Abstract

Custom high-resolution high-speed anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to characterize three-dimensionally (3-D) the human crystalline lens in vivo. The system was provided with custom algorithms for denoising and segmentation of the images, as well as for fan (scanning) and optical (refraction) distortion correction, to provide fully quantitative images of the anterior and posterior crystalline lens surfaces. The method was tested on an artificial eye with known surfaces geometry and on a human lens in vitro, and demonstrated on three human lenses in vivo. Not correcting for distortion overestimated the anterior lens radius by 25% and the posterior lens radius by more than 65%. In vivo lens surfaces were fitted by biconicoids and Zernike polynomials after distortion correction. The anterior lens radii of curvature ranged from 10.27 to 14.14 mm, and the posterior lens radii of curvature ranged from 6.12 to 7.54 mm. Surface asphericities ranged from −0.04 to −1.96. The lens surfaces were well fitted by quadrics (with variation smaller than 2%, for 5-mm pupils), with low amounts of high order terms. Surface lens astigmatism was significant, with the anterior lens typically showing horizontal astigmatism (Z22 ranging from −11 to −1 µm) and the posterior lens showing vertical astigmatism (Z22 ranging from 6 to 10 µm).

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, E. Gambra, S. Ortiz, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, F. Manns, S. Marcos, and J. M. Parel, “Distortion correction of OCT images of the crystalline lens: gradient index approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E709–E718 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, P. Pérez-Merino, N. Alejandre, E. Gambra, I. Jimenez-Alfaro, and S. Marcos, “Quantitative OCT-based corneal topography in keratoconus with intracorneal ring segments,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 814–824 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, P. Pérez-Merino, N. Chia, A. de Castro, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Corneal topography from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(12), 3232–3247 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kim, K. Ehrmann, S. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, E. Arrieta-Quintero, and J. M. Parel, “Semiautomated analysis of optical coherence tomography crystalline lens images under simulated accommodation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 056003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Maceo, F. Manns, D. Borja, D. Nankivil, S. Uhlhorn, E. Arrieta, A. Ho, R. C. Augusteyn, and J. M. Parel, “Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies,” J. Vis. 11(13), 23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, S. Barbero, S. Ortiz, and S. Marcos, “Accuracy of the reconstruction of the crystalline lens gradient index with optimization methods from ray tracing and Optical Coherence Tomography data,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19265–19279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J. M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the Gradient Index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Karnowski, B. J. Kaluzny, M. Szkulmowski, M. Gora, and M. Wojtkowski, “Corneal topography with high-speed swept source OCT in clinical examination,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2709–2720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Birkenfeld, A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, P. Pérez-Merino, E. Gambra, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the isolated human crystalline lens gradient index distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, E-Abstract 3404 (2011).

S. Kasthurirangan, E. L. Markwell, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “MRI study of the changes in crystalline lens shape with accommodation and aging in humans,” J. Vis. 11(3), 19 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (9)

A. Pérez-Escudero, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Correlation between radius and asphericity in surfaces fitted by conics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(7), 1541–1548 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Berrio, J. Tabernero, and P. Artal, “Optical aberrations and alignment of the eye with age,” J. Vis. 10(14), 34 (2010).

E. Acosta, J. M. Bueno, C. Schwarz, and P. Artal, “Relationship between wave aberrations and histological features in ex vivo porcine crystalline lenses,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 055001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yadav, K. Ahmad, and G. Yoon, “Scanning system design for large scan depth anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1774–1776 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, M. R. Wang, Y. Yuan, F. Chen, C. L. Karp, S. H. Yoo, and J. Wang, “SD-OCT with prolonged scan depth for imaging the anterior segment of the eye,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 41(6Suppl), S65–S69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, E. Gambra, D. Siedlecki, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the crystalline lens gradient index distribution from OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21905–21917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Borja, D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, S. Uhlhorn, S. Ortiz, E. Arrieta, J. M. Parel, S. Marcos, and F. Manns, “Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1331–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, I. Grulkowski, L. Remon, D. Pascual, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Optical distortion correction in optical coherence tomography for quantitative ocular anterior segment by three-dimensional imaging,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2782–2796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zhao, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “3D refraction correction and extraction of clinical parameters from spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the cornea,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8923–8936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

2008 (3)

P. Rosales, M. Wendt, S. Marcos, and A. Glasser, “Changes in crystalline lens radii of curvature and lens tilt and decentration during dynamic accommodation in rhesus monkeys,” J. Vis. 8(1), 18, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, F. Manns, and J. M. Parel, “Refractive index measurement of the isolated crystalline lens using optical coherence tomography,” Vision Res. 48(27), 2732–2738 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, P. Rosales, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Balance of corneal horizontal coma by internal optics in eyes with intraocular artificial lenses: evidence of a passive mechanism,” Vision Res. 48(1), 70–79 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. de Castro, P. Rosales, and S. Marcos, “Tilt and decentration of intraocular lenses in vivo from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging. Validation study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(3), 418–429 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. M. Dunne, L. N. Davies, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Accuracy of cornea and lens biometry using anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and R. van der Heijde, “Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging,” J. Vis. 6(10), 5 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Phakometry and lens tilt and decentration using a custom-developed Purkinje imaging apparatus: validation and measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 509–520 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rosen, D. B. Denham, V. Fernandez, D. Borja, A. Ho, F. Manns, J. M. Parel, and R. C. Augusteyn, “In vitro dimensions and curvatures of human lenses,” Vision Res. 46(6-7), 1002–1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. Dubbelman, G. L. Van der Heijde, and H. A. Weeber, “Change in shape of the aging human crystalline lens with accommodation,” Vision Res. 45(1), 117–132 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res. 45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

