Abstract

We report the use of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) as a photostable fluorescent probe for high resolution saturated excitation (SAX) microscopy. We confirmed that FNDs show a nonlinear fluorescence response under saturated excitation conditions generated by intense excitation light. Using FNDs, we quantified the spatial resolution improvement inherent in SAX microscopy, and experimentally demonstrated the scalability of the spatial resolution of SAX microscopy. The photostability of the FNDs allowed us to perform nanoparticle imaging of a multicolor-stained macrophage cell with a spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, “Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 19(11), 780–782 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Bretschneider, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking the diffraction barrier in fluorescence microscopy by optical shelving,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 218103 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. G. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Heintzmann, T. M. Jovin, and C. Cremer, “Saturated patterned excitation microscopy--a concept for optical resolution improvement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(8), 1599–1609 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Humpolíčková, A. Benda, and J. Enderlein, “Optical saturation as a versatile tool to enhance resolution in confocal microscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2623–2629 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. O. Schwartz and D. Oron, “Using variable pupil filters to optimize the resolution in multiphoton and saturable fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 464–466 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. O. Haeberlé and B. Simon, “Saturated structured confocal microscopy with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3657–3664 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Yamanaka, S. Kawano, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, and S. Kawata, “Beyond the diffraction-limit biological imaging by saturated excitation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050507 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, M. Yamanaka, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Determination of the expanded optical transfer function in saturated excitation imaging and high harmonic demodulation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(4), 042401 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Kong, L.-C. L. Huang, S.-C. V. Liau, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, “Polylysine-coated diamond nanocrystals for MALDI-TOF mass analysis of DNA oligonucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 77(13), 4273–4277 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Davies and M. F. Hamer, “Optical studies of the 1.945 eV vibronic band in diamond,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 348(1653), 285–298 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Jelezko and J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centers in diamond: A review,” Phys. Status Solidi 203(13), 3207–3225 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. J. Rogers, S. Armstrong, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Infrared emission of the NV centre in diamond: Zeeman and uniaxial stress studies,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 103024 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. B. Manson, J. P. Harrison, and M. J. Sellars, “Nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond: model of the electrons structure and associated dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 74(10), 104303 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Rittweger, D. Wildanger, and S. W. Hell, “Far-field fluorescence nanoscopy of diamond color centers by ground state depletion,” Europhys. Lett. 86(1), 14001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. P.-H. Yang, X. Sun, J.-F. Chiu, H. Sun, and Q.-Y. He, “Transferrin-mediated gold nanoparticle cellular uptake,” Bioconjug. Chem. 16(3), 494–496 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. Verma and F. Stellacci, “Effect of surface properties on nanoparticle-cell interactions,” Small 6(1), 12–21 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, M. Yamanaka, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Determination of the expanded optical transfer function in saturated excitation imaging and high harmonic demodulation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(4), 042401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

A. Verma and F. Stellacci, “Effect of surface properties on nanoparticle-cell interactions,” Small 6(1), 12–21 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

E. Rittweger, D. Wildanger, and S. W. Hell, “Far-field fluorescence nanoscopy of diamond color centers by ground state depletion,” Europhys. Lett. 86(1), 14001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Humpolíčková, A. Benda, and J. Enderlein, “Optical saturation as a versatile tool to enhance resolution in confocal microscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2623–2629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schwartz and D. Oron, “Using variable pupil filters to optimize the resolution in multiphoton and saturable fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 464–466 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Haeberlé and B. Simon, “Saturated structured confocal microscopy with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3657–3664 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanaka, S. Kawano, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, and S. Kawata, “Beyond the diffraction-limit biological imaging by saturated excitation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050507 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Rogers, S. Armstrong, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Infrared emission of the NV centre in diamond: Zeeman and uniaxial stress studies,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 103024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Bretschneider, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking the diffraction barrier in fluorescence microscopy by optical shelving,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 218103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. B. Manson, J. P. Harrison, and M. J. Sellars, “Nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond: model of the electrons structure and associated dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 74(10), 104303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Jelezko and J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centers in diamond: A review,” Phys. Status Solidi 203(13), 3207–3225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

P.-H. Yang, X. Sun, J.-F. Chiu, H. Sun, and Q.-Y. He, “Transferrin-mediated gold nanoparticle cellular uptake,” Bioconjug. Chem. 16(3), 494–496 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Kong, L.-C. L. Huang, S.-C. V. Liau, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, “Polylysine-coated diamond nanocrystals for MALDI-TOF mass analysis of DNA oligonucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 77(13), 4273–4277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1994 (1)

1976 (1)

G. Davies and M. F. Hamer, “Optical studies of the 1.945 eV vibronic band in diamond,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 348(1653), 285–298 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, S.

