Abstract

Although the ocular higher order aberrations degrade the retinal image substantially, most studies have investigated their effect on vision only under monocular conditions. Here, we have investigated the impact of binocular higher order aberration correction on visual performance and binocular summation by constructing a binocular adaptive optics (AO) vision simulator. Binocular monochromatic aberration correction using AO improved visual acuity and contrast sensitivity significantly. The improvement however, differed from that achieved under monocular viewing. At high spatial frequency (24 c/deg), the monocular benefit in contrast sensitivity was significantly larger than the benefit achieved binocularly. In addition, binocular summation for higher spatial frequencies was the largest in the presence of subject’s native higher order aberrations and was reduced when these aberrations were corrected. This study thus demonstrates the vast potential of binocular AO vision testing in understanding the impact of ocular optics on habitual binocular vision.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

P. de Gracia, S. Marcos, A. Mathur, and D. A. Atchison, “Contrast sensitivity benefit of adaptive optics correction of ocular aberrations,” J. Vis.11(12), 5 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. N. Vlaskamp, G. Yoon, and M. S. Banks, “Human stereopsis is not limited by the optics of the well-focused eye,” J. Neurosci.31(27), 9814–9818 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

L. Sawides, E. Gambra, D. Pascual, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Visual performance with real-life tasks under adaptive-optics ocular aberration correction,” J. Vis.10(5), 19 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (4)

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, E. Hita, and R. G. Anera, “Upper disparity limit after LASIK,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(6), 1227–1231 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kobayashi, N. Nakazawa, T. Yamaguchi, T. Otaki, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Binocular open-view Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with consecutive measurements of near triad and spherical aberration,” Appl. Opt.47(25), 4619–4626 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vis. Sci.85(3), 174–179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hampson, S. Chin, and E. Mallen, “Binocular Shack–Hartmann sensor for the human eye,” J. Mod. Opt.55(4-5), 703–716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

D. H. Baker, T. S. Meese, B. Mansouri, and R. F. Hess, “Binocular summation of contrast remains intact in strabismic amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(11), 5332–5338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sabesan, K. Ahmad, and G. Yoon, “Correcting highly aberrated eyes using large-stroke adaptive optics,” J. Refract. Surg.23(9), 947–952 (2007).
[PubMed]

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, “Visual performance in emmetropia and low myopia after correction of high-order aberrations,” J. Vis.7(8), 14 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, F. Rodríguez-Marín, and R. Gutiérrez, “Technical note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.27(2), 210–212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sabesan, T. M. Jeong, L. Carvalho, I. G. Cox, D. R. Williams, and G. Yoon, “Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes,” Opt. Lett.32(8), 1000–1002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutiérrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg.22(7), 679–688 (2006).
[PubMed]

2004 (2)

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Dietze and M. J. Cox, “Correcting ocular spherical aberration with soft contact lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A21(4), 473–485 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

S. Pardhan, “Binocular recognition summation in the peripheral visual field: contrast and orientation dependence,” Vision Res.43(11), 1251–1255 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, Z. L. Lu, P. Xu, J. Jin, and Y. Zhou, “Generating high gray-level resolution monochrome displays with conventional computer graphics cards and color monitors,” J. Neurosci. Methods130(1), 9–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. J. Cuesta, R. G. Anera, R. Jiménez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.135(3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci.78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

S. M. MacRae, J. Schwiegerling, and R. Snyder, “Customized corneal ablation and super vision,” J. Refract. Surg.16, S230–S235 (2000).

