Abstract

We demonstrate for the first time that optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging can reliably distinguish between morphologic features of low risk pancreatic cysts (i.e., pseudocysts and serous cystadenomas) and high risk pancreatic cysts (i.e., mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms). In our study fresh pancreatectomy specimens (66) from patients with cystic lesions undergoing surgery were acquired and examined with OCT. A training set of 20 pathology-OCT correlated tissue specimens were used to develop criteria for differentiating between low and high risk cystic lesions. A separate (validation) set of 46 specimens were used to test the OCT criteria by three clinicians, blinded to histopathology findings. Histology was finally used as a ‘gold’ standard for testing OCT findings. OCT was able to reveal specific morphologic features of pancreatic cysts and thus to differentiate between low-risk and high-risk cysts with over 95% sensitivity and specificity. This pilot study suggests that OCT could be used by clinicians in the future to more reliably differentiate between benign and potentially malignant pancreatic cysts. However, in vivo use of OCT requires a probe that has to fit the bore of the pancreas biopsy needle. Therefore, we have developed such probes and planned to start an in vivo pilot study within the very near future.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  28. M. Macari, M. E. Finn, G. L. Bennett, K. C. Cho, E. Newman, C. H. Hajdu, and J. S. Babb, “Differentiating pancreatic cystic neoplasms from pancreatic pseudocysts at MR imaging: value of perceived internal debris,” Radiology 251(1), 77–84 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. D’Onofrio, A. J. Megibow, N. Faccioli, R. Malagò, P. Capelli, M. Falconi, and R. P. Mucelli, “Comparison of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI in displaying anatomic features of cystic pancreatic masses,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(6), 1435–1442 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, J. D. Lewis, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Can EUS alone differentiate between malignant and benign cystic lesions of the pancreas?” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(12), 3295–3300 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. W. R. Brugge, K. Lewandrowski, E. Lee-Lewandrowski, B. A. Centeno, T. Szydlo, S. Regan, C. F. del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study,” Gastroenterology 126(5), 1330–1336 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, N. Iftimia, C. Karaca, and W. R. Brugge, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging can detect fine morphologic features of pancreatic cystic neoplasms and differentiate between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts,” Gastroenterology 136(5), A-45 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010

K. S. Lee, A. Sekhar, N. M. Rofsky, and I. Pedrosa, “Prevalence of incidental pancreatic cysts in the adult population on MR imaging,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105(9), 2079–2084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Turner, S. Cizginer, D. Agarwal, J. Yang, M. B. Pitman, and W. R. Brugge, “Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia with EUS and FNA: a report of accuracy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 91–98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Pitman, K. Lewandrowski, J. Shen, D. Sahani, W. Brugge, and C. Fernandez-del Castillo, “Pancreatic cysts: preoperative diagnosis and clinical management,” Cancer Cytopathol 118(1), 1–13 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res. 70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol. 114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Sahani, J. C. Miller, C. Fernàndez del Castillo, W. R. Brugge, J. H. Thrall, and S. I. Lee, “Cystic pancreatic lesions: classification and management,” J. Am. Coll. Radiol. 6(5), 376–380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Wargo, C. Fernandez-del-Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Management of pancreatic serous cystadenomas,” Adv. Surg. 43(1), 23–34 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Macari, M. E. Finn, G. L. Bennett, K. C. Cho, E. Newman, C. H. Hajdu, and J. S. Babb, “Differentiating pancreatic cystic neoplasms from pancreatic pseudocysts at MR imaging: value of perceived internal debris,” Radiology 251(1), 77–84 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, N. Iftimia, C. Karaca, and W. R. Brugge, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging can detect fine morphologic features of pancreatic cystic neoplasms and differentiate between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts,” Gastroenterology 136(5), A-45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck 30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsley, M. B. Pitman, G. Y. Lauwers, W. R. Brugge, and V. Deshpande, “Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas: limitations and pitfalls of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy,” Cancer 114(2), 102–110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Federle and K. M. McGrath, “Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 36(2), 365–376, ix (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Visser, B. M. Yeh, A. Qayyum, L. W. Way, C. E. McCulloch, and F. V. Coakley, “Characterization of cystic pancreatic masses: relative accuracy of CT and MRI,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(3), 648–656 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D’Onofrio, A. J. Megibow, N. Faccioli, R. Malagò, P. Capelli, M. Falconi, and R. P. Mucelli, “Comparison of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI in displaying anatomic features of cystic pancreatic masses,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(6), 1435–1442 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. Pelaez-Luna and S. T. Chari, “Cyst fluid analysis to diagnose pancreatic cystic lesions: an as yet unfulfilled promise,” Gastroenterology 130(3), 1007–1009, discussion 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Michaels, E. F. Brachtel, B. C. Bounds, W. R. Brugge, and M. Bishop Pitman, “Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: cytologic features predict histologic grade,” Cancer 108(3), 163–173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

W. R. Brugge, G. Y. Lauwers, D. Sahani, C. Fernandez-del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas,” N. Engl. J. Med. 351(12), 1218–1226 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Brugge, K. Lewandrowski, E. Lee-Lewandrowski, B. A. Centeno, T. Szydlo, S. Regan, C. F. del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study,” Gastroenterology 126(5), 1330–1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

