Abstract

We present a label-free, chemically-selective, quantitative imaging strategy to identify breast cancer and differentiate its subtypes using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. Human normal breast tissue, benign proliferative, as well as in situ and invasive carcinomas, were imaged ex vivo. Simply by visualizing cellular and tissue features appearing on CARS images, cancerous lesions can be readily separated from normal tissue and benign proliferative lesion. To further distinguish cancer subtypes, quantitative disease-related features, describing the geometry and distribution of cancer cell nuclei, were extracted and applied to a computerized classification system. The results show that in situ carcinoma was successfully distinguished from invasive carcinoma, while invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma were also distinguished from each other. Furthermore, 80% of intermediate-grade IDC and 85% of high-grade IDC were correctly distinguished from each other. The proposed quantitative CARS imaging method has the potential to enable rapid diagnosis of breast cancer.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Heron, “Deaths: leading causes for 2004,” Natl. Vital Stat. Rep. 56(5), 1–95 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  2. American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts & Figures 2011 (American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, 2011).
  3. M. J. Beresford, A. R. Padhani, N. J. Taylor, M. L. Ah-See, J. J. Stirling, A. Makris, J. A. d’Arcy, and D. J. Collins, “Inter- and intraobserver variability in the evaluation of dynamic breast cancer MRI,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(6), 1316–1325 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Robbins, S. Pinder, N. de Klerk, H. Dawkins, J. Harvey, G. Sterrett, I. Ellis, and C. Elston, “Histological grading of breast carcinomas: a study of interobserver agreement,” Hum. Pathol. 26(8), 873–879 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, and A. Uppal, “Breast cancer diagnosis using N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(5), 417–422 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. K. Majumder, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of formalin-fixed human breast tissue,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 81(1), 33–42 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Yang, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, M. Zurawska-Szczepaniak, and R. R. Alfano, “Fundamental differences of excitation spectrum between malignant and benign breast tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 518–522 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(3), 827–840 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Wang, Y. Yang, P. Luo, L. Gao, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Delivery of picosecond lasers in multimode fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13017–13028 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Mouras, G. Rischitor, A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for drug delivery monitoring and cancer tissue imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(8), 848–852 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. T. Le, T. B. Huff, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis,” BMC Cancer 9(1), 42 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2202–2208 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Müller and A. Zumbusch, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 8(15), 2156–2170 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, “In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue,” J. Microsc. 225(2), 175–182 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, “Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12076–12087 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(9), 197–208 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. D. Chowdary, Z. Jiang, E. J. Chaney, W. A. Benalcazar, D. L. Marks, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular histopathology by spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging,” Cancer Res. 70(23), 9562–9569 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, N. Fausto, and J. C. Aster, Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 8th ed, (Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA, 2009).
  28. L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Yang, L. Gao, Z. Wang, M. J. Thrall, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7903, 79032G, 79032G-6 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 915–926 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. Beucher, “The watershed transformation applied to image segmentation,” Scanning. Microsc. Int. 6, 299–314 (1992).
  32. L. Vincent and P. Soille, “Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(6), 583–598 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Wang, X. Zhou, F. Li, J. Huckins, R. W. King, and S. T. C. Wong, “Novel cell segmentation and online SVM for cell cycle phase identification in automated microscopy,” Bioinformatics 24(1), 94–101 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. W. Gander, G. H. Golub, and R. Strebel, “Least-squares fitting of circles and ellipses,” BIT Numer. Math. 34(4), 558–578 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  35. T. Jones, A. Carpenter, and P. Golland, “Voronoi-based segmentation of cells on image manifolds,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3765, 535–543 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. G. Voronoi, “Nouvelles applications des paramètres continus à la théorie des formes quadratiques,” J. Reine Angew. Math. 133, 97–178 (1907).
  37. F. Li, X. Zhou, J. Ma, and S. T. C. Wong, “Multiple nuclei tracking using integer programming for quantitative cancer cell cycle analysis,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 96–105 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. J. O'Rourke, Computational Geometry in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, NewYork, 1998).
  39. P. Geladi and B. R. Kowalski, “Partial least-squares regression: a tutorial,” Anal. Chim. Acta 185(1), 1–17 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  40. H. Abdi, “Partial least squares (PLS) regression,” in. Encyclopedia for Research Methods for the social Sciences, M. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, and T. Futing, eds. (Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003).
  41. I. S. Helland, “Partial least squares regression and statistical models,” Scand. J. Stat. 17, 97–114 (1990).
  42. A. Höskuldsson, “PLS regression methods,” J. Chemometr. 2(3), 211–228 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  43. D. Zhou, O. Bousquet, T. Lal, J. Weston, and B. Schölkopf, “Learning with local and global consistency,” Adv.Neural Inform. Proc. Syst. 16, 321–328 (2004).
  44. J. Wang, S. F. Chang, X. Zhou, and S. T. C. Wong, “Active microscopic cellular image annotation by superposable graph transduction with imbalanced labels,” in IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2008. CVPR 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–8.
  45. B. C. Pestalozzi, “Portrait of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast,” Eur. J. Cancer 45(Suppl 1), 450–451 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. D. Dian, H. Herold, I. Mylonas, C. Scholz, W. Janni, H. Sommer, and K. Friese, “Survival analysis between patients with invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast cancer,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 279(1), 23–28 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, L. Gao, Z. Wang, M. J. Thrall, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7903, 79032G, 79032G-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

