F.

J. Dinkel, S. H. Bartling, J. Kuntz, M. Grasruck, A. Kopp-Schneider, M. Iwasaki, S. Dimmeler, R. Gupta, W. Semmler, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. Kiessling, “Intrinsic gating for small-animal computed tomography a robust ECG-less paradigm for deriving cardiac phase information and functional imaging,” Circulat. Cardiovasc. Imaging.1, 235–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirby, M.

T. Yelbuz, M. Choma, L. Thrane, M. Kirby, and J. Izatt, “A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation106, 2771–2774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koken, P.

M. Grass, R. Manzke, T. Nielsen, P. Koken, R. Proksa, M. Natanzon, and G. Shechter, “Helical cardiac cone beam reconstruction using retrospective ECG gating,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 3069–3084 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopp-Schneider, A.

J. Dinkel, S. H. Bartling, J. Kuntz, M. Grasruck, A. Kopp-Schneider, M. Iwasaki, S. Dimmeler, R. Gupta, W. Semmler, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. Kiessling, “Intrinsic gating for small-animal computed tomography a robust ECG-less paradigm for deriving cardiac phase information and functional imaging,” Circulat. Cardiovasc. Imaging.1, 235–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuntz, J.

J. Dinkel, S. H. Bartling, J. Kuntz, M. Grasruck, A. Kopp-Schneider, M. Iwasaki, S. Dimmeler, R. Gupta, W. Semmler, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. Kiessling, “Intrinsic gating for small-animal computed tomography a robust ECG-less paradigm for deriving cardiac phase information and functional imaging,” Circulat. Cardiovasc. Imaging.1, 235–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Larin, K.

I. Larina, S. Ivers, S. Syed, M. Dickinson, and K. Larin, “Hemodynamic measurements from individual blood cells in early mammalian embryos with Doppler swept source OCT,” Opt. Lett.34, 986–8 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Larin, K. V.

I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, M. J. Justice, and M. E. Dickinson, “Optical coherence tomography for live imaging of mammalian development,” Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.21, 579–84 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Larina, K. Furushima, M. E. Dickinson, R. R. Behringer, and K. V. Larin, “Live imaging of rat embryos with doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 050506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Liebling, and M. E. Dickinson, “Live imaging of early developmental processes in mammalian embryos with optical coherence tomography,” J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci.2, 253–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Larina, I.

I. Larina, S. Ivers, S. Syed, M. Dickinson, and K. Larin, “Hemodynamic measurements from individual blood cells in early mammalian embryos with Doppler swept source OCT,” Opt. Lett.34, 986–8 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Larina, I. V.

I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, M. J. Justice, and M. E. Dickinson, “Optical coherence tomography for live imaging of mammalian development,” Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.21, 579–84 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Larina, K. Furushima, M. E. Dickinson, R. R. Behringer, and K. V. Larin, “Live imaging of rat embryos with doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 050506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Liebling, and M. E. Dickinson, “Live imaging of early developmental processes in mammalian embryos with optical coherence tomography,” J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci.2, 253–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Larson, A. C.

A. C. Larson, R. D. White, G. Laub, E. R. McVeigh, D. B. Li, and O. P. Simonetti, “Self-gated cardiac cine MRI,” Magn. Resonance Med.51, 93–102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Crowe, A. C. Larson, Q. Zhang, J. Carr, R. D. White, D. B. Li, and O. P. Simonetti, “Automated rectilinear self-gated cardiac cine imaging,” Magn. Resonance Med.52, 782–788 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laub, G.

A. C. Larson, R. D. White, G. Laub, E. R. McVeigh, D. B. Li, and O. P. Simonetti, “Self-gated cardiac cine MRI,” Magn. Resonance Med.51, 93–102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lemos, P. A.

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheterizat. Cardiovasc. Intervent.61, 84–94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. B.

M. E. Crowe, A. C. Larson, Q. Zhang, J. Carr, R. D. White, D. B. Li, and O. P. Simonetti, “Automated rectilinear self-gated cardiac cine imaging,” Magn. Resonance Med.52, 782–788 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Larson, R. D. White, G. Laub, E. R. McVeigh, D. B. Li, and O. P. Simonetti, “Self-gated cardiac cine MRI,” Magn. Resonance Med.51, 93–102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liebling, M.