L. J. Rogers, S. Armstrong, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Infrared emission of the NV centre in diamond: Zeeman and uniaxial stress studies,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 103024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arnault, J. C.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benda, A.

J. Humpolíčková, A. Benda, and J. Enderlein, “Optical saturation as a versatile tool to enhance resolution in confocal microscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2623–2629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudou, J. P.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bretschneider, S.

S. Bretschneider, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking the diffraction barrier in fluorescence microscopy by optical shelving,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 218103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H.-C.

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Kong, L.-C. L. Huang, S.-C. V. Liau, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, “Polylysine-coated diamond nanocrystals for MALDI-TOF mass analysis of DNA oligonucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 77(13), 4273–4277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-M.

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, J.-F.

P.-H. Yang, X. Sun, J.-F. Chiu, H. Sun, and Q.-Y. He, “Transferrin-mediated gold nanoparticle cellular uptake,” Bioconjug. Chem. 16(3), 494–496 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cremer, C.

Curmi, P. A.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, G.

G. Davies and M. F. Hamer, “Optical studies of the 1.945 eV vibronic band in diamond,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 348(1653), 285–298 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Eggeling, C.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Bretschneider, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking the diffraction barrier in fluorescence microscopy by optical shelving,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 218103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enderlein, J.

J. Humpolíčková, A. Benda, and J. Enderlein, “Optical saturation as a versatile tool to enhance resolution in confocal microscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2623–2629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faklaris, O.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, K.

S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, M. Yamanaka, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Determination of the expanded optical transfer function in saturated excitation imaging and high harmonic demodulation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(4), 042401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamanaka, S. Kawano, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, and S. Kawata, “Beyond the diffraction-limit biological imaging by saturated excitation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050507 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gesset, C.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, H.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girirajan, T. P. K.

S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, M. G.

M. G. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haeberlé, O.

O. Haeberlé and B. Simon, “Saturated structured confocal microscopy with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3657–3664 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hamer, M. F.

G. Davies and M. F. Hamer, “Optical studies of the 1.945 eV vibronic band in diamond,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 348(1653), 285–298 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Han, C.-C.

X. Kong, L.-C. L. Huang, S.-C. V. Liau, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, “Polylysine-coated diamond nanocrystals for MALDI-TOF mass analysis of DNA oligonucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 77(13), 4273–4277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, K. Y.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, J. P.

N. B. Manson, J. P. Harrison, and M. J. Sellars, “Nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond: model of the electrons structure and associated dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 74(10), 104303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, Q.-Y.

P.-H. Yang, X. Sun, J.-F. Chiu, H. Sun, and Q.-Y. He, “Transferrin-mediated gold nanoparticle cellular uptake,” Bioconjug. Chem. 16(3), 494–496 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heintzmann, R.

Hell, S. W.

E. Rittweger, D. Wildanger, and S. W. Hell, “Far-field fluorescence nanoscopy of diamond color centers by ground state depletion,” Europhys. Lett. 86(1), 14001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bretschneider, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking the diffraction barrier in fluorescence microscopy by optical shelving,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 218103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, “Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 19(11), 780–782 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, S. T.

S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L.-C. L.

X. Kong, L.-C. L. Huang, S.-C. V. Liau, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, “Polylysine-coated diamond nanocrystals for MALDI-TOF mass analysis of DNA oligonucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 77(13), 4273–4277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humpolícková, J.

J. Humpolíčková, A. Benda, and J. Enderlein, “Optical saturation as a versatile tool to enhance resolution in confocal microscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2623–2629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irinopoulou, T.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irvine, S. E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jahn, R.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jelezko, F.

F. Jelezko and J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centers in diamond: A review,” Phys. Status Solidi 203(13), 3207–3225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, V.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jovin, T. M.