P. D. Chowdary, Z. Jiang, E. J. Chaney, W. A. Benalcazar, D. L. Marks, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular histopathology by spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging,” Cancer Res. 70(23), 9562–9569 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Li, X. Zhou, J. Ma, and S. T. C. Wong, “Multiple nuclei tracking using integer programming for quantitative cancer cell cycle analysis,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 96–105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, Y. Yang, P. Luo, L. Gao, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Delivery of picosecond lasers in multimode fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13017–13028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mouras, G. Rischitor, A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for drug delivery monitoring and cancer tissue imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(8), 848–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

B. C. Pestalozzi, “Portrait of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast,” Eur. J. Cancer 45(Suppl 1), 450–451 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dian, H. Herold, I. Mylonas, C. Scholz, W. Janni, H. Sommer, and K. Friese, “Survival analysis between patients with invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast cancer,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 279(1), 23–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Le, T. B. Huff, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis,” BMC Cancer 9(1), 42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, X. Zhou, F. Li, J. Huckins, R. W. King, and S. T. C. Wong, “Novel cell segmentation and online SVM for cell cycle phase identification in automated microscopy,” Bioinformatics 24(1), 94–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

M. Müller and A. Zumbusch, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 8(15), 2156–2170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, “In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue,” J. Microsc. 225(2), 175–182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, “Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12076–12087 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(9), 197–208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Heron, “Deaths: leading causes for 2004,” Natl. Vital Stat. Rep. 56(5), 1–95 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (4)

M. J. Beresford, A. R. Padhani, N. J. Taylor, M. L. Ah-See, J. J. Stirling, A. Makris, J. A. d’Arcy, and D. J. Collins, “Inter- and intraobserver variability in the evaluation of dynamic breast cancer MRI,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(6), 1316–1325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Majumder, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of formalin-fixed human breast tissue,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 81(1), 33–42 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Jones, A. Carpenter, and P. Golland, “Voronoi-based segmentation of cells on image manifolds,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3765, 535–543 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(3), 827–840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhou, O. Bousquet, T. Lal, J. Weston, and B. Schölkopf, “Learning with local and global consistency,” Adv.Neural Inform. Proc. Syst. 16, 321–328 (2004).

2003 (1)

X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2202–2208 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, and A. Uppal, “Breast cancer diagnosis using N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(5), 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, M. Zurawska-Szczepaniak, and R. R. Alfano, “Fundamental differences of excitation spectrum between malignant and benign breast tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 518–522 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

P. Robbins, S. Pinder, N. de Klerk, H. Dawkins, J. Harvey, G. Sterrett, I. Ellis, and C. Elston, “Histological grading of breast carcinomas: a study of interobserver agreement,” Hum. Pathol. 26(8), 873–879 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

W. Gander, G. H. Golub, and R. Strebel, “Least-squares fitting of circles and ellipses,” BIT Numer. Math. 34(4), 558–578 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Beucher, “The watershed transformation applied to image segmentation,” Scanning. Microsc. Int. 6, 299–314 (1992).

1991 (1)

L. Vincent and P. Soille, “Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(6), 583–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

I. S. Helland, “Partial least squares regression and statistical models,” Scand. J. Stat. 17, 97–114 (1990).

1988 (1)

A. Höskuldsson, “PLS regression methods,” J. Chemometr. 2(3), 211–228 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. Geladi and B. R. Kowalski, “Partial least-squares regression: a tutorial,” Anal. Chim. Acta 185(1), 1–17 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1907 (1)

G. Voronoi, “Nouvelles applications des paramètres continus à la théorie des formes quadratiques,” J. Reine Angew. Math. 133, 97–178 (1907).