K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Liebling, and M. E. Dickinson, “Live imaging of early developmental processes in mammalian embryos with optical coherence tomography,” J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci.2, 253–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmerman, R. Ankerhold, S. E. Fraser, M. Gharib, and M. E. Dickinson, “Rapid three-dimensional imaging and analysis of the beating embryonic heart reveals functional changes during development,” Dev. Dynam.235, 2940–2948 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, “Nonuniform temporal alignment of slice sequences for four-dimensional imaging of cyclically deforming embryonic structures,” in 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro, 2006 (2006), pp. 1156–1159.
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Wang, K. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, “Efficient postacquisition synchronization of 4-D nongated cardiac images obtained from optical coherence tomography: application to 4-D reconstruction of the chick embryonic heart,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 044020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

Maenner, J.

C. Happel, J. Thommes, L. Thrane, J. Maenner, T. Ortmaier, B. Heimann, and T. Yelbuz, “Rotationally acquired four-dimensional optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 096007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzke, R.

M. Grass, R. Manzke, T. Nielsen, P. Koken, R. Proksa, M. Natanzon, and G. Shechter, “Helical cardiac cone beam reconstruction using retrospective ECG gating,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 3069–3084 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariampillai, A.

Markl, M.

M. Markl, F. P. Chan, M. T. Alley, K. L. Wedding, M. T. Draney, C. J. Elkins, D. W. Parker, R. Wicker, C. A. Taylor, R. J. Herfkens, and N. J. Pelc, “Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI,” J. Magn. Resonance Imaging17, 499–506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maxlmoser, W.

M. Kachelrieß, D. A. Sennst, W. Maxlmoser, and W. A. Kalender, “Kymogram detection and kymogram-correlated image reconstruction from subsecond spiral computed tomography scans of the heart,” Med. Phys.29, 1489–1503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McVeigh, E. R.

A. C. Larson, R. D. White, G. Laub, E. R. McVeigh, D. B. Li, and O. P. Simonetti, “Self-gated cardiac cine MRI,” Magn. Resonance Med.51, 93–102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Thompson and E. R. McVeigh, “Flow-gated phase-contrast MRI using radial acquisitions,” Magn. Resonance Med.52, 598–604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munce, N. R.

Natanzon, M.

M. Grass, R. Manzke, T. Nielsen, P. Koken, R. Proksa, M. Natanzon, and G. Shechter, “Helical cardiac cone beam reconstruction using retrospective ECG gating,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 3069–3084 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielles-Vallespin, S.

R. Jerecic, M. Bock, S. Nielles-Vallespin, C. Wacker, W. Bauer, and L. R. Schad, “ECG-gated Na-23-MRI of the human heart using a 3D-radial projection technique with ultra-short echo times,” Magn. Resonance Mater. Phys. Biol. Med.16, 297–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, T.

M. Grass, R. Manzke, T. Nielsen, P. Koken, R. Proksa, M. Natanzon, and G. Shechter, “Helical cardiac cone beam reconstruction using retrospective ECG gating,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 3069–3084 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolski, V.

M. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. Wilson, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, “4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14, 736–748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortmaier, T.

C. Happel, J. Thommes, L. Thrane, J. Maenner, T. Ortmaier, B. Heimann, and T. Yelbuz, “Rotationally acquired four-dimensional optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 096007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, D. W.

M. Markl, F. P. Chan, M. T. Alley, K. L. Wedding, M. T. Draney, C. J. Elkins, D. W. Parker, R. Wicker, C. A. Taylor, R. J. Herfkens, and N. J. Pelc, “Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI,” J. Magn. Resonance Imaging17, 499–506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pelc, N. J.

M. Markl, F. P. Chan, M. T. Alley, K. L. Wedding, M. T. Draney, C. J. Elkins, D. W. Parker, R. Wicker, C. A. Taylor, R. J. Herfkens, and N. J. Pelc, “Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI,” J. Magn. Resonance Imaging17, 499–506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prager, R. W.

G. M. Treece, R. W. Prager, A. H. Gee, C. J. C. Cash, and L. Berman, “Grey-scale gating for freehand 3D ultrasound,” in 2002 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE, 2002), pp. 993–996.

Proksa, R.

M. Grass, R. Manzke, T. Nielsen, P. Koken, R. Proksa, M. Natanzon, and G. Shechter, “Helical cardiac cone beam reconstruction using retrospective ECG gating,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 3069–3084 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randall, C.

Roelandt, J. R. T. C.

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheterizat. Cardiovasc. Intervent.61, 84–94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A.

M. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. Wilson, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, “4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14, 736–748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Rothenberg, F.

M. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. Wilson, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, “4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14, 736–748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, D.

M. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. Wilson, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, “4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14, 736–748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rugonyi, S.