J. E. Koretz, S. A. Strenk, L. M. Strenk, and J. L. Semmlow, “Scheimpflug and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior segment: a comparative study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(3), 346–354 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Manns, V. Fernandez, S. Zipper, S. Sandadi, M. Hamaoui, A. Ho, and J. M. Parel, “Radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surface of human cadaver crystalline lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 78(1), 39–51 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Farid and E. P. Simoncelli, “Differentiation of discrete multidimensional signals,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 496–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Kelly, T. Mihashi, and H. C. Howland, “Compensation of corneal horizontal/vertical astigmatism, lateral coma, and spherical aberration by internal optics of the eye,” J. Vis. 4(4), 2 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda and A. Glasser, “Wave aberrations of the isolated crystalline lens,” J. Vis. 4(4), 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. S. Vilupuru and A. Glasser, “Dynamic accommodative changes in rhesus monkey eyes assessed with A-scan ultrasound biometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(5), 383–394 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, “Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80(4), 379–383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, E. Berrio, A. Guirao, and P. Piers, “Contribution of the cornea and internal surfaces to the change of ocular aberrations with age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(1), 137–143 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and J. Merayo-Lloves, “Corneal and total optical aberrations in a unilateral aphakic patient,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28(9), 1594–1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, K. Thompson, and S. A. Burns, “Pupil location under mesopic, photopic, and pharmacologically dilated conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(7), 2508–2512 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Dubbelman and G. L. Van der Heijde, “The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,” Vision Res. 41(14), 1867–1877 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dubbelman, G. L. van der Heijde, and H. A. Weeber, “The thickness of the aging human lens obtained from corrected Scheimpflug images,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(6), 411–416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Biometric, optical and physical changes in the isolated human crystalline lens with age in relation to presbyopia,” Vision Res. 39(11), 1991–2015 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Glasser and P. L. Kaufman, “The mechanism of accommodation in primates,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 863–872 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Möller and J. F. Hughes, “Efficiently building a matrix to rotate one vector to another,” J Graphics Tools 4(4), 1–4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (4)

L. F. Garner and M. K. Yap, “Changes in ocular dimensions and refraction with accommodation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17(1), 12–17 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Garner, “Calculation of the radii of curvature of the crystalline lens surfaces,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17(1), 75–80 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Goss, H. G. Van Veen, B. B. Rainey, and B. Feng, “Ocular components measured by keratometry, phakometry, and ultrasonography in emmetropic and myopic optometry students,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 489–495 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liou and N. A. Brennan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modelling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(8), 1684–1695 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

Y. Sakamoto, K. Sasaki, Y. Nakamura, and N. Watanabe, “Reproducibility of data obtained by a newly developed anterior eye segment analysis system, EAS-1000,” Ophthalmic Res. 24(Suppl 1), 10–20 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

G. Smith, B. K. Pierscionek, and D. A. Atchison, “The optical modelling of the human lens,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11(4), 359–369 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

P. Kiely, G. Smith, and L. Carney, “The mean shape of the human cornea,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 29(8), 1027–1040 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1855 (1)

H. Helmholtz, “Ueber die accommodation des auges,” Arch. Ophthal. 1, 1–74 (1855).

Acosta, E.

E. Acosta, J. M. Bueno, C. Schwarz, and P. Artal, “Relationship between wave aberrations and histological features in ex vivo porcine crystalline lenses,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 055001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmad, K.

Alejandre, N.

Arrieta, E.

B. M. Maceo, F. Manns, D. Borja, D. Nankivil, S. Uhlhorn, E. Arrieta, A. Ho, R. C. Augusteyn, and J. M. Parel, “Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies,” J. Vis. 11(13), 23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Borja, D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, S. Uhlhorn, S. Ortiz, E. Arrieta, J. M. Parel, S. Marcos, and F. Manns, “Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1331–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arrieta-Quintero, E.

E. Kim, K. Ehrmann, S. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, E. Arrieta-Quintero, and J. M. Parel, “Semiautomated analysis of optical coherence tomography crystalline lens images under simulated accommodation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 056003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

E. Berrio, J. Tabernero, and P. Artal, “Optical aberrations and alignment of the eye with age,” J. Vis. 10(14), 34 (2010).

E. Acosta, J. M. Bueno, C. Schwarz, and P. Artal, “Relationship between wave aberrations and histological features in ex vivo porcine crystalline lenses,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 055001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, E. Berrio, A. Guirao, and P. Piers, “Contribution of the cornea and internal surfaces to the change of ocular aberrations with age,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(1), 137–143 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

S. Kasthurirangan, E. L. Markwell, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “MRI study of the changes in crystalline lens shape with accommodation and aging in humans,” J. Vis. 11(3), 19 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res. 45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Smith, B. K. Pierscionek, and D. A. Atchison, “The optical modelling of the human lens,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11(4), 359–369 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augusteyn, R. C.

B. M. Maceo, F. Manns, D. Borja, D. Nankivil, S. Uhlhorn, E. Arrieta, A. Ho, R. C. Augusteyn, and J. M. Parel, “Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies,” J. Vis. 11(13), 23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rosen, D. B. Denham, V. Fernandez, D. Borja, A. Ho, F. Manns, J. M. Parel, and R. C. Augusteyn, “In vitro dimensions and curvatures of human lenses,” Vision Res. 46(6-7), 1002–1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbero, S.