Aguirre, A. D.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ah-See, M. L.

M. J. Beresford, A. R. Padhani, N. J. Taylor, M. L. Ah-See, J. J. Stirling, A. Makris, J. A. d’Arcy, and D. J. Collins, “Inter- and intraobserver variability in the evaluation of dynamic breast cancer MRI,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(6), 1316–1325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akimov, D.

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Y. Yang, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, M. Zurawska-Szczepaniak, and R. R. Alfano, “Fundamental differences of excitation spectrum between malignant and benign breast tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 518–522 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellafiore, F. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benalcazar, W. A.

P. D. Chowdary, Z. Jiang, E. J. Chaney, W. A. Benalcazar, D. L. Marks, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular histopathology by spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging,” Cancer Res. 70(23), 9562–9569 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beresford, M. J.

M. J. Beresford, A. R. Padhani, N. J. Taylor, M. L. Ah-See, J. J. Stirling, A. Makris, J. A. d’Arcy, and D. J. Collins, “Inter- and intraobserver variability in the evaluation of dynamic breast cancer MRI,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(6), 1316–1325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beucher, S.

S. Beucher, “The watershed transformation applied to image segmentation,” Scanning. Microsc. Int. 6, 299–314 (1992).

Bielecki, C.

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blamey, R.

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

P. D. Chowdary, Z. Jiang, E. J. Chaney, W. A. Benalcazar, D. L. Marks, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular histopathology by spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging,” Cancer Res. 70(23), 9562–9569 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bousquet, O.

D. Zhou, O. Bousquet, T. Lal, J. Weston, and B. Schölkopf, “Learning with local and global consistency,” Adv.Neural Inform. Proc. Syst. 16, 321–328 (2004).

Carpenter, A.

T. Jones, A. Carpenter, and P. Golland, “Voronoi-based segmentation of cells on image manifolds,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3765, 535–543 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Castiglione-Gertsch, M.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celmer, E. J.

Y. Yang, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, M. Zurawska-Szczepaniak, and R. R. Alfano, “Fundamental differences of excitation spectrum between malignant and benign breast tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 518–522 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaney, E. J.

P. D. Chowdary, Z. Jiang, E. J. Chaney, W. A. Benalcazar, D. L. Marks, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular histopathology by spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging,” Cancer Res. 70(23), 9562–9569 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

T. T. Le, T. B. Huff, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis,” BMC Cancer 9(1), 42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, “In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue,” J. Microsc. 225(2), 175–182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(9), 197–208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(3), 827–840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2202–2208 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chowdary, M. V.

M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chowdary, P. D.

P. D. Chowdary, Z. Jiang, E. J. Chaney, W. A. Benalcazar, D. L. Marks, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular histopathology by spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging,” Cancer Res. 70(23), 9562–9569 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coates, A. S.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, D. W.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, D. J.

M. J. Beresford, A. R. Padhani, N. J. Taylor, M. L. Ah-See, J. J. Stirling, A. Makris, J. A. d’Arcy, and D. J. Collins, “Inter- and intraobserver variability in the evaluation of dynamic breast cancer MRI,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(6), 1316–1325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connolly, J. L.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Côté, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, J.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, J. P.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

d’Arcy, J. A.

M. J. Beresford, A. R. Padhani, N. J. Taylor, M. L. Ah-See, J. J. Stirling, A. Makris, J. A. d’Arcy, and D. J. Collins, “Inter- and intraobserver variability in the evaluation of dynamic breast cancer MRI,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(6), 1316–1325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawkins, H.

P. Robbins, S. Pinder, N. de Klerk, H. Dawkins, J. Harvey, G. Sterrett, I. Ellis, and C. Elston, “Histological grading of breast carcinomas: a study of interobserver agreement,” Hum. Pathol. 26(8), 873–879 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Klerk, N.

P. Robbins, S. Pinder, N. de Klerk, H. Dawkins, J. Harvey, G. Sterrett, I. Ellis, and C. Elston, “Histological grading of breast carcinomas: a study of interobserver agreement,” Hum. Pathol. 26(8), 873–879 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dian, D.

D. Dian, H. Herold, I. Mylonas, C. Scholz, W. Janni, H. Sommer, and K. Friese, “Survival analysis between patients with invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast cancer,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 279(1), 23–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietzek, B.

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Downes, A.

R. Mouras, G. Rischitor, A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for drug delivery monitoring and cancer tissue imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(8), 848–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Elfick, A.