B. Khurana, K. J. Mortelé, J. Glickman, S. G. Silverman, and P. R. Ros, “Macrocystic serous adenoma of the pancreas: radiologic-pathologic correlation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 181(1), 119–123 (2003).
[PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. S. Mallery, B. A. Centeno, P. F. Hahn, Y. Chang, A. L. Warshaw, and W. R. Brugge, “Pancreatic tissue sampling guided by EUS, CT/US, and surgery: a comparison of sensitivity and specificity,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 56(2), 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, J. D. Lewis, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Can EUS alone differentiate between malignant and benign cystic lesions of the pancreas?” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(12), 3295–3300 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Megibow, F. P. Lombardo, A. Guarise, G. Carbognin, J. Scholes, N. M. Rofsky, M. Macari, E. J. Balthazar, and C. Procacci, “Cystic pancreatic masses: cross-sectional imaging observations and serial follow-up,” Abdom. Imaging 26(6), 640–647 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

C. Procacci, C. Biasiutti, G. Carbognin, S. Accordini, E. Bicego, A. Guarise, E. Spoto, I. A. Andreis, R. De Marco, and A. J. Megibow, “Characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas: CT accuracy,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 23(6), 906–912 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Accordini, S.

C. Procacci, C. Biasiutti, G. Carbognin, S. Accordini, E. Bicego, A. Guarise, E. Spoto, I. A. Andreis, R. De Marco, and A. J. Megibow, “Characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas: CT accuracy,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 23(6), 906–912 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, D.

B. G. Turner, S. Cizginer, D. Agarwal, J. Yang, M. B. Pitman, and W. R. Brugge, “Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia with EUS and FNA: a report of accuracy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 91–98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A. D.

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmad, N. A.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, J. D. Lewis, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Can EUS alone differentiate between malignant and benign cystic lesions of the pancreas?” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(12), 3295–3300 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreis, I. A.

C. Procacci, C. Biasiutti, G. Carbognin, S. Accordini, E. Bicego, A. Guarise, E. Spoto, I. A. Andreis, R. De Marco, and A. J. Megibow, “Characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas: CT accuracy,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 23(6), 906–912 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arcidiacono, P. G.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arens, C.

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck 30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babb, J. S.

M. Macari, M. E. Finn, G. L. Bennett, K. C. Cho, E. Newman, C. H. Hajdu, and J. S. Babb, “Differentiating pancreatic cystic neoplasms from pancreatic pseudocysts at MR imaging: value of perceived internal debris,” Radiology 251(1), 77–84 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balthazar, E. J.

A. J. Megibow, F. P. Lombardo, A. Guarise, G. Carbognin, J. Scholes, N. M. Rofsky, M. Macari, E. J. Balthazar, and C. Procacci, “Cystic pancreatic masses: cross-sectional imaging observations and serial follow-up,” Abdom. Imaging 26(6), 640–647 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol. 114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belsley, N. A.

N. A. Belsley, M. B. Pitman, G. Y. Lauwers, W. R. Brugge, and V. Deshpande, “Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas: limitations and pitfalls of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy,” Cancer 114(2), 102–110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, G. L.

M. Macari, M. E. Finn, G. L. Bennett, K. C. Cho, E. Newman, C. H. Hajdu, and J. S. Babb, “Differentiating pancreatic cystic neoplasms from pancreatic pseudocysts at MR imaging: value of perceived internal debris,” Radiology 251(1), 77–84 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biasiutti, C.

C. Procacci, C. Biasiutti, G. Carbognin, S. Accordini, E. Bicego, A. Guarise, E. Spoto, I. A. Andreis, R. De Marco, and A. J. Megibow, “Characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas: CT accuracy,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 23(6), 906–912 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bicego, E.

C. Procacci, C. Biasiutti, G. Carbognin, S. Accordini, E. Bicego, A. Guarise, E. Spoto, I. A. Andreis, R. De Marco, and A. J. Megibow, “Characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas: CT accuracy,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 23(6), 906–912 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bishop Pitman, M.

P. J. Michaels, E. F. Brachtel, B. C. Bounds, W. R. Brugge, and M. Bishop Pitman, “Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: cytologic features predict histologic grade,” Cancer 108(3), 163–173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonnema, G. T.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol. 114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bounds, B. C.

P. J. Michaels, E. F. Brachtel, B. C. Bounds, W. R. Brugge, and M. Bishop Pitman, “Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: cytologic features predict histologic grade,” Cancer 108(3), 163–173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brachtel, E. F.

P. J. Michaels, E. F. Brachtel, B. C. Bounds, W. R. Brugge, and M. Bishop Pitman, “Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: cytologic features predict histologic grade,” Cancer 108(3), 163–173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brensinger, C.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressner, J.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, M. A.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol. 114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brugge, W.

M. B. Pitman, K. Lewandrowski, J. Shen, D. Sahani, W. Brugge, and C. Fernandez-del Castillo, “Pancreatic cysts: preoperative diagnosis and clinical management,” Cancer Cytopathol 118(1), 1–13 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brugge, W. R.