Kamin, D.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, M.-W.

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawano, S.

S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, M. Yamanaka, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Determination of the expanded optical transfer function in saturated excitation imaging and high harmonic demodulation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(4), 042401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamanaka, S. Kawano, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, and S. Kawata, “Beyond the diffraction-limit biological imaging by saturated excitation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050507 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, M. Yamanaka, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Determination of the expanded optical transfer function in saturated excitation imaging and high harmonic demodulation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(4), 042401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamanaka, S. Kawano, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, and S. Kawata, “Beyond the diffraction-limit biological imaging by saturated excitation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050507 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, M.

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, X.

X. Kong, L.-C. L. Huang, S.-C. V. Liau, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, “Polylysine-coated diamond nanocrystals for MALDI-TOF mass analysis of DNA oligonucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 77(13), 4273–4277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauterbach, M. A.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liau, S.-C. V.

X. Kong, L.-C. L. Huang, S.-C. V. Liau, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, “Polylysine-coated diamond nanocrystals for MALDI-TOF mass analysis of DNA oligonucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 77(13), 4273–4277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manson, N. B.

L. J. Rogers, S. Armstrong, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Infrared emission of the NV centre in diamond: Zeeman and uniaxial stress studies,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 103024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Manson, J. P. Harrison, and M. J. Sellars, “Nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond: model of the electrons structure and associated dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 74(10), 104303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mason, M. D.

S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rittweger, E.

E. Rittweger, D. Wildanger, and S. W. Hell, “Far-field fluorescence nanoscopy of diamond color centers by ground state depletion,” Europhys. Lett. 86(1), 14001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rizzoli, S. O.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, L. J.

L. J. Rogers, S. Armstrong, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Infrared emission of the NV centre in diamond: Zeeman and uniaxial stress studies,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 103024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rust, M. J.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, O.

Sellars, M. J.

L. J. Rogers, S. Armstrong, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Infrared emission of the NV centre in diamond: Zeeman and uniaxial stress studies,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 103024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Manson, J. P. Harrison, and M. J. Sellars, “Nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond: model of the electrons structure and associated dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 74(10), 104303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sennour, M.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, B.

O. Haeberlé and B. Simon, “Saturated structured confocal microscopy with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3657–3664 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N. I.

S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, M. Yamanaka, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Determination of the expanded optical transfer function in saturated excitation imaging and high harmonic demodulation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(4), 042401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamanaka, S. Kawano, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, and S. Kawata, “Beyond the diffraction-limit biological imaging by saturated excitation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050507 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stellacci, F.

A. Verma and F. Stellacci, “Effect of surface properties on nanoparticle-cell interactions,” Small 6(1), 12–21 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H.

P.-H. Yang, X. Sun, J.-F. Chiu, H. Sun, and Q.-Y. He, “Transferrin-mediated gold nanoparticle cellular uptake,” Bioconjug. Chem. 16(3), 494–496 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

P.-H. Yang, X. Sun, J.-F. Chiu, H. Sun, and Q.-Y. He, “Transferrin-mediated gold nanoparticle cellular uptake,” Bioconjug. Chem. 16(3), 494–496 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tauc, P.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorel, A.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treussart, F.

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verma, A.

A. Verma and F. Stellacci, “Effect of surface properties on nanoparticle-cell interactions,” Small 6(1), 12–21 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, V.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wichmann, J.

Wildanger, D.

E. Rittweger, D. Wildanger, and S. W. Hell, “Far-field fluorescence nanoscopy of diamond color centers by ground state depletion,” Europhys. Lett. 86(1), 14001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wrachtrup, J.

F. Jelezko and J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centers in diamond: A review,” Phys. Status Solidi 203(13), 3207–3225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, M.

S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, M. Yamanaka, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Determination of the expanded optical transfer function in saturated excitation imaging and high harmonic demodulation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(4), 042401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamanaka, S. Kawano, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, and S. Kawata, “Beyond the diffraction-limit biological imaging by saturated excitation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050507 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.-H.

P.-H. Yang, X. Sun, J.-F. Chiu, H. Sun, and Q.-Y. He, “Transferrin-mediated gold nanoparticle cellular uptake,” Bioconjug. Chem. 16(3), 494–496 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, S.-J.

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.-C.