R. Mouras, G. Rischitor, A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for drug delivery monitoring and cancer tissue imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(8), 848–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, I.

P. Robbins, S. Pinder, N. de Klerk, H. Dawkins, J. Harvey, G. Sterrett, I. Ellis, and C. Elston, “Histological grading of breast carcinomas: a study of interobserver agreement,” Hum. Pathol. 26(8), 873–879 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellis, I. O.

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. E.

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elston, C.

P. Robbins, S. Pinder, N. de Klerk, H. Dawkins, J. Harvey, G. Sterrett, I. Ellis, and C. Elston, “Histological grading of breast carcinomas: a study of interobserver agreement,” Hum. Pathol. 26(8), 873–879 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

Feld, M. S.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friese, K.

D. Dian, H. Herold, I. Mylonas, C. Scholz, W. Janni, H. Sommer, and K. Friese, “Survival analysis between patients with invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast cancer,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 279(1), 23–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gander, W.

W. Gander, G. H. Golub, and R. Strebel, “Least-squares fitting of circles and ellipses,” BIT Numer. Math. 34(4), 558–578 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ganikhanov, F.

Gao, L.

L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, L. Gao, Z. Wang, M. J. Thrall, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7903, 79032G, 79032G-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, Y. Yang, P. Luo, L. Gao, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Delivery of picosecond lasers in multimode fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13017–13028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardecki, J. A.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gee, J.

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geladi, P.

P. Geladi and B. R. Kowalski, “Partial least-squares regression: a tutorial,” Anal. Chim. Acta 185(1), 1–17 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gelber, R. D.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, N.

S. K. Majumder, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of formalin-fixed human breast tissue,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 81(1), 33–42 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldhirsch, A.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golland, P.

T. Jones, A. Carpenter, and P. Golland, “Voronoi-based segmentation of cells on image manifolds,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3765, 535–543 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Golub, G. H.

W. Gander, G. H. Golub, and R. Strebel, “Least-squares fitting of circles and ellipses,” BIT Numer. Math. 34(4), 558–578 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grainge, M. J.

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, A. R.

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruebele, M.

P. D. Chowdary, Z. Jiang, E. J. Chaney, W. A. Benalcazar, D. L. Marks, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular histopathology by spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging,” Cancer Res. 70(23), 9562–9569 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, P. K.

S. K. Majumder, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of formalin-fixed human breast tissue,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 81(1), 33–42 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, and A. Uppal, “Breast cancer diagnosis using N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(5), 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gusterson, B. A.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Habashy, H.

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haka, A. S.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, J.

P. Robbins, S. Pinder, N. de Klerk, H. Dawkins, J. Harvey, G. Sterrett, I. Ellis, and C. Elston, “Histological grading of breast carcinomas: a study of interobserver agreement,” Hum. Pathol. 26(8), 873–879 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helland, I. S.

I. S. Helland, “Partial least squares regression and statistical models,” Scand. J. Stat. 17, 97–114 (1990).

Herold, H.

D. Dian, H. Herold, I. Mylonas, C. Scholz, W. Janni, H. Sommer, and K. Friese, “Survival analysis between patients with invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast cancer,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 279(1), 23–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heron, M.

M. Heron, “Deaths: leading causes for 2004,” Natl. Vital Stat. Rep. 56(5), 1–95 (2007).
[PubMed]

Hicks, D.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmberg, S. B.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höskuldsson, A.

A. Höskuldsson, “PLS regression methods,” J. Chemometr. 2(3), 211–228 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Huckins, J.

M. Wang, X. Zhou, F. Li, J. Huckins, R. W. King, and S. T. C. Wong, “Novel cell segmentation and online SVM for cell cycle phase identification in automated microscopy,” Bioinformatics 24(1), 94–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huff, T. B.

T. T. Le, T. B. Huff, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis,” BMC Cancer 9(1), 42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, “In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue,” J. Microsc. 225(2), 175–182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janni, W.

D. Dian, H. Herold, I. Mylonas, C. Scholz, W. Janni, H. Sommer, and K. Friese, “Survival analysis between patients with invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast cancer,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 279(1), 23–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

P. D. Chowdary, Z. Jiang, E. J. Chaney, W. A. Benalcazar, D. L. Marks, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular histopathology by spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging,” Cancer Res. 70(23), 9562–9569 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. A.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, T.