A. de Castro, S. Barbero, S. Ortiz, and S. Marcos, “Accuracy of the reconstruction of the crystalline lens gradient index with optimization methods from ray tracing and Optical Coherence Tomography data,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19265–19279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, P. Rosales, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Balance of corneal horizontal coma by internal optics in eyes with intraocular artificial lenses: evidence of a passive mechanism,” Vision Res. 48(1), 70–79 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and J. Merayo-Lloves, “Corneal and total optical aberrations in a unilateral aphakic patient,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28(9), 1594–1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berrio, E.

Birkenfeld, J.

J. Birkenfeld, A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, P. Pérez-Merino, E. Gambra, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the isolated human crystalline lens gradient index distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, E-Abstract 3404 (2011).

Borja, D.

D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, E. Gambra, S. Ortiz, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, F. Manns, S. Marcos, and J. M. Parel, “Distortion correction of OCT images of the crystalline lens: gradient index approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E709–E718 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J. M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the Gradient Index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Maceo, F. Manns, D. Borja, D. Nankivil, S. Uhlhorn, E. Arrieta, A. Ho, R. C. Augusteyn, and J. M. Parel, “Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies,” J. Vis. 11(13), 23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kim, K. Ehrmann, S. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, E. Arrieta-Quintero, and J. M. Parel, “Semiautomated analysis of optical coherence tomography crystalline lens images under simulated accommodation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 056003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Borja, D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, S. Uhlhorn, S. Ortiz, E. Arrieta, J. M. Parel, S. Marcos, and F. Manns, “Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1331–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, F. Manns, and J. M. Parel, “Refractive index measurement of the isolated crystalline lens using optical coherence tomography,” Vision Res. 48(27), 2732–2738 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rosen, D. B. Denham, V. Fernandez, D. Borja, A. Ho, F. Manns, J. M. Parel, and R. C. Augusteyn, “In vitro dimensions and curvatures of human lenses,” Vision Res. 46(6-7), 1002–1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brennan, N. A.

Bueno, J. M.

E. Acosta, J. M. Bueno, C. Schwarz, and P. Artal, “Relationship between wave aberrations and histological features in ex vivo porcine crystalline lenses,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 055001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Y. Yang, K. Thompson, and S. A. Burns, “Pupil location under mesopic, photopic, and pharmacologically dilated conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(7), 2508–2512 (2002).
[PubMed]

Campbell, M. C. W.

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Biometric, optical and physical changes in the isolated human crystalline lens with age in relation to presbyopia,” Vision Res. 39(11), 1991–2015 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38(2), 209–229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carney, L.

P. Kiely, G. Smith, and L. Carney, “The mean shape of the human cornea,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 29(8), 1027–1040 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

M. Shen, M. R. Wang, Y. Yuan, F. Chen, C. L. Karp, S. H. Yoo, and J. Wang, “SD-OCT with prolonged scan depth for imaging the anterior segment of the eye,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 41(6Suppl), S65–S69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chia, N.

Cook, C. A.

Davies, L. N.

M. C. M. Dunne, L. N. Davies, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Accuracy of cornea and lens biometry using anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Castro, A.

D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, E. Gambra, S. Ortiz, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, F. Manns, S. Marcos, and J. M. Parel, “Distortion correction of OCT images of the crystalline lens: gradient index approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E709–E718 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J. M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the Gradient Index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Birkenfeld, A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, P. Pérez-Merino, E. Gambra, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the isolated human crystalline lens gradient index distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, E-Abstract 3404 (2011).

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, P. Pérez-Merino, N. Chia, A. de Castro, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Corneal topography from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(12), 3232–3247 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, S. Barbero, S. Ortiz, and S. Marcos, “Accuracy of the reconstruction of the crystalline lens gradient index with optimization methods from ray tracing and Optical Coherence Tomography data,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19265–19279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Borja, D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, S. Uhlhorn, S. Ortiz, E. Arrieta, J. M. Parel, S. Marcos, and F. Manns, “Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1331–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, E. Gambra, D. Siedlecki, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the crystalline lens gradient index distribution from OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21905–21917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, P. Rosales, and S. Marcos, “Tilt and decentration of intraocular lenses in vivo from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging. Validation study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(3), 418–429 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denham, D. B.

A. M. Rosen, D. B. Denham, V. Fernandez, D. Borja, A. Ho, F. Manns, J. M. Parel, and R. C. Augusteyn, “In vitro dimensions and curvatures of human lenses,” Vision Res. 46(6-7), 1002–1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorronsoro, C.

Dubbelman, M.

E. A. Hermans, P. J. Pouwels, M. Dubbelman, J. P. Kuijer, R. G. van der Heijde, and R. M. Heethaar, “Constant volume of the human lens and decrease in surface area of the capsular bag during accommodation: an MRI and Scheimpflug study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 281–289 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and R. van der Heijde, “Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging,” J. Vis. 6(10), 5 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dubbelman, G. L. Van der Heijde, and H. A. Weeber, “Change in shape of the aging human crystalline lens with accommodation,” Vision Res. 45(1), 117–132 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, “Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80(4), 379–383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dubbelman, G. L. van der Heijde, and H. A. Weeber, “The thickness of the aging human lens obtained from corrected Scheimpflug images,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(6), 411–416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dubbelman and G. L. Van der Heijde, “The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,” Vision Res. 41(14), 1867–1877 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunne, M. C. M.

M. C. M. Dunne, L. N. Davies, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Accuracy of cornea and lens biometry using anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehrmann, K.

E. Kim, K. Ehrmann, S. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, E. Arrieta-Quintero, and J. M. Parel, “Semiautomated analysis of optical coherence tomography crystalline lens images under simulated accommodation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 056003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farid, H.