J. R. Jiménez, J. L. Olivares, F. Pérez-Ocón, and L. J. del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vis. Sci.77(1), 47–50 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bará, and T. Mancebo, “Phase plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye,” Opt. Lett.25(4), 236–238 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

S. Pardhan, “A comparison of binocular summation in young and older patients,” Curr. Eye Res.15(3), 315–319 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. A. Bearse and R. D. Freeman, “Binocular summation in orientation discrimination depends on stimulus contrast and duration,” Vision Res.34(1), 19–29 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

S. Pardhan and J. Gilchristt, “The effect of monocular defocus on binocular contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.10(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Heravian, T. C. Jenkins, and W. A. Douthwaite, “Binocular summation in visually evoked responses and visual acuity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.10(3), 257–261 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res.29(7), 837–847 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lindblom and G. Westheimer, “Binocular summation of hyperacuity tasks,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A6(4), 585–589 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation—I. Detection and discrimination,” Vision Res.24(4), 373–383 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation—II. Quadratic summation,” Vision Res.24(4), 385–394 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys.33(2), 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

R. Home, “Binocular summation: a study of contrast sensitivity, visual acuity and recognition,” Vision Res.18(5), 579–585 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

R. Blake and R. Fox, “The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation,” Percept. Psychophys.14(1), 161–185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature208(5006), 191–192 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmad, K.

R. Sabesan, K. Ahmad, and G. Yoon, “Correcting highly aberrated eyes using large-stroke adaptive optics,” J. Refract. Surg.23(9), 947–952 (2007).
[PubMed]

Anera, R. G.

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, E. Hita, and R. G. Anera, “Upper disparity limit after LASIK,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(6), 1227–1231 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, F. Rodríguez-Marín, and R. Gutiérrez, “Technical note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.27(2), 210–212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutiérrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg.22(7), 679–688 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. R. J. Cuesta, R. G. Anera, R. Jiménez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.135(3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arditi, A.

Artal, P.

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics visual simulator,” Opt. Lett.34(17), 2628–2630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. de Gracia, S. Marcos, A. Mathur, and D. A. Atchison, “Contrast sensitivity benefit of adaptive optics correction of ocular aberrations,” J. Vis.11(12), 5 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, D. H.

D. H. Baker, T. S. Meese, B. Mansouri, and R. F. Hess, “Binocular summation of contrast remains intact in strabismic amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(11), 5332–5338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banks, M. S.

B. N. Vlaskamp, G. Yoon, and M. S. Banks, “Human stereopsis is not limited by the optics of the well-focused eye,” J. Neurosci.31(27), 9814–9818 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banton, T.

Bara, S.

Bará, S.

Bearse, M. A.

M. A. Bearse and R. D. Freeman, “Binocular summation in orientation discrimination depends on stimulus contrast and duration,” Vision Res.34(1), 19–29 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, R.

R. Blake and R. Fox, “The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation,” Percept. Psychophys.14(1), 161–185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

Cagenello, R.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature208(5006), 191–192 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, L.

Castro, J. J.

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vis. Sci.85(3), 174–179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, E. Hita, and R. G. Anera, “Upper disparity limit after LASIK,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(6), 1227–1231 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chateau, N.

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci.78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S.

K. Hampson, S. Chin, and E. Mallen, “Binocular Shack–Hartmann sensor for the human eye,” J. Mod. Opt.55(4-5), 703–716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. S.

Cox, I. G.

Cox, M. J.

Cuesta, J. R. J.

J. R. J. Cuesta, R. G. Anera, R. Jiménez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.135(3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Gracia, P.

P. de Gracia, S. Marcos, A. Mathur, and D. A. Atchison, “Contrast sensitivity benefit of adaptive optics correction of ocular aberrations,” J. Vis.11(12), 5 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

del Barco, L. J.

J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutiérrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg.22(7), 679–688 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. L. Olivares, F. Pérez-Ocón, and L. J. del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vis. Sci.77(1), 47–50 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietze, H. H.

Dorronsoro, C.

L. Sawides, E. Gambra, D. Pascual, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Visual performance with real-life tasks under adaptive-optics ocular aberration correction,” J. Vis.10(5), 19 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douthwaite, W. A.