T. Jones, A. Carpenter, and P. Golland, “Voronoi-based segmentation of cells on image manifolds,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3765, 535–543 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Katz, A.

Y. Yang, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, M. Zurawska-Szczepaniak, and R. R. Alfano, “Fundamental differences of excitation spectrum between malignant and benign breast tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 518–522 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kesari, S.

King, R. W.

M. Wang, X. Zhou, F. Li, J. Huckins, R. W. King, and S. T. C. Wong, “Novel cell segmentation and online SVM for cell cycle phase identification in automated microscopy,” Bioinformatics 24(1), 94–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotynek, J. G.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalski, B. R.

P. Geladi and B. R. Kowalski, “Partial least-squares regression: a tutorial,” Anal. Chim. Acta 185(1), 1–17 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Krafft, C.

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishna, C. M.

M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, K. K.

M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurien, J.

M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lal, T.

D. Zhou, O. Bousquet, T. Lal, J. Weston, and B. Schölkopf, “Learning with local and global consistency,” Adv.Neural Inform. Proc. Syst. 16, 321–328 (2004).

Le, T. T.

T. T. Le, T. B. Huff, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis,” BMC Cancer 9(1), 42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, A. H.

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. C.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F.

L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Li, X. Zhou, J. Ma, and S. T. C. Wong, “Multiple nuclei tracking using integer programming for quantitative cancer cell cycle analysis,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 96–105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, X. Zhou, F. Li, J. Huckins, R. W. King, and S. T. C. Wong, “Novel cell segmentation and online SVM for cell cycle phase identification in automated microscopy,” Bioinformatics 24(1), 94–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindtner, J.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, P.

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, L. Gao, Z. Wang, M. J. Thrall, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7903, 79032G, 79032G-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Yang, P. Luo, L. Gao, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Delivery of picosecond lasers in multimode fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13017–13028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyons, J.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, J.

F. Li, X. Zhou, J. Ma, and S. T. C. Wong, “Multiple nuclei tracking using integer programming for quantitative cancer cell cycle analysis,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 96–105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majumder, S. K.

S. K. Majumder, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of formalin-fixed human breast tissue,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 81(1), 33–42 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, and A. Uppal, “Breast cancer diagnosis using N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(5), 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makris, A.

M. J. Beresford, A. R. Padhani, N. J. Taylor, M. L. Ah-See, J. J. Stirling, A. Makris, J. A. d’Arcy, and D. J. Collins, “Inter- and intraobserver variability in the evaluation of dynamic breast cancer MRI,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(6), 1316–1325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallon, E.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

P. D. Chowdary, Z. Jiang, E. J. Chaney, W. A. Benalcazar, D. L. Marks, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular histopathology by spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging,” Cancer Res. 70(23), 9562–9569 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathew, S.

M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, T.

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mondelblatt, A. E.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mouras, R.

R. Mouras, G. Rischitor, A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for drug delivery monitoring and cancer tissue imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(8), 848–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

M. Müller and A. Zumbusch, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 8(15), 2156–2170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, E.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mylonas, I.

D. Dian, H. Herold, I. Mylonas, C. Scholz, W. Janni, H. Sommer, and K. Friese, “Survival analysis between patients with invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast cancer,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 279(1), 23–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nan, X.

X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2202–2208 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazemi, J.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, F. T.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicholson, R. I.

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliphant, U. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padhani, A. R.

M. J. Beresford, A. R. Padhani, N. J. Taylor, M. L. Ah-See, J. J. Stirling, A. Makris, J. A. d’Arcy, and D. J. Collins, “Inter- and intraobserver variability in the evaluation of dynamic breast cancer MRI,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(6), 1316–1325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palapattu, G. S.

Pestalozzi, B. C.

B. C. Pestalozzi, “Portrait of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast,” Eur. J. Cancer 45(Suppl 1), 450–451 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, I.

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinder, S.

P. Robbins, S. Pinder, N. de Klerk, H. Dawkins, J. Harvey, G. Sterrett, I. Ellis, and C. Elston, “Histological grading of breast carcinomas: a study of interobserver agreement,” Hum. Pathol. 26(8), 873–879 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popp, J.

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powe, D. G.

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, K. N.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puoris’haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakha, E. A.

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramoji, A. A.

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rischitor, G.

R. Mouras, G. Rischitor, A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for drug delivery monitoring and cancer tissue imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(8), 848–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, P.

P. Robbins, S. Pinder, N. de Klerk, H. Dawkins, J. Harvey, G. Sterrett, I. Ellis, and C. Elston, “Histological grading of breast carcinomas: a study of interobserver agreement,” Hum. Pathol. 26(8), 873–879 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robertson, J. F.