H. Farid and E. P. Simoncelli, “Differentiation of discrete multidimensional signals,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 496–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, B.

D. A. Goss, H. G. Van Veen, B. B. Rainey, and B. Feng, “Ocular components measured by keratometry, phakometry, and ultrasonography in emmetropic and myopic optometry students,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 489–495 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez, V.

A. M. Rosen, D. B. Denham, V. Fernandez, D. Borja, A. Ho, F. Manns, J. M. Parel, and R. C. Augusteyn, “In vitro dimensions and curvatures of human lenses,” Vision Res. 46(6-7), 1002–1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Manns, V. Fernandez, S. Zipper, S. Sandadi, M. Hamaoui, A. Ho, and J. M. Parel, “Radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surface of human cadaver crystalline lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 78(1), 39–51 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambra, E.

D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, E. Gambra, S. Ortiz, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, F. Manns, S. Marcos, and J. M. Parel, “Distortion correction of OCT images of the crystalline lens: gradient index approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E709–E718 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, P. Pérez-Merino, N. Alejandre, E. Gambra, I. Jimenez-Alfaro, and S. Marcos, “Quantitative OCT-based corneal topography in keratoconus with intracorneal ring segments,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 814–824 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Birkenfeld, A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, P. Pérez-Merino, E. Gambra, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the isolated human crystalline lens gradient index distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, E-Abstract 3404 (2011).

A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, E. Gambra, D. Siedlecki, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the crystalline lens gradient index distribution from OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21905–21917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garner, L. F.

L. F. Garner, “Calculation of the radii of curvature of the crystalline lens surfaces,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17(1), 75–80 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Garner and M. K. Yap, “Changes in ocular dimensions and refraction with accommodation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17(1), 12–17 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glasser, A.

P. Rosales, M. Wendt, S. Marcos, and A. Glasser, “Changes in crystalline lens radii of curvature and lens tilt and decentration during dynamic accommodation in rhesus monkeys,” J. Vis. 8(1), 18, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda and A. Glasser, “Wave aberrations of the isolated crystalline lens,” J. Vis. 4(4), 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Vilupuru and A. Glasser, “Dynamic accommodative changes in rhesus monkey eyes assessed with A-scan ultrasound biometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(5), 383–394 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Biometric, optical and physical changes in the isolated human crystalline lens with age in relation to presbyopia,” Vision Res. 39(11), 1991–2015 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Glasser and P. L. Kaufman, “The mechanism of accommodation in primates,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 863–872 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38(2), 209–229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gora, M.

Gorczynska, I.

Goss, D. A.

D. A. Goss, H. G. Van Veen, B. B. Rainey, and B. Feng, “Ocular components measured by keratometry, phakometry, and ultrasonography in emmetropic and myopic optometry students,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 489–495 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greivenkamp, J. E.

Grulkowski, I.

Guirao, A.

Hamaoui, M.

F. Manns, V. Fernandez, S. Zipper, S. Sandadi, M. Hamaoui, A. Ho, and J. M. Parel, “Radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surface of human cadaver crystalline lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 78(1), 39–51 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heethaar, R. M.

E. A. Hermans, P. J. Pouwels, M. Dubbelman, J. P. Kuijer, R. G. van der Heijde, and R. M. Heethaar, “Constant volume of the human lens and decrease in surface area of the capsular bag during accommodation: an MRI and Scheimpflug study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 281–289 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmholtz, H.

H. Helmholtz, “Ueber die accommodation des auges,” Arch. Ophthal. 1, 1–74 (1855).

Hermans, E. A.

E. A. Hermans, P. J. Pouwels, M. Dubbelman, J. P. Kuijer, R. G. van der Heijde, and R. M. Heethaar, “Constant volume of the human lens and decrease in surface area of the capsular bag during accommodation: an MRI and Scheimpflug study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 281–289 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, A.

B. M. Maceo, F. Manns, D. Borja, D. Nankivil, S. Uhlhorn, E. Arrieta, A. Ho, R. C. Augusteyn, and J. M. Parel, “Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies,” J. Vis. 11(13), 23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rosen, D. B. Denham, V. Fernandez, D. Borja, A. Ho, F. Manns, J. M. Parel, and R. C. Augusteyn, “In vitro dimensions and curvatures of human lenses,” Vision Res. 46(6-7), 1002–1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Manns, V. Fernandez, S. Zipper, S. Sandadi, M. Hamaoui, A. Ho, and J. M. Parel, “Radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surface of human cadaver crystalline lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 78(1), 39–51 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howland, H. C.

J. E. Kelly, T. Mihashi, and H. C. Howland, “Compensation of corneal horizontal/vertical astigmatism, lateral coma, and spherical aberration by internal optics of the eye,” J. Vis. 4(4), 2 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Hughes, J. F.

T. Möller and J. F. Hughes, “Efficiently building a matrix to rotate one vector to another,” J Graphics Tools 4(4), 1–4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Jimenez-Alfaro, I.

Jiménez-Alfaro, I.

S. Marcos, P. Rosales, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Balance of corneal horizontal coma by internal optics in eyes with intraocular artificial lenses: evidence of a passive mechanism,” Vision Res. 48(1), 70–79 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, C. E.

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res. 45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaluzny, B. J.

Karnowski, K.

Karp, C. L.

M. Shen, M. R. Wang, Y. Yuan, F. Chen, C. L. Karp, S. H. Yoo, and J. Wang, “SD-OCT with prolonged scan depth for imaging the anterior segment of the eye,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 41(6Suppl), S65–S69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasthurirangan, S.