B. G. Turner, S. Cizginer, D. Agarwal, J. Yang, M. B. Pitman, and W. R. Brugge, “Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia with EUS and FNA: a report of accuracy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 91–98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Sahani, J. C. Miller, C. Fernàndez del Castillo, W. R. Brugge, J. H. Thrall, and S. I. Lee, “Cystic pancreatic lesions: classification and management,” J. Am. Coll. Radiol. 6(5), 376–380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, N. Iftimia, C. Karaca, and W. R. Brugge, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging can detect fine morphologic features of pancreatic cystic neoplasms and differentiate between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts,” Gastroenterology 136(5), A-45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Belsley, M. B. Pitman, G. Y. Lauwers, W. R. Brugge, and V. Deshpande, “Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas: limitations and pitfalls of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy,” Cancer 114(2), 102–110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Michaels, E. F. Brachtel, B. C. Bounds, W. R. Brugge, and M. Bishop Pitman, “Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: cytologic features predict histologic grade,” Cancer 108(3), 163–173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Brugge, G. Y. Lauwers, D. Sahani, C. Fernandez-del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas,” N. Engl. J. Med. 351(12), 1218–1226 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Brugge, K. Lewandrowski, E. Lee-Lewandrowski, B. A. Centeno, T. Szydlo, S. Regan, C. F. del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study,” Gastroenterology 126(5), 1330–1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Mallery, B. A. Centeno, P. F. Hahn, Y. Chang, A. L. Warshaw, and W. R. Brugge, “Pancreatic tissue sampling guided by EUS, CT/US, and surgery: a comparison of sensitivity and specificity,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 56(2), 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capelli, P.

M. D’Onofrio, A. J. Megibow, N. Faccioli, R. Malagò, P. Capelli, M. Falconi, and R. P. Mucelli, “Comparison of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI in displaying anatomic features of cystic pancreatic masses,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(6), 1435–1442 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carbognin, G.

A. J. Megibow, F. P. Lombardo, A. Guarise, G. Carbognin, J. Scholes, N. M. Rofsky, M. Macari, E. J. Balthazar, and C. Procacci, “Cystic pancreatic masses: cross-sectional imaging observations and serial follow-up,” Abdom. Imaging 26(6), 640–647 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Procacci, C. Biasiutti, G. Carbognin, S. Accordini, E. Bicego, A. Guarise, E. Spoto, I. A. Andreis, R. De Marco, and A. J. Megibow, “Characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas: CT accuracy,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 23(6), 906–912 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Centeno, B. A.

W. R. Brugge, K. Lewandrowski, E. Lee-Lewandrowski, B. A. Centeno, T. Szydlo, S. Regan, C. F. del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study,” Gastroenterology 126(5), 1330–1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Mallery, B. A. Centeno, P. F. Hahn, Y. Chang, A. L. Warshaw, and W. R. Brugge, “Pancreatic tissue sampling guided by EUS, CT/US, and surgery: a comparison of sensitivity and specificity,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 56(2), 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.

J. S. Mallery, B. A. Centeno, P. F. Hahn, Y. Chang, A. L. Warshaw, and W. R. Brugge, “Pancreatic tissue sampling guided by EUS, CT/US, and surgery: a comparison of sensitivity and specificity,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 56(2), 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chari, S. T.

M. Pelaez-Luna and S. T. Chari, “Cyst fluid analysis to diagnose pancreatic cystic lesions: an as yet unfulfilled promise,” Gastroenterology 130(3), 1007–1009, discussion 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, K. C.

M. Macari, M. E. Finn, G. L. Bennett, K. C. Cho, E. Newman, C. H. Hajdu, and J. S. Babb, “Differentiating pancreatic cystic neoplasms from pancreatic pseudocysts at MR imaging: value of perceived internal debris,” Radiology 251(1), 77–84 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cizginer, S.

B. G. Turner, S. Cizginer, D. Agarwal, J. Yang, M. B. Pitman, and W. R. Brugge, “Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia with EUS and FNA: a report of accuracy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 91–98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, N. Iftimia, C. Karaca, and W. R. Brugge, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging can detect fine morphologic features of pancreatic cystic neoplasms and differentiate between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts,” Gastroenterology 136(5), A-45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, F. V.

B. C. Visser, B. M. Yeh, A. Qayyum, L. W. Way, C. E. McCulloch, and F. V. Coakley, “Characterization of cystic pancreatic masses: relative accuracy of CT and MRI,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(3), 648–656 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connolly, J. L.

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Onofrio, M.

M. D’Onofrio, A. J. Megibow, N. Faccioli, R. Malagò, P. Capelli, M. Falconi, and R. P. Mucelli, “Comparison of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI in displaying anatomic features of cystic pancreatic masses,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(6), 1435–1442 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J. R.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol. 114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Marco, R.

C. Procacci, C. Biasiutti, G. Carbognin, S. Accordini, E. Bicego, A. Guarise, E. Spoto, I. A. Andreis, R. De Marco, and A. J. Megibow, “Characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas: CT accuracy,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 23(6), 906–912 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

del Castillo, C. F.

W. R. Brugge, K. Lewandrowski, E. Lee-Lewandrowski, B. A. Centeno, T. Szydlo, S. Regan, C. F. del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study,” Gastroenterology 126(5), 1330–1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deshpande, V.

S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, N. Iftimia, C. Karaca, and W. R. Brugge, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging can detect fine morphologic features of pancreatic cystic neoplasms and differentiate between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts,” Gastroenterology 136(5), A-45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Belsley, M. B. Pitman, G. Y. Lauwers, W. R. Brugge, and V. Deshpande, “Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas: limitations and pitfalls of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy,” Cancer 114(2), 102–110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Pietro, S.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J. A.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faccioli, N.