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rösch, P.

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowland, K. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saar, B. G.

Salter, D.

R. Mouras, G. Rischitor, A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for drug delivery monitoring and cancer tissue imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(8), 848–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M.

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schölkopf, B.

D. Zhou, O. Bousquet, T. Lal, J. Weston, and B. Schölkopf, “Learning with local and global consistency,” Adv.Neural Inform. Proc. Syst. 16, 321–328 (2004).

Scholz, C.

D. Dian, H. Herold, I. Mylonas, C. Scholz, W. Janni, H. Sommer, and K. Friese, “Survival analysis between patients with invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast cancer,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 279(1), 23–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafer-Peltier, K. E.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, R.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soille, P.

L. Vincent and P. Soille, “Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(6), 583–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sommer, H.

D. Dian, H. Herold, I. Mylonas, C. Scholz, W. Janni, H. Sommer, and K. Friese, “Survival analysis between patients with invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast cancer,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 279(1), 23–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stallmach, A.

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterrett, G.

P. Robbins, S. Pinder, N. de Klerk, H. Dawkins, J. Harvey, G. Sterrett, I. Ellis, and C. Elston, “Histological grading of breast carcinomas: a study of interobserver agreement,” Hum. Pathol. 26(8), 873–879 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stirling, J. J.

M. J. Beresford, A. R. Padhani, N. J. Taylor, M. L. Ah-See, J. J. Stirling, A. Makris, J. A. d’Arcy, and D. J. Collins, “Inter- and intraobserver variability in the evaluation of dynamic breast cancer MRI,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(6), 1316–1325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strebel, R.

W. Gander, G. H. Golub, and R. Strebel, “Least-squares fitting of circles and ellipses,” BIT Numer. Math. 34(4), 558–578 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, N. J.

M. J. Beresford, A. R. Padhani, N. J. Taylor, M. L. Ah-See, J. J. Stirling, A. Makris, J. A. d’Arcy, and D. J. Collins, “Inter- and intraobserver variability in the evaluation of dynamic breast cancer MRI,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(6), 1316–1325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thrall, M. J.

Y. Yang, L. Gao, Z. Wang, M. J. Thrall, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7903, 79032G, 79032G-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thürlimann, B.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T. H.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uppal, A.

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, and A. Uppal, “Breast cancer diagnosis using N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(5), 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viale, G.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincent, L.

L. Vincent and P. Soille, “Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(6), 583–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vogler, N.

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volynskaya, Z.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voronoi, G.

G. Voronoi, “Nouvelles applications des paramètres continus à la théorie des formes quadratiques,” J. Reine Angew. Math. 133, 97–178 (1907).

Wang, M.

M. Wang, X. Zhou, F. Li, J. Huckins, R. W. King, and S. T. C. Wong, “Novel cell segmentation and online SVM for cell cycle phase identification in automated microscopy,” Bioinformatics 24(1), 94–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, L. Gao, Z. Wang, M. J. Thrall, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7903, 79032G, 79032G-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Yang, P. Luo, L. Gao, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Delivery of picosecond lasers in multimode fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13017–13028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weston, J.

D. Zhou, O. Bousquet, T. Lal, J. Weston, and B. Schölkopf, “Learning with local and global consistency,” Adv.Neural Inform. Proc. Syst. 16, 321–328 (2004).

Wong, K. K.

Y. Yang, L. Gao, Z. Wang, M. J. Thrall, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7903, 79032G, 79032G-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Yang, P. Luo, L. Gao, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Delivery of picosecond lasers in multimode fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13017–13028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, S. T. C.

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, L. Gao, Z. Wang, M. J. Thrall, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7903, 79032G, 79032G-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Yang, P. Luo, L. Gao, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Delivery of picosecond lasers in multimode fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13017–13028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Li, X. Zhou, J. Ma, and S. T. C. Wong, “Multiple nuclei tracking using integer programming for quantitative cancer cell cycle analysis,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 96–105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, X. Zhou, F. Li, J. Huckins, R. W. King, and S. T. C. Wong, “Novel cell segmentation and online SVM for cell cycle phase identification in automated microscopy,” Bioinformatics 24(1), 94–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, “Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12076–12087 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, “Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12076–12087 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(3), 827–840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2202–2208 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, J.

L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Yang, Y.