J. S. Heravian, T. C. Jenkins, and W. A. Douthwaite, “Binocular summation in visually evoked responses and visual acuity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.10(3), 257–261 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

Fernandez, E. J.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernández, E. J.

Fox, R.

R. Blake and R. Fox, “The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation,” Percept. Psychophys.14(1), 161–185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. D.

M. A. Bearse and R. D. Freeman, “Binocular summation in orientation discrimination depends on stimulus contrast and duration,” Vision Res.34(1), 19–29 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambra, E.

L. Sawides, E. Gambra, D. Pascual, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Visual performance with real-life tasks under adaptive-optics ocular aberration correction,” J. Vis.10(5), 19 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannakopoulou, T.

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilchristt, J.

S. Pardhan and J. Gilchristt, “The effect of monocular defocus on binocular contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.10(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature208(5006), 191–192 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutiérrez, R.

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, F. Rodríguez-Marín, and R. Gutiérrez, “Technical note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.27(2), 210–212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutiérrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg.22(7), 679–688 (2006).
[PubMed]

Halpern, D. L.

Hampson, K.

K. Hampson, S. Chin, and E. Mallen, “Binocular Shack–Hartmann sensor for the human eye,” J. Mod. Opt.55(4-5), 703–716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hampson, K. M.

Heckmann, T.

C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res.29(7), 837–847 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heravian, J. S.

J. S. Heravian, T. C. Jenkins, and W. A. Douthwaite, “Binocular summation in visually evoked responses and visual acuity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.10(3), 257–261 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, R. F.

D. H. Baker, T. S. Meese, B. Mansouri, and R. F. Hess, “Binocular summation of contrast remains intact in strabismic amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(11), 5332–5338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirohara, Y.

Hita, E.

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, E. Hita, and R. G. Anera, “Upper disparity limit after LASIK,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(6), 1227–1231 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vis. Sci.85(3), 174–179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Home, R.

R. Home, “Binocular summation: a study of contrast sensitivity, visual acuity and recognition,” Vision Res.18(5), 579–585 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornain, V.

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci.78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, T. C.

J. S. Heravian, T. C. Jenkins, and W. A. Douthwaite, “Binocular summation in visually evoked responses and visual acuity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.10(3), 257–261 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, T. M.

Jiménez, J. R.

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vis. Sci.85(3), 174–179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, E. Hita, and R. G. Anera, “Upper disparity limit after LASIK,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(6), 1227–1231 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, F. Rodríguez-Marín, and R. Gutiérrez, “Technical note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.27(2), 210–212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutiérrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg.22(7), 679–688 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. L. Olivares, F. Pérez-Ocón, and L. J. del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vis. Sci.77(1), 47–50 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiménez, R.

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vis. Sci.85(3), 174–179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. J. Cuesta, R. G. Anera, R. Jiménez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.135(3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, J.

X. Li, Z. L. Lu, P. Xu, J. Jin, and Y. Zhou, “Generating high gray-level resolution monochrome displays with conventional computer graphics cards and color monitors,” J. Neurosci. Methods130(1), 9–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, M.

Legge, G. E.

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation—I. Detection and discrimination,” Vision Res.24(4), 373–383 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation—II. Quadratic summation,” Vision Res.24(4), 385–394 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legras, R.

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci.78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, D. M.

Li, X.

X. Li, Z. L. Lu, P. Xu, J. Jin, and Y. Zhou, “Generating high gray-level resolution monochrome displays with conventional computer graphics cards and color monitors,” J. Neurosci. Methods130(1), 9–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Lindblom, B.

Lu, Z. L.

X. Li, Z. L. Lu, P. Xu, J. Jin, and Y. Zhou, “Generating high gray-level resolution monochrome displays with conventional computer graphics cards and color monitors,” J. Neurosci. Methods130(1), 9–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacRae, S. M.