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, X.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

O. Faklaris, V. Joshi, T. Irinopoulou, P. Tauc, M. Sennour, H. Girard, C. Gesset, J. C. Arnault, A. Thorel, J. P. Boudou, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells,” ACS Nano 3(12), 3955–3962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

X. Kong, L.-C. L. Huang, S.-C. V. Liau, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, “Polylysine-coated diamond nanocrystals for MALDI-TOF mass analysis of DNA oligonucleotides,” Anal. Chem. 77(13), 4273–4277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, M. Yamanaka, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Determination of the expanded optical transfer function in saturated excitation imaging and high harmonic demodulation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(4), 042401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bioconjug. Chem. (1)

P.-H. Yang, X. Sun, J.-F. Chiu, H. Sun, and Q.-Y. He, “Transferrin-mediated gold nanoparticle cellular uptake,” Bioconjug. Chem. 16(3), 494–496 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (2)

S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Humpolíčková, A. Benda, and J. Enderlein, “Optical saturation as a versatile tool to enhance resolution in confocal microscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2623–2629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

E. Rittweger, D. Wildanger, and S. W. Hell, “Far-field fluorescence nanoscopy of diamond color centers by ground state depletion,” Europhys. Lett. 86(1), 14001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, “Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: no photobleaching and low cytotoxicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(50), 17604–17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Yamanaka, S. Kawano, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, and S. Kawata, “Beyond the diffraction-limit biological imaging by saturated excitation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050507 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

N. J. Phys. (1)

L. J. Rogers, S. Armstrong, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Infrared emission of the NV centre in diamond: Zeeman and uniaxial stress studies,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 103024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. Haeberlé and B. Simon, “Saturated structured confocal microscopy with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3657–3664 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

N. B. Manson, J. P. Harrison, and M. J. Sellars, “Nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond: model of the electrons structure and associated dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 74(10), 104303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Bretschneider, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking the diffraction barrier in fluorescence microscopy by optical shelving,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 218103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

F. Jelezko and J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centers in diamond: A review,” Phys. Status Solidi 203(13), 3207–3225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

M. G. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. (1)

G. Davies and M. F. Hamer, “Optical studies of the 1.945 eV vibronic band in diamond,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 348(1653), 285–298 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

A. Verma and F. Stellacci, “Effect of surface properties on nanoparticle-cell interactions,” Small 6(1), 12–21 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Structure of the nitrogen-vacancy defect center in diamond and (b) the energy level scheme

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The calculated relationship between demodulated fluorescence from the FNDs and the excitation intensity

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The calculated effective PSFs for fluorescence signals demodulated at the fundamental (fm ) and the harmonic frequencies (2fm, 3fm, and 4fm). The excitation intensities for fm , 2fm , 3fm , 4fm are 3.5, 9, 17, 25 kW/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimentally measured relationship between FND demodulated fluorescence and excitation intensity. The modulation frequency of the excitation laser was 10 kHz. Dotted lines show the gradients of slopes of 1, 2, 3, and 4, as viewed from the left side of the graph.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence images of a single FND with a diameter of approximately 100 nm. The fluorescence images were obtained by demodulation at the fundamental frequency (a, 10 kHz) and the harmonic frequencies (b, 20 kHz), (c, 30 kHz), and (d, 40 kHz).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images of a single FND observed by SAX microscopy with the third harmonic demodulation (3fm , 30 kHz). Each image (1-8) was obtained sequentially from the FND with a diameter of 100 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fluorescence images of FNDs and mitochondria in macrophages in the focal plane (x-y image). a) Dual-color image constructed with a confocal image of mitochondria and a SAX image of FNDs, b) mitochondria and FNDs imaged simultaneously without SAX, c) confocal and d) SAX image of FNDs after bleaching the mitochondria staining dye. The distribution of mitochondria in a) was obtained by subtracting c) from b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fluorescence images of FNDs and mitochondria in macrophages along the optical axis (x-z image). a) Dual-color image constructed with a confocal image of mitochondria and SAX image of FNDs, b) mitochondria and FNDs observed simultaneously without SAX, c) confocal and d) SAX image of FNDs after bleaching the mitochondria staining dye. The distribution of mitochondria in a) was obtained by subtracting c) from b).

Metrics