L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, L. Gao, Z. Wang, M. J. Thrall, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7903, 79032G, 79032G-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, Y. Yang, P. Luo, L. Gao, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Delivery of picosecond lasers in multimode fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13017–13028 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, M. Zurawska-Szczepaniak, and R. R. Alfano, “Fundamental differences of excitation spectrum between malignant and benign breast tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 518–522 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, G. S.

Zahrieh, D.

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou, O. Bousquet, T. Lal, J. Weston, and B. Schölkopf, “Learning with local and global consistency,” Adv.Neural Inform. Proc. Syst. 16, 321–328 (2004).

Zhou, H.

Zhou, X.

F. Li, X. Zhou, J. Ma, and S. T. C. Wong, “Multiple nuclei tracking using integer programming for quantitative cancer cell cycle analysis,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 96–105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, X. Zhou, F. Li, J. Huckins, R. W. King, and S. T. C. Wong, “Novel cell segmentation and online SVM for cell cycle phase identification in automated microscopy,” Bioinformatics 24(1), 94–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zumbusch, A.

M. Müller and A. Zumbusch, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 8(15), 2156–2170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zurawska-Szczepaniak, M.

Y. Yang, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, M. Zurawska-Szczepaniak, and R. R. Alfano, “Fundamental differences of excitation spectrum between malignant and benign breast tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 518–522 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv.Neural Inform. Proc. Syst. (1)

D. Zhou, O. Bousquet, T. Lal, J. Weston, and B. Schölkopf, “Learning with local and global consistency,” Adv.Neural Inform. Proc. Syst. 16, 321–328 (2004).

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

P. Geladi and B. R. Kowalski, “Partial least-squares regression: a tutorial,” Anal. Chim. Acta 185(1), 1–17 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) (1)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(9), 197–208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. (1)

D. Dian, H. Herold, I. Mylonas, C. Scholz, W. Janni, H. Sommer, and K. Friese, “Survival analysis between patients with invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast cancer,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 279(1), 23–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bioinformatics (1)

M. Wang, X. Zhou, F. Li, J. Huckins, R. W. King, and S. T. C. Wong, “Novel cell segmentation and online SVM for cell cycle phase identification in automated microscopy,” Bioinformatics 24(1), 94–101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biopolymers (1)

M. V. Chowdary, K. K. Kumar, J. Kurien, S. Mathew, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 83(5), 556–569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

BIT Numer. Math. (1)

W. Gander, G. H. Golub, and R. Strebel, “Least-squares fitting of circles and ellipses,” BIT Numer. Math. 34(4), 558–578 (1994).
[CrossRef]

BMC Cancer (1)

T. T. Le, T. B. Huff, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis,” BMC Cancer 9(1), 42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (4)

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Chowdary, Z. Jiang, E. J. Chaney, W. A. Benalcazar, D. L. Marks, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular histopathology by spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging,” Cancer Res. 70(23), 9562–9569 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H. C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T. H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ChemPhysChem (1)

M. Müller and A. Zumbusch, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 8(15), 2156–2170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Cancer (2)

E. A. Rakha, M. E. El-Sayed, D. G. Powe, A. R. Green, H. Habashy, M. J. Grainge, J. F. Robertson, R. Blamey, J. Gee, R. I. Nicholson, A. H. Lee, and I. O. Ellis, “Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes,” Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 73–83 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Pestalozzi, “Portrait of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast,” Eur. J. Cancer 45(Suppl 1), 450–451 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hum. Pathol. (1)

P. Robbins, S. Pinder, N. de Klerk, H. Dawkins, J. Harvey, G. Sterrett, I. Ellis, and C. Elston, “Histological grading of breast carcinomas: a study of interobserver agreement,” Hum. Pathol. 26(8), 873–879 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

F. Li, X. Zhou, J. Ma, and S. T. C. Wong, “Multiple nuclei tracking using integer programming for quantitative cancer cell cycle analysis,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 96–105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

L. Vincent and P. Soille, “Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(6), 583–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J Biophotonics (1)

C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chemometr. (1)

A. Höskuldsson, “PLS regression methods,” J. Chemometr. 2(3), 211–228 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

B. C. Pestalozzi, D. Zahrieh, E. Mallon, B. A. Gusterson, K. N. Price, R. D. Gelber, S. B. Holmberg, J. Lindtner, R. Snyder, B. Thürlimann, E. Murray, G. Viale, M. Castiglione-Gertsch, A. S. Coates, A. Goldhirsch, and International Breast Cancer Study Group, “Distinct clinical and prognostic features of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: combined results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group clinical trials,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(18), 3006–3014 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lipid Res. (1)