S. M. MacRae, J. Schwiegerling, and R. Snyder, “Customized corneal ablation and super vision,” J. Refract. Surg.16, S230–S235 (2000).

Mallen, E.

K. Hampson, S. Chin, and E. Mallen, “Binocular Shack–Hartmann sensor for the human eye,” J. Mod. Opt.55(4-5), 703–716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mallen, E. A.

Mancebo, T.

Mansouri, B.

D. H. Baker, T. S. Meese, B. Mansouri, and R. F. Hess, “Binocular summation of contrast remains intact in strabismic amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(11), 5332–5338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzanera, S.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

P. de Gracia, S. Marcos, A. Mathur, and D. A. Atchison, “Contrast sensitivity benefit of adaptive optics correction of ocular aberrations,” J. Vis.11(12), 5 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sawides, E. Gambra, D. Pascual, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Visual performance with real-life tasks under adaptive-optics ocular aberration correction,” J. Vis.10(5), 19 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara, “Contrast improvement of confocal retinal imaging by use of phase-correcting plates,” Opt. Lett.27(6), 400–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathur, A.

P. de Gracia, S. Marcos, A. Mathur, and D. A. Atchison, “Contrast sensitivity benefit of adaptive optics correction of ocular aberrations,” J. Vis.11(12), 5 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meese, T. S.

D. H. Baker, T. S. Meese, B. Mansouri, and R. F. Hess, “Binocular summation of contrast remains intact in strabismic amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(11), 5332–5338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihashi, T.

Miller, D. T.

Monot, A.

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci.78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

Nakazawa, N.

Navarro, R.

Norrby, S.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivares, J. L.

J. R. Jiménez, J. L. Olivares, F. Pérez-Ocón, and L. J. del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vis. Sci.77(1), 47–50 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otaki, T.

Pardhan, S.

S. Pardhan, “Binocular recognition summation in the peripheral visual field: contrast and orientation dependence,” Vision Res.43(11), 1251–1255 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pardhan, “A comparison of binocular summation in young and older patients,” Curr. Eye Res.15(3), 315–319 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pardhan and J. Gilchristt, “The effect of monocular defocus on binocular contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.10(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascual, D.

L. Sawides, E. Gambra, D. Pascual, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Visual performance with real-life tasks under adaptive-optics ocular aberration correction,” J. Vis.10(5), 19 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelli, D. G.

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys.33(2), 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pérez-Ocón, F.

J. R. Jiménez, J. L. Olivares, F. Pérez-Ocón, and L. J. del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vis. Sci.77(1), 47–50 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petratou, D.

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piers, P. A.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plainis, S.

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prieto, P. M.

Rodríguez-Marín, F.

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, F. Rodríguez-Marín, and R. Gutiérrez, “Technical note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.27(2), 210–212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, “Visual performance in emmetropia and low myopia after correction of high-order aberrations,” J. Vis.7(8), 14 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, E. A.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, “Visual performance in emmetropia and low myopia after correction of high-order aberrations,” J. Vis.7(8), 14 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabesan, R.

R. Sabesan and G. Yoon, “Visual performance after correcting higher order aberrations in keratoconic eyes,” J. Vis.9(5), 6, 1–10 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sabesan, K. Ahmad, and G. Yoon, “Correcting highly aberrated eyes using large-stroke adaptive optics,” J. Refract. Surg.23(9), 947–952 (2007).
[PubMed]

R. Sabesan, T. M. Jeong, L. Carvalho, I. G. Cox, D. R. Williams, and G. Yoon, “Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes,” Opt. Lett.32(8), 1000–1002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salas, C.

J. R. J. Cuesta, R. G. Anera, R. Jiménez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.135(3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawides, L.

L. Sawides, E. Gambra, D. Pascual, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Visual performance with real-life tasks under adaptive-optics ocular aberration correction,” J. Vis.10(5), 19 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schor, C.

C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res.29(7), 837–847 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwiegerling, J.