S. Kasthurirangan, E. L. Markwell, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “MRI study of the changes in crystalline lens shape with accommodation and aging in humans,” J. Vis. 11(3), 19 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, P. L.

A. Glasser and P. L. Kaufman, “The mechanism of accommodation in primates,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 863–872 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, J. E.

J. E. Kelly, T. Mihashi, and H. C. Howland, “Compensation of corneal horizontal/vertical astigmatism, lateral coma, and spherical aberration by internal optics of the eye,” J. Vis. 4(4), 2 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiely, P.

P. Kiely, G. Smith, and L. Carney, “The mean shape of the human cornea,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 29(8), 1027–1040 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.

E. Kim, K. Ehrmann, S. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, E. Arrieta-Quintero, and J. M. Parel, “Semiautomated analysis of optical coherence tomography crystalline lens images under simulated accommodation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 056003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koretz, J. E.

Koretz, J. F.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kuijer, J. P.

E. A. Hermans, P. J. Pouwels, M. Dubbelman, J. P. Kuijer, R. G. van der Heijde, and R. M. Heethaar, “Constant volume of the human lens and decrease in surface area of the capsular bag during accommodation: an MRI and Scheimpflug study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 281–289 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, A. N.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liou, H.

Llorente, L.

S. Marcos, P. Rosales, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Balance of corneal horizontal coma by internal optics in eyes with intraocular artificial lenses: evidence of a passive mechanism,” Vision Res. 48(1), 70–79 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maceo, B. M.

B. M. Maceo, F. Manns, D. Borja, D. Nankivil, S. Uhlhorn, E. Arrieta, A. Ho, R. C. Augusteyn, and J. M. Parel, “Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies,” J. Vis. 11(13), 23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manns, F.

D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, E. Gambra, S. Ortiz, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, F. Manns, S. Marcos, and J. M. Parel, “Distortion correction of OCT images of the crystalline lens: gradient index approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E709–E718 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J. M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the Gradient Index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Maceo, F. Manns, D. Borja, D. Nankivil, S. Uhlhorn, E. Arrieta, A. Ho, R. C. Augusteyn, and J. M. Parel, “Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies,” J. Vis. 11(13), 23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Borja, D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, S. Uhlhorn, S. Ortiz, E. Arrieta, J. M. Parel, S. Marcos, and F. Manns, “Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1331–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, F. Manns, and J. M. Parel, “Refractive index measurement of the isolated crystalline lens using optical coherence tomography,” Vision Res. 48(27), 2732–2738 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rosen, D. B. Denham, V. Fernandez, D. Borja, A. Ho, F. Manns, J. M. Parel, and R. C. Augusteyn, “In vitro dimensions and curvatures of human lenses,” Vision Res. 46(6-7), 1002–1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Manns, V. Fernandez, S. Zipper, S. Sandadi, M. Hamaoui, A. Ho, and J. M. Parel, “Radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surface of human cadaver crystalline lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 78(1), 39–51 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, E. Gambra, S. Ortiz, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, F. Manns, S. Marcos, and J. M. Parel, “Distortion correction of OCT images of the crystalline lens: gradient index approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E709–E718 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, P. Pérez-Merino, N. Alejandre, E. Gambra, I. Jimenez-Alfaro, and S. Marcos, “Quantitative OCT-based corneal topography in keratoconus with intracorneal ring segments,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 814–824 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, P. Pérez-Merino, N. Chia, A. de Castro, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Corneal topography from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(12), 3232–3247 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, S. Barbero, S. Ortiz, and S. Marcos, “Accuracy of the reconstruction of the crystalline lens gradient index with optimization methods from ray tracing and Optical Coherence Tomography data,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19265–19279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Birkenfeld, A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, P. Pérez-Merino, E. Gambra, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the isolated human crystalline lens gradient index distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, E-Abstract 3404 (2011).

A. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J. M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the Gradient Index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, I. Grulkowski, L. Remon, D. Pascual, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Optical distortion correction in optical coherence tomography for quantitative ocular anterior segment by three-dimensional imaging,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2782–2796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Borja, D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, S. Uhlhorn, S. Ortiz, E. Arrieta, J. M. Parel, S. Marcos, and F. Manns, “Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1331–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, E. Gambra, D. Siedlecki, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the crystalline lens gradient index distribution from OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21905–21917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pérez-Escudero, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Correlation between radius and asphericity in surfaces fitted by conics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(7), 1541–1548 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Optical coherence tomography for quantitative surface topography,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6708–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional ray tracing on Delaunay-based reconstructed surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3886–3893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Pentacam Scheimpflug quantitative imaging of the crystalline lens and intraocular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 25(5), 421–428 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales, M. Wendt, S. Marcos, and A. Glasser, “Changes in crystalline lens radii of curvature and lens tilt and decentration during dynamic accommodation in rhesus monkeys,” J. Vis. 8(1), 18, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, P. Rosales, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Balance of corneal horizontal coma by internal optics in eyes with intraocular artificial lenses: evidence of a passive mechanism,” Vision Res. 48(1), 70–79 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, P. Rosales, and S. Marcos, “Tilt and decentration of intraocular lenses in vivo from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging. Validation study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(3), 418–429 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and R. van der Heijde, “Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging,” J. Vis. 6(10), 5 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Phakometry and lens tilt and decentration using a custom-developed Purkinje imaging apparatus: validation and measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 509–520 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and J. Merayo-Lloves, “Corneal and total optical aberrations in a unilateral aphakic patient,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28(9), 1594–1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markwell, E. L.