M. D’Onofrio, A. J. Megibow, N. Faccioli, R. Malagò, P. Capelli, M. Falconi, and R. P. Mucelli, “Comparison of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI in displaying anatomic features of cystic pancreatic masses,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(6), 1435–1442 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faigel, D. O.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falconi, M.

M. D’Onofrio, A. J. Megibow, N. Faccioli, R. Malagò, P. Capelli, M. Falconi, and R. P. Mucelli, “Comparison of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI in displaying anatomic features of cystic pancreatic masses,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(6), 1435–1442 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Federle, M. P.

M. P. Federle and K. M. McGrath, “Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 36(2), 365–376, ix (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernàndez del Castillo, C.

D. V. Sahani, J. C. Miller, C. Fernàndez del Castillo, W. R. Brugge, J. H. Thrall, and S. I. Lee, “Cystic pancreatic lesions: classification and management,” J. Am. Coll. Radiol. 6(5), 376–380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez-del Castillo, C.

M. B. Pitman, K. Lewandrowski, J. Shen, D. Sahani, W. Brugge, and C. Fernandez-del Castillo, “Pancreatic cysts: preoperative diagnosis and clinical management,” Cancer Cytopathol 118(1), 1–13 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Brugge, G. Y. Lauwers, D. Sahani, C. Fernandez-del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas,” N. Engl. J. Med. 351(12), 1218–1226 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez-del-Castillo, C.

J. A. Wargo, C. Fernandez-del-Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Management of pancreatic serous cystadenomas,” Adv. Surg. 43(1), 23–34 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finn, M. E.

M. Macari, M. E. Finn, G. L. Bennett, K. C. Cho, E. Newman, C. H. Hajdu, and J. S. Babb, “Differentiating pancreatic cystic neoplasms from pancreatic pseudocysts at MR imaging: value of perceived internal debris,” Radiology 251(1), 77–84 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fung, K. M.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ginsberg, G. G.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, J. D. Lewis, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Can EUS alone differentiate between malignant and benign cystic lesions of the pancreas?” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(12), 3295–3300 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glanz, H.

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck 30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glickman, J.

B. Khurana, K. J. Mortelé, J. Glickman, S. G. Silverman, and P. R. Ros, “Macrocystic serous adenoma of the pancreas: radiologic-pathologic correlation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 181(1), 119–123 (2003).
[PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gress, F. G.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guarise, A.

A. J. Megibow, F. P. Lombardo, A. Guarise, G. Carbognin, J. Scholes, N. M. Rofsky, M. Macari, E. J. Balthazar, and C. Procacci, “Cystic pancreatic masses: cross-sectional imaging observations and serial follow-up,” Abdom. Imaging 26(6), 640–647 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Procacci, C. Biasiutti, G. Carbognin, S. Accordini, E. Bicego, A. Guarise, E. Spoto, I. A. Andreis, R. De Marco, and A. J. Megibow, “Characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas: CT accuracy,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 23(6), 906–912 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, P. F.

J. S. Mallery, B. A. Centeno, P. F. Hahn, Y. Chang, A. L. Warshaw, and W. R. Brugge, “Pancreatic tissue sampling guided by EUS, CT/US, and surgery: a comparison of sensitivity and specificity,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 56(2), 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajdu, C. H.

M. Macari, M. E. Finn, G. L. Bennett, K. C. Cho, E. Newman, C. H. Hajdu, and J. S. Babb, “Differentiating pancreatic cystic neoplasms from pancreatic pseudocysts at MR imaging: value of perceived internal debris,” Radiology 251(1), 77–84 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamza, S.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res. 70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hariri, L. P.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol. 114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatch, K. D.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol. 114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hsiung, P. L.

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, N. Iftimia, C. Karaca, and W. R. Brugge, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging can detect fine morphologic features of pancreatic cystic neoplasms and differentiate between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts,” Gastroenterology 136(5), A-45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iftimia, N. V.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karaca, C.

S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, N. Iftimia, C. Karaca, and W. R. Brugge, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging can detect fine morphologic features of pancreatic cystic neoplasms and differentiate between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts,” Gastroenterology 136(5), A-45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keddissi, J. I.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khurana, B.

B. Khurana, K. J. Mortelé, J. Glickman, S. G. Silverman, and P. R. Ros, “Macrocystic serous adenoma of the pancreas: radiologic-pathologic correlation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 181(1), 119–123 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kimmey, M. B.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinasewitz, G. T.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kochman, M. L.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, J. D. Lewis, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Can EUS alone differentiate between malignant and benign cystic lesions of the pancreas?” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(12), 3295–3300 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korde, V.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol. 114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraft, M.

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck 30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauwers, G. Y.

N. A. Belsley, M. B. Pitman, G. Y. Lauwers, W. R. Brugge, and V. Deshpande, “Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas: limitations and pitfalls of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy,” Cancer 114(2), 102–110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Brugge, G. Y. Lauwers, D. Sahani, C. Fernandez-del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas,” N. Engl. J. Med. 351(12), 1218–1226 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. S.

K. S. Lee, A. Sekhar, N. M. Rofsky, and I. Pedrosa, “Prevalence of incidental pancreatic cysts in the adult population on MR imaging,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105(9), 2079–2084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. I.