S. M. MacRae, J. Schwiegerling, and R. Snyder, “Customized corneal ablation and super vision,” J. Refract. Surg.16, S230–S235 (2000).

Snyder, R.

S. M. MacRae, J. Schwiegerling, and R. Snyder, “Customized corneal ablation and super vision,” J. Refract. Surg.16, S230–S235 (2000).

Tarrant, J.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, “Visual performance in emmetropia and low myopia after correction of high-order aberrations,” J. Vis.7(8), 14 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsilimbaris, M. K.

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villa, C.

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, F. Rodríguez-Marín, and R. Gutiérrez, “Technical note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.27(2), 210–212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutiérrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg.22(7), 679–688 (2006).
[PubMed]

Vlaskamp, B. N.

B. N. Vlaskamp, G. Yoon, and M. S. Banks, “Human stereopsis is not limited by the optics of the well-focused eye,” J. Neurosci.31(27), 9814–9818 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys.33(2), 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiser, P.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, “Visual performance in emmetropia and low myopia after correction of high-order aberrations,” J. Vis.7(8), 14 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westheimer, G.

Williams, D. R.

Xu, P.

X. Li, Z. L. Lu, P. Xu, J. Jin, and Y. Zhou, “Generating high gray-level resolution monochrome displays with conventional computer graphics cards and color monitors,” J. Neurosci. Methods130(1), 9–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, T.

Yoon, G.

B. N. Vlaskamp, G. Yoon, and M. S. Banks, “Human stereopsis is not limited by the optics of the well-focused eye,” J. Neurosci.31(27), 9814–9818 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sabesan and G. Yoon, “Visual performance after correcting higher order aberrations in keratoconic eyes,” J. Vis.9(5), 6, 1–10 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sabesan, K. Ahmad, and G. Yoon, “Correcting highly aberrated eyes using large-stroke adaptive optics,” J. Refract. Surg.23(9), 947–952 (2007).
[PubMed]

R. Sabesan, T. M. Jeong, L. Carvalho, I. G. Cox, D. R. Williams, and G. Yoon, “Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes,” Opt. Lett.32(8), 1000–1002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, G. Y.

Zhou, Y.

X. Li, Z. L. Lu, P. Xu, J. Jin, and Y. Zhou, “Generating high gray-level resolution monochrome displays with conventional computer graphics cards and color monitors,” J. Neurosci. Methods130(1), 9–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. R. J. Cuesta, R. G. Anera, R. Jiménez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.135(3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

S. Pardhan, “A comparison of binocular summation in young and older patients,” Curr. Eye Res.15(3), 315–319 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

D. H. Baker, T. S. Meese, B. Mansouri, and R. F. Hess, “Binocular summation of contrast remains intact in strabismic amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(11), 5332–5338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Plainis, D. Petratou, T. Giannakopoulou, D. A. Atchison, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(5), 2784–2789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.45(12), 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

K. Hampson, S. Chin, and E. Mallen, “Binocular Shack–Hartmann sensor for the human eye,” J. Mod. Opt.55(4-5), 703–716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. (1)

B. N. Vlaskamp, G. Yoon, and M. S. Banks, “Human stereopsis is not limited by the optics of the well-focused eye,” J. Neurosci.31(27), 9814–9818 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

X. Li, Z. L. Lu, P. Xu, J. Jin, and Y. Zhou, “Generating high gray-level resolution monochrome displays with conventional computer graphics cards and color monitors,” J. Neurosci. Methods130(1), 9–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

J. Refract. Surg. (3)

J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutiérrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg.22(7), 679–688 (2006).
[PubMed]

R. Sabesan, K. Ahmad, and G. Yoon, “Correcting highly aberrated eyes using large-stroke adaptive optics,” J. Refract. Surg.23(9), 947–952 (2007).
[PubMed]

S. M. MacRae, J. Schwiegerling, and R. Snyder, “Customized corneal ablation and super vision,” J. Refract. Surg.16, S230–S235 (2000).