A. Liu, R. Wang, K. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, “Efficient postacquisition synchronization of 4-D nongated cardiac images obtained from optical coherence tomography: application to 4-D reconstruction of the chick embryonic heart,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 044020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schad, L. R.

R. Jerecic, M. Bock, S. Nielles-Vallespin, C. Wacker, W. Bauer, and L. R. Schad, “ECG-gated Na-23-MRI of the human heart using a 3D-radial projection technique with ultra-short echo times,” Magn. Resonance Mater. Phys. Biol. Med.16, 297–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Semmler, W.

J. Dinkel, S. H. Bartling, J. Kuntz, M. Grasruck, A. Kopp-Schneider, M. Iwasaki, S. Dimmeler, R. Gupta, W. Semmler, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. Kiessling, “Intrinsic gating for small-animal computed tomography a robust ECG-less paradigm for deriving cardiac phase information and functional imaging,” Circulat. Cardiovasc. Imaging.1, 235–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sennst, D. A.

M. Kachelrieß, D. A. Sennst, W. Maxlmoser, and W. A. Kalender, “Kymogram detection and kymogram-correlated image reconstruction from subsecond spiral computed tomography scans of the heart,” Med. Phys.29, 1489–1503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Serruys, P. W.

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheterizat. Cardiovasc. Intervent.61, 84–94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shechter, G.

M. Grass, R. Manzke, T. Nielsen, P. Koken, R. Proksa, M. Natanzon, and G. Shechter, “Helical cardiac cone beam reconstruction using retrospective ECG gating,” Phys. Med. Biol.48, 3069–3084 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonetti, O. P.

M. E. Crowe, A. C. Larson, Q. Zhang, J. Carr, R. D. White, D. B. Li, and O. P. Simonetti, “Automated rectilinear self-gated cardiac cine imaging,” Magn. Resonance Med.52, 782–788 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Larson, R. D. White, G. Laub, E. R. McVeigh, D. B. Li, and O. P. Simonetti, “Self-gated cardiac cine MRI,” Magn. Resonance Med.51, 93–102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skare, S.

S. Skare and J. L. R. Andersson, “On the effects of gating in diffusion imaging of the brain using single shot EPI,” Magn. Resonance Imaging19, 1125–1128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spraggins, T. A.

T. A. Spraggins, “Wireless retrospective gating—application to cine cardiac imaging,” Magn. Resonance Imaging8, 675–681 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Standish, B. A.

Sudheendran, N.

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Syed, S.

Tanabe, K.

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheterizat. Cardiovasc. Intervent.61, 84–94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, C. A.

M. Markl, F. P. Chan, M. T. Alley, K. L. Wedding, M. T. Draney, C. J. Elkins, D. W. Parker, R. Wicker, C. A. Taylor, R. J. Herfkens, and N. J. Pelc, “Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI,” J. Magn. Resonance Imaging17, 499–506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thommes, J.

C. Happel, J. Thommes, L. Thrane, J. Maenner, T. Ortmaier, B. Heimann, and T. Yelbuz, “Rotationally acquired four-dimensional optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 096007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, R. B.

R. B. Thompson and E. R. McVeigh, “Flow-gated phase-contrast MRI using radial acquisitions,” Magn. Resonance Med.52, 598–604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thornburg, K.

A. Liu, R. Wang, K. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, “Efficient postacquisition synchronization of 4-D nongated cardiac images obtained from optical coherence tomography: application to 4-D reconstruction of the chick embryonic heart,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 044020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

C. Happel, J. Thommes, L. Thrane, J. Maenner, T. Ortmaier, B. Heimann, and T. Yelbuz, “Rotationally acquired four-dimensional optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 096007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yelbuz, M. Choma, L. Thrane, M. Kirby, and J. Izatt, “A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation106, 2771–2774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treece, G. M.

G. M. Treece, R. W. Prager, A. H. Gee, C. J. C. Cash, and L. Berman, “Grey-scale gating for freehand 3D ultrasound,” in 2002 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE, 2002), pp. 993–996.

Unser, M.

M. Unser, “Splines: a perfect fit for signal processing and image processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag.16, 22–38 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vermot, J.

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, “Nonuniform temporal alignment of slice sequences for four-dimensional imaging of cyclically deforming embryonic structures,” in 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro, 2006 (2006), pp. 1156–1159.
[CrossRef]

Vitkin, I. A.

Wacker, C.