D. V. Sahani, J. C. Miller, C. Fernàndez del Castillo, W. R. Brugge, J. H. Thrall, and S. I. Lee, “Cystic pancreatic lesions: classification and management,” J. Am. Coll. Radiol. 6(5), 376–380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee-Lewandrowski, E.

W. R. Brugge, K. Lewandrowski, E. Lee-Lewandrowski, B. A. Centeno, T. Szydlo, S. Regan, C. F. del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study,” Gastroenterology 126(5), 1330–1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

Lewandrowski, K.

M. B. Pitman, K. Lewandrowski, J. Shen, D. Sahani, W. Brugge, and C. Fernandez-del Castillo, “Pancreatic cysts: preoperative diagnosis and clinical management,” Cancer Cytopathol 118(1), 1–13 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Brugge, K. Lewandrowski, E. Lee-Lewandrowski, B. A. Centeno, T. Szydlo, S. Regan, C. F. del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study,” Gastroenterology 126(5), 1330–1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, J. D.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, J. D. Lewis, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Can EUS alone differentiate between malignant and benign cystic lesions of the pancreas?” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(12), 3295–3300 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lombardo, F. P.

A. J. Megibow, F. P. Lombardo, A. Guarise, G. Carbognin, J. Scholes, N. M. Rofsky, M. Macari, E. J. Balthazar, and C. Procacci, “Cystic pancreatic masses: cross-sectional imaging observations and serial follow-up,” Abdom. Imaging 26(6), 640–647 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubatschowski, H.

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck 30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macari, M.

M. Macari, M. E. Finn, G. L. Bennett, K. C. Cho, E. Newman, C. H. Hajdu, and J. S. Babb, “Differentiating pancreatic cystic neoplasms from pancreatic pseudocysts at MR imaging: value of perceived internal debris,” Radiology 251(1), 77–84 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Megibow, F. P. Lombardo, A. Guarise, G. Carbognin, J. Scholes, N. M. Rofsky, M. Macari, E. J. Balthazar, and C. Procacci, “Cystic pancreatic masses: cross-sectional imaging observations and serial follow-up,” Abdom. Imaging 26(6), 640–647 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malagò, R.

M. D’Onofrio, A. J. Megibow, N. Faccioli, R. Malagò, P. Capelli, M. Falconi, and R. P. Mucelli, “Comparison of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI in displaying anatomic features of cystic pancreatic masses,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(6), 1435–1442 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallery, J. S.

J. S. Mallery, B. A. Centeno, P. F. Hahn, Y. Chang, A. L. Warshaw, and W. R. Brugge, “Pancreatic tissue sampling guided by EUS, CT/US, and surgery: a comparison of sensitivity and specificity,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 56(2), 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangiavillano, B.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariani, A.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masci, E.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCulloch, C. E.

B. C. Visser, B. M. Yeh, A. Qayyum, L. W. Way, C. E. McCulloch, and F. V. Coakley, “Characterization of cystic pancreatic masses: relative accuracy of CT and MRI,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(3), 648–656 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGrath, K. M.

M. P. Federle and K. M. McGrath, “Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 36(2), 365–376, ix (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res. 70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Megibow, A. J.

M. D’Onofrio, A. J. Megibow, N. Faccioli, R. Malagò, P. Capelli, M. Falconi, and R. P. Mucelli, “Comparison of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI in displaying anatomic features of cystic pancreatic masses,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(6), 1435–1442 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Megibow, F. P. Lombardo, A. Guarise, G. Carbognin, J. Scholes, N. M. Rofsky, M. Macari, E. J. Balthazar, and C. Procacci, “Cystic pancreatic masses: cross-sectional imaging observations and serial follow-up,” Abdom. Imaging 26(6), 640–647 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Procacci, C. Biasiutti, G. Carbognin, S. Accordini, E. Bicego, A. Guarise, E. Spoto, I. A. Andreis, R. De Marco, and A. J. Megibow, “Characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas: CT accuracy,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 23(6), 906–912 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michaels, P. J.

P. J. Michaels, E. F. Brachtel, B. C. Bounds, W. R. Brugge, and M. Bishop Pitman, “Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: cytologic features predict histologic grade,” Cancer 108(3), 163–173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, R. G.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, J. C.

D. V. Sahani, J. C. Miller, C. Fernàndez del Castillo, W. R. Brugge, J. H. Thrall, and S. I. Lee, “Cystic pancreatic lesions: classification and management,” J. Am. Coll. Radiol. 6(5), 376–380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mino-Kenudson, M.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortelé, K. J.

B. Khurana, K. J. Mortelé, J. Glickman, S. G. Silverman, and P. R. Ros, “Macrocystic serous adenoma of the pancreas: radiologic-pathologic correlation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 181(1), 119–123 (2003).
[PubMed]

Mucelli, R. P.

M. D’Onofrio, A. J. Megibow, N. Faccioli, R. Malagò, P. Capelli, M. Falconi, and R. P. Mucelli, “Comparison of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI in displaying anatomic features of cystic pancreatic masses,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(6), 1435–1442 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newman, E.

M. Macari, M. E. Finn, G. L. Bennett, K. C. Cho, E. Newman, C. H. Hajdu, and J. S. Babb, “Differentiating pancreatic cystic neoplasms from pancreatic pseudocysts at MR imaging: value of perceived internal debris,” Radiology 251(1), 77–84 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickl, N. J.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedrosa, I.