J. Vis. (4)

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, “Visual performance in emmetropia and low myopia after correction of high-order aberrations,” J. Vis.7(8), 14 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sawides, E. Gambra, D. Pascual, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Visual performance with real-life tasks under adaptive-optics ocular aberration correction,” J. Vis.10(5), 19 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. de Gracia, S. Marcos, A. Mathur, and D. A. Atchison, “Contrast sensitivity benefit of adaptive optics correction of ocular aberrations,” J. Vis.11(12), 5 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sabesan and G. Yoon, “Visual performance after correcting higher order aberrations in keratoconic eyes,” J. Vis.9(5), 6, 1–10 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Monocular versus binocular visual acuity,” Nature208(5006), 191–192 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (3)

J. S. Heravian, T. C. Jenkins, and W. A. Douthwaite, “Binocular summation in visually evoked responses and visual acuity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.10(3), 257–261 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, F. Rodríguez-Marín, and R. Gutiérrez, “Technical note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.27(2), 210–212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pardhan and J. Gilchristt, “The effect of monocular defocus on binocular contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.10(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (3)

J. R. Jiménez, J. L. Olivares, F. Pérez-Ocón, and L. J. del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vis. Sci.77(1), 47–50 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vis. Sci.85(3), 174–179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vis. Sci.78(7), 503–509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Percept. Psychophys. (2)

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys.33(2), 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Blake and R. Fox, “The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation,” Percept. Psychophys.14(1), 161–185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (6)

R. Home, “Binocular summation: a study of contrast sensitivity, visual acuity and recognition,” Vision Res.18(5), 579–585 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pardhan, “Binocular recognition summation in the peripheral visual field: contrast and orientation dependence,” Vision Res.43(11), 1251–1255 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Bearse and R. D. Freeman, “Binocular summation in orientation discrimination depends on stimulus contrast and duration,” Vision Res.34(1), 19–29 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res.29(7), 837–847 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation—I. Detection and discrimination,” Vision Res.24(4), 373–383 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Legge, “Binocular contrast summation—II. Quadratic summation,” Vision Res.24(4), 385–394 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. Smith and D. Atchison, The Eye and Visual Optical Instruments (Cambridge University Press, 1997).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the binocular AO system for vision testing. The system consists of two identical monocular channels. Each monocular system consists of a deformable mirror, Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and visual stimulus display.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative time-course of total RMS for (A) SA correction and (B) complete correction during the visual performance testing for 1 subject. Peaks in the time course correspond to blinks.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Binocular visual acuity under the 3 conditions for the 5 subjects and their average. On average, binocular SA correction provided an improvement by a factor of 1.05 while binocular complete correction improved visual acuity by a factor of 1.22 compared to baseline.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Binocular contrast sensitivity under the 3 conditions for the 5 subjects and their average. On average, binocular SA correction led to an average improvement in contrast sensitivity by a factor of 1.1, 1.1, 1.2 and 1.1 at 4, 8, 16 and 24 c/deg, respectively, compared to baseline. At the same frequencies, binocular complete correction improved contrast sensitivity by a factor of 1.2, 1.5, 1.8 and 2.1, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Binocular vs. monocular visual benefit for visual acuity (a) and contrast sensitivity (b)-(e) for different spatial frequencies. Each data point represents the visual benefit for one subject for the complete correction condition under monocular (x-axis) and binocular (y-axis) viewing. The dashed line represents equality in visual benefit between binocular and monocular viewing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Binocular vs. better monocular visual acuity (a) and contrast sensitivity (b)-(e) for the three optical conditions. Each data point represents the visual performance for one subject for one correction condition under monocular (x-axis) and binocular (y-axis) viewing. The dashed line represents equality in visual performance between binocular and monocular viewing.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of optical quality over 6 mm pupil in the 5 subjects for both eyes

Metrics