S. Kasthurirangan, E. L. Markwell, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “MRI study of the changes in crystalline lens shape with accommodation and aging in humans,” J. Vis. 11(3), 19 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meder, R.

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res. 45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merayo-Lloves, J.

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and J. Merayo-Lloves, “Corneal and total optical aberrations in a unilateral aphakic patient,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28(9), 1594–1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihashi, T.

J. E. Kelly, T. Mihashi, and H. C. Howland, “Compensation of corneal horizontal/vertical astigmatism, lateral coma, and spherical aberration by internal optics of the eye,” J. Vis. 4(4), 2 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, J. M.

Möller, T.

T. Möller and J. F. Hughes, “Efficiently building a matrix to rotate one vector to another,” J Graphics Tools 4(4), 1–4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Y.

Y. Sakamoto, K. Sasaki, Y. Nakamura, and N. Watanabe, “Reproducibility of data obtained by a newly developed anterior eye segment analysis system, EAS-1000,” Ophthalmic Res. 24(Suppl 1), 10–20 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nankivil, D.

B. M. Maceo, F. Manns, D. Borja, D. Nankivil, S. Uhlhorn, E. Arrieta, A. Ho, R. C. Augusteyn, and J. M. Parel, “Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies,” J. Vis. 11(13), 23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortiz, S.

D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, E. Gambra, S. Ortiz, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, F. Manns, S. Marcos, and J. M. Parel, “Distortion correction of OCT images of the crystalline lens: gradient index approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E709–E718 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, P. Pérez-Merino, N. Alejandre, E. Gambra, I. Jimenez-Alfaro, and S. Marcos, “Quantitative OCT-based corneal topography in keratoconus with intracorneal ring segments,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 814–824 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, P. Pérez-Merino, N. Chia, A. de Castro, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Corneal topography from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(12), 3232–3247 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, S. Barbero, S. Ortiz, and S. Marcos, “Accuracy of the reconstruction of the crystalline lens gradient index with optimization methods from ray tracing and Optical Coherence Tomography data,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19265–19279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Birkenfeld, A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, P. Pérez-Merino, E. Gambra, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the isolated human crystalline lens gradient index distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, E-Abstract 3404 (2011).

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, I. Grulkowski, L. Remon, D. Pascual, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Optical distortion correction in optical coherence tomography for quantitative ocular anterior segment by three-dimensional imaging,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2782–2796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Borja, D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, S. Uhlhorn, S. Ortiz, E. Arrieta, J. M. Parel, S. Marcos, and F. Manns, “Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1331–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, E. Gambra, D. Siedlecki, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the crystalline lens gradient index distribution from OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21905–21917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Optical coherence tomography for quantitative surface topography,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6708–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional ray tracing on Delaunay-based reconstructed surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3886–3893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parel, J. M.

D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, E. Gambra, S. Ortiz, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, F. Manns, S. Marcos, and J. M. Parel, “Distortion correction of OCT images of the crystalline lens: gradient index approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E709–E718 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Maceo, F. Manns, D. Borja, D. Nankivil, S. Uhlhorn, E. Arrieta, A. Ho, R. C. Augusteyn, and J. M. Parel, “Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies,” J. Vis. 11(13), 23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J. M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the Gradient Index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kim, K. Ehrmann, S. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, E. Arrieta-Quintero, and J. M. Parel, “Semiautomated analysis of optical coherence tomography crystalline lens images under simulated accommodation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 056003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Borja, D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, S. Uhlhorn, S. Ortiz, E. Arrieta, J. M. Parel, S. Marcos, and F. Manns, “Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1331–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, F. Manns, and J. M. Parel, “Refractive index measurement of the isolated crystalline lens using optical coherence tomography,” Vision Res. 48(27), 2732–2738 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rosen, D. B. Denham, V. Fernandez, D. Borja, A. Ho, F. Manns, J. M. Parel, and R. C. Augusteyn, “In vitro dimensions and curvatures of human lenses,” Vision Res. 46(6-7), 1002–1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Manns, V. Fernandez, S. Zipper, S. Sandadi, M. Hamaoui, A. Ho, and J. M. Parel, “Radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surface of human cadaver crystalline lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 78(1), 39–51 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascual, D.

Pérez-Escudero, A.

Pérez-Merino, P.

Piers, P.

Pierscionek, B. K.

G. Smith, B. K. Pierscionek, and D. A. Atchison, “The optical modelling of the human lens,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11(4), 359–369 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, J. M.

S. Kasthurirangan, E. L. Markwell, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “MRI study of the changes in crystalline lens shape with accommodation and aging in humans,” J. Vis. 11(3), 19 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res. 45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pouwels, P. J.

E. A. Hermans, P. J. Pouwels, M. Dubbelman, J. P. Kuijer, R. G. van der Heijde, and R. M. Heethaar, “Constant volume of the human lens and decrease in surface area of the capsular bag during accommodation: an MRI and Scheimpflug study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 281–289 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Rainey, B. B.

D. A. Goss, H. G. Van Veen, B. B. Rainey, and B. Feng, “Ocular components measured by keratometry, phakometry, and ultrasonography in emmetropic and myopic optometry students,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 489–495 (1997).
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Remon, L.

Roorda, A.

A. Roorda and A. Glasser, “Wave aberrations of the isolated crystalline lens,” J. Vis. 4(4), 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosales, P.