K. S. Lee, A. Sekhar, N. M. Rofsky, and I. Pedrosa, “Prevalence of incidental pancreatic cysts in the adult population on MR imaging,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105(9), 2079–2084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelaez-Luna, M.

M. Pelaez-Luna and S. T. Chari, “Cyst fluid analysis to diagnose pancreatic cystic lesions: an as yet unfulfilled promise,” Gastroenterology 130(3), 1007–1009, discussion 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phatak, D. R.

P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitman, M. B.

M. B. Pitman, K. Lewandrowski, J. Shen, D. Sahani, W. Brugge, and C. Fernandez-del Castillo, “Pancreatic cysts: preoperative diagnosis and clinical management,” Cancer Cytopathol 118(1), 1–13 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Turner, S. Cizginer, D. Agarwal, J. Yang, M. B. Pitman, and W. R. Brugge, “Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia with EUS and FNA: a report of accuracy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 91–98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsley, M. B. Pitman, G. Y. Lauwers, W. R. Brugge, and V. Deshpande, “Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas: limitations and pitfalls of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy,” Cancer 114(2), 102–110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Procacci, C.

A. J. Megibow, F. P. Lombardo, A. Guarise, G. Carbognin, J. Scholes, N. M. Rofsky, M. Macari, E. J. Balthazar, and C. Procacci, “Cystic pancreatic masses: cross-sectional imaging observations and serial follow-up,” Abdom. Imaging 26(6), 640–647 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Procacci, C. Biasiutti, G. Carbognin, S. Accordini, E. Bicego, A. Guarise, E. Spoto, I. A. Andreis, R. De Marco, and A. J. Megibow, “Characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas: CT accuracy,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 23(6), 906–912 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qayyum, A.

B. C. Visser, B. M. Yeh, A. Qayyum, L. W. Way, C. E. McCulloch, and F. V. Coakley, “Characterization of cystic pancreatic masses: relative accuracy of CT and MRI,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(3), 648–656 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regan, S.

W. R. Brugge, K. Lewandrowski, E. Lee-Lewandrowski, B. A. Centeno, T. Szydlo, S. Regan, C. F. del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study,” Gastroenterology 126(5), 1330–1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, P.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res. 70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rofsky, N. M.

K. S. Lee, A. Sekhar, N. M. Rofsky, and I. Pedrosa, “Prevalence of incidental pancreatic cysts in the adult population on MR imaging,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105(9), 2079–2084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Megibow, F. P. Lombardo, A. Guarise, G. Carbognin, J. Scholes, N. M. Rofsky, M. Macari, E. J. Balthazar, and C. Procacci, “Cystic pancreatic masses: cross-sectional imaging observations and serial follow-up,” Abdom. Imaging 26(6), 640–647 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ros, P. R.

B. Khurana, K. J. Mortelé, J. Glickman, S. G. Silverman, and P. R. Ros, “Macrocystic serous adenoma of the pancreas: radiologic-pathologic correlation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 181(1), 119–123 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sahani, D.

M. B. Pitman, K. Lewandrowski, J. Shen, D. Sahani, W. Brugge, and C. Fernandez-del Castillo, “Pancreatic cysts: preoperative diagnosis and clinical management,” Cancer Cytopathol 118(1), 1–13 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Brugge, G. Y. Lauwers, D. Sahani, C. Fernandez-del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas,” N. Engl. J. Med. 351(12), 1218–1226 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahani, D. V.

D. V. Sahani, J. C. Miller, C. Fernàndez del Castillo, W. R. Brugge, J. H. Thrall, and S. I. Lee, “Cystic pancreatic lesions: classification and management,” J. Am. Coll. Radiol. 6(5), 376–380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res. 70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, C.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res. 70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savides, T. J.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, K.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol. 114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholes, J.

A. J. Megibow, F. P. Lombardo, A. Guarise, G. Carbognin, J. Scholes, N. M. Rofsky, M. Macari, E. J. Balthazar, and C. Procacci, “Cystic pancreatic masses: cross-sectional imaging observations and serial follow-up,” Abdom. Imaging 26(6), 640–647 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scolaro, L.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res. 70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekhar, A.

K. S. Lee, A. Sekhar, N. M. Rofsky, and I. Pedrosa, “Prevalence of incidental pancreatic cysts in the adult population on MR imaging,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105(9), 2079–2084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, J.

M. B. Pitman, K. Lewandrowski, J. Shen, D. Sahani, W. Brugge, and C. Fernandez-del Castillo, “Pancreatic cysts: preoperative diagnosis and clinical management,” Cancer Cytopathol 118(1), 1–13 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silverman, S. G.

B. Khurana, K. J. Mortelé, J. Glickman, S. G. Silverman, and P. R. Ros, “Macrocystic serous adenoma of the pancreas: radiologic-pathologic correlation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 181(1), 119–123 (2003).
[PubMed]

Spoto, E.

C. Procacci, C. Biasiutti, G. Carbognin, S. Accordini, E. Bicego, A. Guarise, E. Spoto, I. A. Andreis, R. De Marco, and A. J. Megibow, “Characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas: CT accuracy,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 23(6), 906–912 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szydlo, T.

