Abstract

An ultrafast frequency domain optical coherence tomography system was developed at A-scan rates between 2.5 and 10 MHz, a B-scan rate of 4 or 8 kHz, and volume-rates between 12 and 41 volumes/second. In the case of the worst duty ratio of 10%, the averaged A-scan rate was 1 MHz. Two optical demultiplexers at a center wavelength of 1310 nm were used for linear-k spectral dispersion and simultaneous differential signal detection at 320 wavelengths. The depth-range, sensitivity, sensitivity roll-off by 6 dB, and axial resolution were 4 mm, 97 dB, 6 mm, and 23 μm, respectively. Using FPGAs for FFT and a GPU for volume rendering, a real-time 4D display was demonstrated at a rate up to 41 volumes/second for an image size of 256 (axial) × 128 × 128 (lateral) voxels.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

B. I. Akca and L. Chang, “G. Sengo, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Polarization-independent enhanced-resolution arrayed-waveguide grating used in spectral-domain optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 848–850 (2012).

2011 (7)

R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066016 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time intraoperative 4D full-range FD-OCT based on the dual graphics processing units architecture for microsurgery guidance,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 764–770 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging with an integrated optics spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1293–1295 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, P. Bloch, J. Xu, M. V. Sarunic, and L. Shannon, “Performance and scalability of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography acceleration using graphics processing units,” Appl. Opt. 50(13), 1832–1838 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Watanabe, U. M. Rajagopalan, Y. Nakamichi, K. M. Igarashi, H. Kadono, and M. Tanifuji, “Swept source optical coherence tomography as a tool for real time visualization and localization of electrodes used in electrophysiological studies of brain in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(11), 3129–3134 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (12)

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sylwestrzak, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, and P. Targowski, “Real-time imaging for spectral optical coherence tomography with massively parallel data processing,” Photonics Lett. Poland 2, 137–139 (2010).

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11772–11784 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe, S. Maeno, K. Aoshima, H. Hasegawa, and H. Koseki, “Real-time processing for full-range Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography with zero-filling interpolation using multiple graphic processing units,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), 4756–4762 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ma, A. Liu, X. Yin, A. Troyer, K. Thornburg, R. K. Wang, and S. Rugonyi, “Measurement of absolute blood flow velocity in outflow tract of HH18 chicken embryo based on 4D reconstruction using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 798–811 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, J. P. Ehlers, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography for vitreoretinal surgery,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3315–3317 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bonin, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo Fourier-domain full-field OCT of the human retina with 1.5 million A-lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3432–3434 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Graphics processing unit accelerated non-uniform fast Fourier transform for ultrahigh-speed, real-time Fourier-domain OCT,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23472–23487 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, J. Schmitt, Q. Huang, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy of the human colon using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(2), 784–796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, D. L. Wilson, and A. M. Rollins, “High temporal resolution OCT using image-based retrospective gating,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10786–10799 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, T. Xie, and Z. Chen, “Real-time polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography data processing with parallel computing,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6365–6370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Just, E. Lankenau, G. Hüttmann, and H. W. Pau, “Intra-operative application of optical coherence tomography with an operating microscope,” J. Laryngol. Otol. 123(09), 1027–1030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060506 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

2007 (1)

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

G. Geerling, M. Müller, C. Winter, H. Hoerauf, S. Oelckers, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Intraoperative 2-dimensional optical coherence tomography as a new tool for anterior segment surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(2), 253–257 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Amano, H. Hiro-Oka, D. Choi, H. Furukawa, F. Kano, M. Takeda, M. Nakanishi, K. Shimizu, and K. Ohbayashi, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry with a rapid wavelength-scanning superstructure-grating distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Appl. Opt. 44(5), 808–816 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Y. Yang, S. Whiteman, D. G. van Pittius, Y. He, R. K. Wang, and M. A. Spiteri, “Use of optical coherence tomography in delineating airways microstructure: comparison of OCT images to histopathological sections,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1247–1255 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

N. A. Olsson, “Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(7), 1071–1082 (1989).
[Crossref]

Adler, D. C.

Akca, B. I.

B. I. Akca and L. Chang, “G. Sengo, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Polarization-independent enhanced-resolution arrayed-waveguide grating used in spectral-domain optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 848–850 (2012).

V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging with an integrated optics spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1293–1295 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amano, T.

An, L.

Aoshima, K.

Bajraszewski, T.

Barry, S.

Baumann, B.

Biedermann, B. R.

Birngruber, R.

G. Geerling, M. Müller, C. Winter, H. Hoerauf, S. Oelckers, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Intraoperative 2-dimensional optical coherence tomography as a new tool for anterior segment surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(2), 253–257 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloch, P.