X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2202–2208 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Magn. Reson. Imaging (1)

M. J. Beresford, A. R. Padhani, N. J. Taylor, M. L. Ah-See, J. J. Stirling, A. Makris, J. A. d’Arcy, and D. J. Collins, “Inter- and intraobserver variability in the evaluation of dynamic breast cancer MRI,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(6), 1316–1325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, “In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue,” J. Microsc. 225(2), 175–182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

S. K. Majumder, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of formalin-fixed human breast tissue,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 81(1), 33–42 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(3), 827–840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

R. Mouras, G. Rischitor, A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for drug delivery monitoring and cancer tissue imaging,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(8), 848–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Reine Angew. Math. (1)

G. Voronoi, “Nouvelles applications des paramètres continus à la théorie des formes quadratiques,” J. Reine Angew. Math. 133, 97–178 (1907).

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, and A. Uppal, “Breast cancer diagnosis using N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21(5), 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (1)

T. Jones, A. Carpenter, and P. Golland, “Voronoi-based segmentation of cells on image manifolds,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3765, 535–543 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Natl. Vital Stat. Rep. (1)

M. Heron, “Deaths: leading causes for 2004,” Natl. Vital Stat. Rep. 56(5), 1–95 (2007).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

Y. Yang, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, M. Zurawska-Szczepaniak, and R. R. Alfano, “Fundamental differences of excitation spectrum between malignant and benign breast tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66(4), 518–522 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. Gao, Y. Yang, J. Xing, M. J. Thrall, Z. Wang, F. Li, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, H. Zhao, and S. T. C. Wong, “Diagnosing lung cancer using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7890, 789015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, L. Gao, Z. Wang, M. J. Thrall, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7903, 79032G, 79032G-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scand. J. Stat. (1)

I. S. Helland, “Partial least squares regression and statistical models,” Scand. J. Stat. 17, 97–114 (1990).

Scanning. Microsc. Int. (1)

S. Beucher, “The watershed transformation applied to image segmentation,” Scanning. Microsc. Int. 6, 299–314 (1992).

Other (5)

V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, N. Fausto, and J. C. Aster, Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 8th ed, (Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA, 2009).

J. O'Rourke, Computational Geometry in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, NewYork, 1998).

H. Abdi, “Partial least squares (PLS) regression,” in. Encyclopedia for Research Methods for the social Sciences, M. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, and T. Futing, eds. (Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003).

American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts & Figures 2011 (American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, 2011).

J. Wang, S. F. Chang, X. Zhou, and S. T. C. Wong, “Active microscopic cellular image annotation by superposable graph transduction with imbalanced labels,” in IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2008. CVPR 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–8.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of CARS microscopy. M: mirror, OPO: optical parametric oscillator, DL: delay line, DM: dichroic mirror, L: lens, MO: microscope objective, BT: breast tissue, BPF: band-pass filter, PMT: photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A CARS image (A) from the Z-stacks of an IDC sample, showing cell nuclei segmentation (B), Voronoi tessellation (C), and Delaunay triangulation (D). Image size: 120 x 120 µm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Validation results of cell nuclear segmentation. DCIS: ductal carcinoma in situ, IG-IDC: intermediate-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, HG-IDC: High-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, ILC: invasive lobular carcinoma.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CARS images of human breast tissues taken at Raman shift of 2845 cm−1 and their H&E stained images from similar regions. Images of (A) adipose and (C) fibrous structures in normal tissues and their H&E stained images (B) and (D). Image (E) of a kind of fibroadenoma (a benign lesion) and its H&E stained image (F), in which a compressed duct can be clearly seen as a linear branching pattern with slit-like lumen, as indicated by the arrow. Image (G) of DCIS and its H&E stained image (H). Images of (I) IG-IDC and (K) HG-IDC and their H&E stained images (J) and (L). Image (M) of ILC and its H&E stained image (N). Scale bars: 10 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Distributions of the seven features of four subtypes of breast cancer: (A) nuclear size, (B) major and (C) minor radii, (D) Voronoi tessellation size, as well as (E) average, (F) major and (G) minor neighbor distances.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatial distributions of four subtypes of breast cancer using the 35-feature set under PLSR analysis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Overview of the classification scheme.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Classification accuracy of separating cancer subtypes from each other (Accuracy = (true positive + true negative) / total testing samples)

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ ( F ) = 1 2 ( i , j = 1 m W i j F i / D i i F j / D j j 2 + μ i = 1 m F i Y i 2 )

Metrics