P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Pentacam Scheimpflug quantitative imaging of the crystalline lens and intraocular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 25(5), 421–428 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales, M. Wendt, S. Marcos, and A. Glasser, “Changes in crystalline lens radii of curvature and lens tilt and decentration during dynamic accommodation in rhesus monkeys,” J. Vis. 8(1), 18, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, P. Rosales, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Balance of corneal horizontal coma by internal optics in eyes with intraocular artificial lenses: evidence of a passive mechanism,” Vision Res. 48(1), 70–79 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, P. Rosales, and S. Marcos, “Tilt and decentration of intraocular lenses in vivo from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging. Validation study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(3), 418–429 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and R. van der Heijde, “Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging,” J. Vis. 6(10), 5 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Phakometry and lens tilt and decentration using a custom-developed Purkinje imaging apparatus: validation and measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 509–520 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, A. M.

A. M. Rosen, D. B. Denham, V. Fernandez, D. Borja, A. Ho, F. Manns, J. M. Parel, and R. C. Augusteyn, “In vitro dimensions and curvatures of human lenses,” Vision Res. 46(6-7), 1002–1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, Y.

Y. Sakamoto, K. Sasaki, Y. Nakamura, and N. Watanabe, “Reproducibility of data obtained by a newly developed anterior eye segment analysis system, EAS-1000,” Ophthalmic Res. 24(Suppl 1), 10–20 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandadi, S.

F. Manns, V. Fernandez, S. Zipper, S. Sandadi, M. Hamaoui, A. Ho, and J. M. Parel, “Radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surface of human cadaver crystalline lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 78(1), 39–51 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, K.

Y. Sakamoto, K. Sasaki, Y. Nakamura, and N. Watanabe, “Reproducibility of data obtained by a newly developed anterior eye segment analysis system, EAS-1000,” Ophthalmic Res. 24(Suppl 1), 10–20 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Schwarz, C.

E. Acosta, J. M. Bueno, C. Schwarz, and P. Artal, “Relationship between wave aberrations and histological features in ex vivo porcine crystalline lenses,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 055001 (2010).
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Schwiegerling, J.

Semmlow, J. L.

Shen, M.

M. Shen, M. R. Wang, Y. Yuan, F. Chen, C. L. Karp, S. H. Yoo, and J. Wang, “SD-OCT with prolonged scan depth for imaging the anterior segment of the eye,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 41(6Suppl), S65–S69 (2010).
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Siedlecki, D.

D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, E. Gambra, S. Ortiz, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, F. Manns, S. Marcos, and J. M. Parel, “Distortion correction of OCT images of the crystalline lens: gradient index approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E709–E718 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J. M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the Gradient Index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, P. Pérez-Merino, N. Chia, A. de Castro, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Corneal topography from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(12), 3232–3247 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, E. Gambra, D. Siedlecki, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the crystalline lens gradient index distribution from OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21905–21917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Borja, D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, S. Uhlhorn, S. Ortiz, E. Arrieta, J. M. Parel, S. Marcos, and F. Manns, “Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1331–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, I. Grulkowski, L. Remon, D. Pascual, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Optical distortion correction in optical coherence tomography for quantitative ocular anterior segment by three-dimensional imaging,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2782–2796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Optical coherence tomography for quantitative surface topography,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6708–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional ray tracing on Delaunay-based reconstructed surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3886–3893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Farid and E. P. Simoncelli, “Differentiation of discrete multidimensional signals,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 496–508 (2004).
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G. Smith, B. K. Pierscionek, and D. A. Atchison, “The optical modelling of the human lens,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11(4), 359–369 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kiely, G. Smith, and L. Carney, “The mean shape of the human cornea,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 29(8), 1027–1040 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strenk, L. M.

Strenk, S. A.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tabernero, J.

E. Berrio, J. Tabernero, and P. Artal, “Optical aberrations and alignment of the eye with age,” J. Vis. 10(14), 34 (2010).

Thompson, K.

Y. Yang, K. Thompson, and S. A. Burns, “Pupil location under mesopic, photopic, and pharmacologically dilated conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(7), 2508–2512 (2002).
[PubMed]

Uhlhorn, S.