W. R. Brugge, K. Lewandrowski, E. Lee-Lewandrowski, B. A. Centeno, T. Szydlo, S. Regan, C. F. del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study,” Gastroenterology 126(5), 1330–1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Testoni, P. A.

P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thrall, J. H.

D. V. Sahani, J. C. Miller, C. Fernàndez del Castillo, W. R. Brugge, J. H. Thrall, and S. I. Lee, “Cystic pancreatic lesions: classification and management,” J. Am. Coll. Radiol. 6(5), 376–380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, B. G.

B. G. Turner, S. Cizginer, D. Agarwal, J. Yang, M. B. Pitman, and W. R. Brugge, “Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia with EUS and FNA: a report of accuracy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 91–98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ustun, T. E.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visser, B. C.

B. C. Visser, B. M. Yeh, A. Qayyum, L. W. Way, C. E. McCulloch, and F. V. Coakley, “Characterization of cystic pancreatic masses: relative accuracy of CT and MRI,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(3), 648–656 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Gerlach, S.

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck 30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wargo, J. A.

J. A. Wargo, C. Fernandez-del-Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Management of pancreatic serous cystadenomas,” Adv. Surg. 43(1), 23–34 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warshaw, A. L.

J. A. Wargo, C. Fernandez-del-Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Management of pancreatic serous cystadenomas,” Adv. Surg. 43(1), 23–34 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Brugge, K. Lewandrowski, E. Lee-Lewandrowski, B. A. Centeno, T. Szydlo, S. Regan, C. F. del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study,” Gastroenterology 126(5), 1330–1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Brugge, G. Y. Lauwers, D. Sahani, C. Fernandez-del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas,” N. Engl. J. Med. 351(12), 1218–1226 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Mallery, B. A. Centeno, P. F. Hahn, Y. Chang, A. L. Warshaw, and W. R. Brugge, “Pancreatic tissue sampling guided by EUS, CT/US, and surgery: a comparison of sensitivity and specificity,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 56(2), 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Way, L. W.

B. C. Visser, B. M. Yeh, A. Qayyum, L. W. Way, C. E. McCulloch, and F. V. Coakley, “Characterization of cystic pancreatic masses: relative accuracy of CT and MRI,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(3), 648–656 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiersema, M. J.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkler, A. M.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol. 114(2), 188–194 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wisweh, H.

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck 30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

B. G. Turner, S. Cizginer, D. Agarwal, J. Yang, M. B. Pitman, and W. R. Brugge, “Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia with EUS and FNA: a report of accuracy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 91–98 (2010).
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Yeh, B. M.

B. C. Visser, B. M. Yeh, A. Qayyum, L. W. Way, C. E. McCulloch, and F. V. Coakley, “Characterization of cystic pancreatic masses: relative accuracy of CT and MRI,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(3), 648–656 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdom. Imaging

A. J. Megibow, F. P. Lombardo, A. Guarise, G. Carbognin, J. Scholes, N. M. Rofsky, M. Macari, E. J. Balthazar, and C. Procacci, “Cystic pancreatic masses: cross-sectional imaging observations and serial follow-up,” Abdom. Imaging 26(6), 640–647 (2001).
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Adv. Surg.

J. A. Wargo, C. Fernandez-del-Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Management of pancreatic serous cystadenomas,” Adv. Surg. 43(1), 23–34 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.

B. C. Visser, B. M. Yeh, A. Qayyum, L. W. Way, C. E. McCulloch, and F. V. Coakley, “Characterization of cystic pancreatic masses: relative accuracy of CT and MRI,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(3), 648–656 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Khurana, K. J. Mortelé, J. Glickman, S. G. Silverman, and P. R. Ros, “Macrocystic serous adenoma of the pancreas: radiologic-pathologic correlation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 181(1), 119–123 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. D’Onofrio, A. J. Megibow, N. Faccioli, R. Malagò, P. Capelli, M. Falconi, and R. P. Mucelli, “Comparison of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI in displaying anatomic features of cystic pancreatic masses,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 189(6), 1435–1442 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol.

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, J. D. Lewis, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Can EUS alone differentiate between malignant and benign cystic lesions of the pancreas?” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(12), 3295–3300 (2001).
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P. A. Testoni, A. Mariani, B. Mangiavillano, P. G. Arcidiacono, S. Di Pietro, and E. Masci, “Intraductal optical coherence tomography for investigating main pancreatic duct strictures,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(2), 269–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Lee, A. Sekhar, N. M. Rofsky, and I. Pedrosa, “Prevalence of incidental pancreatic cysts in the adult population on MR imaging,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105(9), 2079–2084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer

P. J. Michaels, E. F. Brachtel, B. C. Bounds, W. R. Brugge, and M. Bishop Pitman, “Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: cytologic features predict histologic grade,” Cancer 108(3), 163–173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsley, M. B. Pitman, G. Y. Lauwers, W. R. Brugge, and V. Deshpande, “Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas: limitations and pitfalls of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy,” Cancer 114(2), 102–110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Cytopathol

M. B. Pitman, K. Lewandrowski, J. Shen, D. Sahani, W. Brugge, and C. Fernandez-del Castillo, “Pancreatic cysts: preoperative diagnosis and clinical management,” Cancer Cytopathol 118(1), 1–13 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res.

R. A. McLaughlin, L. Scolaro, P. Robbins, S. Hamza, C. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer,” Cancer Res. 70(7), 2579–2584 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chest

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.