R. Jerecic, M. Bock, S. Nielles-Vallespin, C. Wacker, W. Bauer, and L. R. Schad, “ECG-gated Na-23-MRI of the human heart using a 3D-radial projection technique with ultra-short echo times,” Magn. Resonance Mater. Phys. Biol. Med.16, 297–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

A. Liu, R. Wang, K. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, “Efficient postacquisition synchronization of 4-D nongated cardiac images obtained from optical coherence tomography: application to 4-D reconstruction of the chick embryonic heart,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 044020 (2009).
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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (7855 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (23026 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2683 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (2480 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sequential acquisition using parallel slice geometry [8,9,5]. (a) Direct 3D volume is obtained by collecting multiple B-scans (y-planes) (b) Sequential imaging of fast B-scans at a fixed y-positions (c) If triggered at the same time in the heart cycle, or subsequently synchronized, the frames can be re-assembled to form a 3D+time series at high frame rate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sequential turning acquisition and reconstruction (STAR) method. (a) Image sequences are acquired (without gating) along planes oriented radially. Note that all sequences share a common line, the rotation axis, where the radial planes intersect. (b) Intensity of the central line of slice sequences versus time (kymograph) acquired sequentially at different orientations θi. (c) Synchronization of the sequences, with respect to the sequences θ0 is carried out by time-warping the kymographs. (d) The warping function obtained from the intensity values on the common axis is then applied to the other pixels in the sequences, resulting in synchronized radial sequences that cover one (or possibly more) period(s). (e) the synchronized sequences can either be visualized as cutting planes or (f) interpolated onto a Cartesian grid for volume rendering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X–Y scanner allows recording vertical planes arbitrarily rotated around a vertical axis. The signal emanating from the fiber of one arm of an OCT system is sent through an X–Y scanner (consisting of two scanning mirrors SM1 and SM2 and two relay lenses RL1 and RL2) via a collimating lens lens (CL), into a microscope objective (MO) and to the heart (H) inside the sample (S). The inset shows how one 2D OCT image frame (B-scan) is assembled from a collection of 1D signals (A-scans) that record the scattering within the sample along the vertical direction. The double arrow indicates the scanning motion produced by the galvanometer-mounted mirrors that can oscillate around a fixed axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Still of heart phantom (a) Reference image of synthetically generated heart phantom. (b–d) STAR (b) sequentially acquired slices in radial geometry (rotation axis is perpendicular to page), before alignment (c) STAR reconstructed volume (d) absolute difference between reference and reconstruction (e–g) Parallel geometry (e) sequentially acquired slices in parallel geometry, before alignment (f) post-acquisition aligned reconstruction (g) absolute difference between reference and reconstruction. See also Media 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Synchronization error does not accumulate with STAR reconstruction (which synchronizes radial slices that all share common line to the same line in the reference slice) unlike methods that sequentially record parallel-slices at increasing distance (on both sides) of a reference slice then proceed recursively to synchronize the slices. Each point corresponds to the absolute value of the synchronization error for one image sequence, obtained by averaging the absolute errors at all time-points. Error bars correspond to the standard deviation over 100 simulations, divided by 100.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images of the beating embryonic rat heart at 10.5 days of gestation cultured on the imaging stage obtained via Sequential Turning Acquisition and Reconstruction (STAR). (a) Representative cross-sections through the synchronized reconstruction demonstrating the positions of the imaging planes (6 out of 60 angles). (b) XY cross-section of STAR data after polar-to-Cartesian interpolation. See also Media 2, Media 3, and Media 4.

Equations (9)

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I ( x , y , z , t ) I ( x , y , z , t + T ) , t R ,
I θ ( r , z , t ) = I ( r cos θ , r sin θ , z , t + t θ ) ,
Q θ { w } = ( 1 λ ) 0 z m 0 T | I 0 ( 0 , z , t ) I θ ( 0 , z , w ( t ) ) | d t d z + λ 0 T | d d t w ( t ) 1 | d t .
I θ ¯ ( r , z , t ) = I θ ( r , z , w θ ( t ) ) , t [ 0 , T ) .
I ˜ θ ( r , z , t ) = i = 0 N θ j = 0 N r c i , j ( z , t ) β 3 ( θ θ i Δ θ ) β 3 ( r r j Δ r ) ,
β 3 ( x ) = β 0 * β 0 * β 0 * β 0 ( x ) ,
I ˜ θ i ( r j , z , t ) = I θ i ¯ ( r j , z , t ) .
I r ( x , y , z , t ) = I ˜ θ ( x , y ) ( r ( x , y ) , z , t ) ,
( x , y ) ( r ( x , y ) , θ ( x , y ) ) = { ( x 2 + y 2 , atan2( y , x ) ) if 0 atan2( y , x ) π ( x 2 + y 2 , atan2 ( y , x ) ) if  π < atan2 ( y , x ) < 0

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