D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, E. Gambra, S. Ortiz, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, F. Manns, S. Marcos, and J. M. Parel, “Distortion correction of OCT images of the crystalline lens: gradient index approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E709–E718 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J. M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the Gradient Index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kim, K. Ehrmann, S. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, E. Arrieta-Quintero, and J. M. Parel, “Semiautomated analysis of optical coherence tomography crystalline lens images under simulated accommodation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 056003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Maceo, F. Manns, D. Borja, D. Nankivil, S. Uhlhorn, E. Arrieta, A. Ho, R. C. Augusteyn, and J. M. Parel, “Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies,” J. Vis. 11(13), 23 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Borja, D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, S. Uhlhorn, S. Ortiz, E. Arrieta, J. M. Parel, S. Marcos, and F. Manns, “Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1331–1340 (2010).
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S. R. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, F. Manns, and J. M. Parel, “Refractive index measurement of the isolated crystalline lens using optical coherence tomography,” Vision Res. 48(27), 2732–2738 (2008).
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P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and R. van der Heijde, “Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging,” J. Vis. 6(10), 5 (2006).
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D. A. Goss, H. G. Van Veen, B. B. Rainey, and B. Feng, “Ocular components measured by keratometry, phakometry, and ultrasonography in emmetropic and myopic optometry students,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 489–495 (1997).
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M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, “Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80(4), 379–383 (2002).
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M. Shen, M. R. Wang, Y. Yuan, F. Chen, C. L. Karp, S. H. Yoo, and J. Wang, “SD-OCT with prolonged scan depth for imaging the anterior segment of the eye,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 41(6Suppl), S65–S69 (2010).
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M. Shen, M. R. Wang, Y. Yuan, F. Chen, C. L. Karp, S. H. Yoo, and J. Wang, “SD-OCT with prolonged scan depth for imaging the anterior segment of the eye,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 41(6Suppl), S65–S69 (2010).
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B. M. Maceo, F. Manns, D. Borja, D. Nankivil, S. Uhlhorn, E. Arrieta, A. Ho, R. C. Augusteyn, and J. M. Parel, “Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies,” J. Vis. 11(13), 23 (2011).
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M. Shen, M. R. Wang, Y. Yuan, F. Chen, C. L. Karp, S. H. Yoo, and J. Wang, “SD-OCT with prolonged scan depth for imaging the anterior segment of the eye,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 41(6Suppl), S65–S69 (2010).
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A. S. Vilupuru and A. Glasser, “Dynamic accommodative changes in rhesus monkey eyes assessed with A-scan ultrasound biometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(5), 383–394 (2003).
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D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, E. Gambra, S. Ortiz, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, F. Manns, S. Marcos, and J. M. Parel, “Distortion correction of OCT images of the crystalline lens: gradient index approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(5), E709–E718 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Goss, H. G. Van Veen, B. B. Rainey, and B. Feng, “Ocular components measured by keratometry, phakometry, and ultrasonography in emmetropic and myopic optometry students,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 489–495 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dubbelman, G. L. van der Heijde, and H. A. Weeber, “The thickness of the aging human lens obtained from corrected Scheimpflug images,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(6), 411–416 (2001).
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M. Dubbelman, G. L. Van der Heijde, and H. A. Weeber, “Change in shape of the aging human crystalline lens with accommodation,” Vision Res. 45(1), 117–132 (2005).
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M. Dubbelman and G. L. Van der Heijde, “The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,” Vision Res. 41(14), 1867–1877 (2001).
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E. Berrio, J. Tabernero, and P. Artal, “Optical aberrations and alignment of the eye with age,” J. Vis. 10(14), 34 (2010).

A. Gullstrand, “Appendices to Part I,” in Helmholtz's Treatise on Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, Rochester, NY, 1924), pp. 350–358.

Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the three acquisitions of an individual data collection in subject S#1. (a) cornea and iris; (b) anterior lens and iris; (c) posterior lens and iris.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Illustration of the algorithm for maxima detection: Original A-Scan black; Filtered signal by Gaussian filtering, blue; Detected local maxima (red asterisks) by First derivative 9-pixel kernel computation. The anterior and posterior corneal peaks are marked by green and yellow asterisks, respectively. (b) Detection of maxima in corneal B-Scan (in red), and multilayer segmentation of the anterior surface (green line) and posterior surface (yellow line) by the neighborhood algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Media 1). Illustration of the merging of three volumetric acquisitions to obtain a 3-D full anterior segment image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Media 2) Illustration of the effect of optical (refraction) correction (in green), in comparison with the correction of the surfaces by simple division by their corresponding refractive indices in an anterior segment image (in red). From left to right: segmented anterior and posterior corneal surfaces, and anterior and posterior lens surfaces.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantitative elevation maps of the posterior lens surface for the in vitro 65-year donor lens. Left panel: Measurements with the posterior surface of the lens facing the OCT beam (“posterior up”); Middle panel: Measurement of the posterior surface of the lens viewed through the anterior surface of the lens, and no optical distortion correction (simple division by the index of refraction); Left panel: Measurement of the posterior surface of the lens viewed through the anterior surface of the lens, after application of optical distortion correction Maps are Zernike fits to the elevation maps, relative to the best fitting sphere. R = radii of curvature of the best fitting sphere (from fits to sphere quadrics).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Difference lens anterior (top) and posterior (bottom) elevation maps after optical distortion correction relative to elevation maps obtained by simple division of the optical distances by their corresponding refractive indices. Data are for 5-mm pupils.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Representative 2nd and 3rd order Zernike terms from the Zernike fit to full distortion corrected (a) anterior lens surface, and (b) posterior lens surface in 3 human lenses in vivo. Data are average values of 3 repeated measurements on S#1 (red squares), S#2 (green triangles), and S#3 (blue diamonds). Error bars are not represented since the error is smaller than the symbol. Data are for 5-mm pupils.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Quantitative anterior (top) and posterior (bottom) crystalline lens elevation maps in 3 eyes in vivo, after full distortion correction. Maps are Zernike fits to the elevation maps, relative to the best fitting sphere. R = radii of curvature of the best fitting sphere (from fits to sphere quadrics). Data are for 5-mm pupils.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Three repeated anterior and posterior lens surface elevation maps in subject #3. R = radii of curvature of the best fitting sphere (from fits to sphere quadrics). Data are for 5-mm pupils.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Crystalline lens thickness maps obtained as direct subtraction from anterior to the posterior elevation maps, for uncorrected surfaces (top) and for fully corrected surfaces (bottom). Data are for 5-mm optical zone.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Surface radii of curvature from sphere fittings in the model eye: nominal values, values estimated from OCT measurements before and after correction of optical distortion.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Radii of curvature and asphericity (Q-value) of the anterior and posterior cornea from biconicoid and conicoid fittings

Tables Icon

Table 3 Radii of curvature from biconicoid and conicoid fits of the uncorrected and optical distortion corrected crystalline lens surfaces in vivo

Tables Icon

Table 4 Asphericity (Q-value) from biconicoid and conicoid fits of the uncorrected and optical distortion corrected crystalline lens surfaces

Metrics