Bonin, T.

Bouma, B. E.

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, “Technology Insight: optical coherence tomography--current status and future development,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 3(3), 154–162, quiz 172 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradu, A.

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Chang, L.

B. I. Akca and L. Chang, “G. Sengo, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Polarization-independent enhanced-resolution arrayed-waveguide grating used in spectral-domain optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 848–850 (2012).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, T. Xie, and Z. Chen, “Real-time polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography data processing with parallel computing,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6365–6370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, D.

de Ridder, R. M.

Desjardins, A. E.

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
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T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
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R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066016 (2011).
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Hammer, D. X.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
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Y. Yang, S. Whiteman, D. G. van Pittius, Y. He, R. K. Wang, and M. A. Spiteri, “Use of optical coherence tomography in delineating airways microstructure: comparison of OCT images to histopathological sections,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1247–1255 (2004).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Hoerauf, H.

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T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
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T. Bonin, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo Fourier-domain full-field OCT of the human retina with 1.5 million A-lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3432–3434 (2010).
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J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
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Kowalczyk, A.

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J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
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G. Geerling, M. Müller, C. Winter, H. Hoerauf, S. Oelckers, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Intraoperative 2-dimensional optical coherence tomography as a new tool for anterior segment surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(2), 253–257 (2005).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Müller, M.

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S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030511 (2010).
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Potsaid, B.

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J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
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B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
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J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026014 (2010).
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IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

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J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

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M. W. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. P. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, “4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(2), 736–748 (2006).
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D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, J. Schmitt, Q. Huang, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy of the human colon using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(2), 784–796 (2009).
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Supplementary Material (10)

» Media 1: AVI (2875 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3138 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (3297 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3681 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (3572 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (3847 KB)     
» Media 7: AVI (3899 KB)     
» Media 8: AVI (3629 KB)     
» Media 9: AVI (2388 KB)     
» Media 10: AVI (4035 KB)     

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration of our system. In inset (a), spectral shape of light at output of FIL is shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)-type optical demultiplexer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of optical frequency on channel number. (a) Optical demultiplexer (AWG) OD+, (b) Optical demultiplexer (AWG) OD−.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Superposed spectra observed at selected channels (1, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320) of optical demultiplexer (AWG) OD+.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectra observed at 160-channel of two optical demultiplexers; OD+ : red, OD−: blue. (b) Plot of spectrum observed at channel 160 of optical demultiplexer OD+ with linear vertical scale.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of attenuation on channel number are shown for (a) optical demultiplexer OD+ and (b) optical demultiplexer OD−. Dependence of non-adjacent background crosstalk on channel number are shown for (c) optical demultiplexer (AWG) OD+ and (d) optical demultiplexer (AWG) OD−.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Block diagram of A/D converter array and ultrafast data processing system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example of screen image of ultrafast real-time 4D OCT system.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect of normalization of interference signal. (a) Interference signal before normalization. (b) Interference signal after normalization. (c) Power spectrum before normalization. (d) Power spectrum after normalization.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Experimental system for sensitivity measurement using semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA2). (b) Measurements of noise and signal (54 nW) as function of reference power to determine sensitivity.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Point spread function as function of axial depth. (b) Axial resolution measurement; A (black): apodization with Hanning window, B (red): apodization with rectangular window.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Representative frames of videos of 4D real-time OCT display. Videos of miosis of human eye responding to on-off of pen light: (a) only 3D-rendered image (Media 1), (b) simultaneous display of three images (Media 2). (d) Video of deformation of rubber band (photo (c)) following repeated change in stretching length (Media 3). Videos of human thumb skin: (e) Virtual cutting at surface perpendicular to lateral axis (Media 4, perpendicular to fast axis; Media 5, perpendicular to slow axis), (f) virtual cutting at surface perpendicular to depth axis (Media 6), (g) horizontal rotation (Media 7), (h) vertical rotation (Media 8).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Representative image of video showing a series of 3D images of porcine trachea as we move the cutting surface in transverse direction (Media 9). (b) Representative image of video showing a series of cross-sectional images in transverse direction (Media 10). M represents mucosa region; SM: submucosa region; C: cartilage; and PC: perichondrium.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) A rendered 3D image of the human middle finger recorded at a volume rate of 41 volumes/second. (b) A B-scan image selected from the 3D image.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Volume rates (volumes/second) and voxel rates (MVoxels/second) of real-time processing. Voxel rates are in parentheses.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Volume rates (volumes/second) and the voxel rates (MVoxels/second) of recording. Voxel rates are in parentheses.

Metrics