M. P. Federle and K. M. McGrath, “Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 36(2), 365–376, ix (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology

M. Pelaez-Luna and S. T. Chari, “Cyst fluid analysis to diagnose pancreatic cystic lesions: an as yet unfulfilled promise,” Gastroenterology 130(3), 1007–1009, discussion 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Brugge, K. Lewandrowski, E. Lee-Lewandrowski, B. A. Centeno, T. Szydlo, S. Regan, C. F. del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study,” Gastroenterology 126(5), 1330–1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cizginer, V. Deshpande, N. Iftimia, C. Karaca, and W. R. Brugge, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging can detect fine morphologic features of pancreatic cystic neoplasms and differentiate between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts,” Gastroenterology 136(5), A-45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Mallery, B. A. Centeno, P. F. Hahn, Y. Chang, A. L. Warshaw, and W. R. Brugge, “Pancreatic tissue sampling guided by EUS, CT/US, and surgery: a comparison of sensitivity and specificity,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 56(2), 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Turner, S. Cizginer, D. Agarwal, J. Yang, M. B. Pitman, and W. R. Brugge, “Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia with EUS and FNA: a report of accuracy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(1), 91–98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, C. Brensinger, W. R. Brugge, D. O. Faigel, F. G. Gress, M. B. Kimmey, N. J. Nickl, T. J. Savides, M. B. Wallace, M. J. Wiersema, and G. G. Ginsberg, “Interobserver agreement among endosonographers for the diagnosis of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 58(1), 59–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gynecol. Oncol.

L. P. Hariri, G. T. Bonnema, K. Schmidt, A. M. Winkler, V. Korde, K. D. Hatch, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, and J. K. Barton, “Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer,” Gynecol. Oncol. 114(2), 188–194 (2009).
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Head Neck

M. Kraft, H. Glanz, S. von Gerlach, H. Wisweh, H. Lubatschowski, and C. Arens, “Clinical value of optical coherence tomography in laryngology,” Head Neck 30(12), 1628–1635 (2008).
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J. Am. Coll. Radiol.

D. V. Sahani, J. C. Miller, C. Fernàndez del Castillo, W. R. Brugge, J. H. Thrall, and S. I. Lee, “Cystic pancreatic lesions: classification and management,” J. Am. Coll. Radiol. 6(5), 376–380 (2009).
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J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr.

C. Procacci, C. Biasiutti, G. Carbognin, S. Accordini, E. Bicego, A. Guarise, E. Spoto, I. A. Andreis, R. De Marco, and A. J. Megibow, “Characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas: CT accuracy,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 23(6), 906–912 (1999).
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N. Engl. J. Med.

W. R. Brugge, G. Y. Lauwers, D. Sahani, C. Fernandez-del Castillo, and A. L. Warshaw, “Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas,” N. Engl. J. Med. 351(12), 1218–1226 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Radiology

M. Macari, M. E. Finn, G. L. Bennett, K. C. Cho, E. Newman, C. H. Hajdu, and J. S. Babb, “Differentiating pancreatic cystic neoplasms from pancreatic pseudocysts at MR imaging: value of perceived internal debris,” Radiology 251(1), 77–84 (2009).
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P. L. Hsiung, D. R. Phatak, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Benign and malignant lesions in the human breast depicted with ultrahigh resolution and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Radiology 244(3), 865–874 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
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Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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G. H. R. Zamboni and D. S. Longnecker, “Mucious cystic neoplasms of the pancreas,” in: S. R. Hamilton, L. A. Aaltonen, eds., World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Digestive System (IARC Press, 2000).

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (1893 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2231 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (1792 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified schematic (A) and photograph of the OCT system (B).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OCT appearance of SCAs (A) and (B) and corresponding histology (A', B'). The microcystic SCAs show multiple tiny cysts with well-defined outlines. The thin septae between the cysts (see arrow), creating a honeycomb appearance, shows homogenously high scattering. The cyst content usually lacks a scattering effect. Focal intraluminal scattering can be noted on some cysts (see asterisk in Fig. 2(B)) and it usually corresponds to a focus of intraluminal hemorrhage, as confirmed by histology (see red area Fig. 2(B′)). OCT scale bar = 500 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Media 1). Fly-through video of a SCA. (A) Enface view at a depth indicated by the line from the cross-sectional image. (B) cross-sectional view. The raw video was acquired at 20 fps. Scale bar = 500 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT appearance of a mucinous cyst (A) and corresponding histology (B). Yellow arrows indicate the presence of smaller size (daughter) cysts, while the red arrow indicates the main cystic cavity. The cystic content (mucin) shows some scattering due the presence of dead epithelial cells. OCT scale bar = 500 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Media 2). Fly-through video of a MCN. (A) Enface view at a depth indicated by the line from the cross-sectional view. (B) Cross-sectional view. The raw video was acquired at 20 fps. Scale bar = 500 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OCT appearance of mucinous IPMN cysts (A), magnified ROI (B), and corresponding histology (B'). Yellow arrows indicate the areas of highly scattering mucin within the cyst fluid. OCT Scale bar = 500 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Media 3). Fly-through video of a IPMN. (A) Enface view. (B) Cross-sectional view. The raw video was acquired at 20 fps. Scale bar = 500 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

OCT diagnostic criteria for pancreatic cysts.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Sensitivity, Specificity, and Kappa Analysis

Metrics