Abstract

One strategy for assessing efficacy of a liver transplant is to monitor perfusion and oxygenation after transplantation. An implantable optical sensor is being developed to overcome inadequacies of current monitoring approaches. To facilitate sensor design while minimizing animal use, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based liver phantom was developed to mimic the optical properties of porcine liver in the 630-1000 nm wavelength range and the anatomical geometry of liver parenchyma. Using soft lithography to construct microfluidic channels in pigmented elastomer enabled the 2D approximation of hexagonal liver lobules with 15mm sinusoidal channels, which will allow perfusion with blood-mimicking fluids to facilitate the development of the liver perfusion and oxygenation monitoring system.

© 2011 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).
  6. D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 192–215 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Shang, Y. Q. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. X. Dong, D. Irwin, and G. Q. Yu, “Portable optical tissue flow oximeter based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3556–3558 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  10. T. J. King, T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “A phantom that mimics optical and flow properties of liver for developing a perfusion sensor,” presented at Biomedical Engineering Society Annual Meeting, Austin, TX (Oct. 6–9, 2010).
  11. S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  20. A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. M. Olerud, J. B. Olsen, and A. Skretting, “An anthropomorphic phantom for receiver operating characteristic studies in CT imaging of liver lesions,” Br. J. Radiol. 72(853), 35–43 (1999).
    [PubMed]
  22. P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).
  25. D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Sun and Y. Wang, “Measurements of optical parameters of phantom solution and bulk animal tissues in vitro at 650 nm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(1), 1–7 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. “Liver,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver .
  28. “Lobules of liver,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_lobule .
  29. “Polydimethylsiloxane,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polydimethylsiloxane .
  30. F. P. Bolin, L. E. Preuss, R. C. Taylor, and R. J. Ference, “Refractive index of some mammalian tissues using a fiber optic cladding method,” Appl. Opt. 28(12), 2297–2303 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. L. Jacques, “Skin Optics” (1998), http://omlc.ogi.edu/news/jan98/skinoptics.html .
  32. S. A. Prahl, “Inverse Adding-Doubling,” http://omlc.ogi.edu/software/iad/ .
  33. S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid mediaby using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 559–568 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .
  35. A. C. Guyton, “The liver as an organ,” in Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed. (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1991), p. 771.
  36. B. C. Wilson and M. S. Patterson, “The physics of photodynamic therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 31(4), 327–360 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. D. Zhu, Q. M. Luo, and J. A. Cen, “Effects of dehydration on the optical properties of in vitro porcine liver,” Lasers Surg. Med. 33(4), 226–231 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical-properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  41. J. F. Beek, H. J. van Staveren, P. Posthumus, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. Gemert, “The influence of respiration on the optical properties of piglet lung at 632.8 nm,” in Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, G. Müller, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, S. R. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. R. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. van der Zee, eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, 1993), Vol. IS11, pp. 193–210.
  42. P. Parsa, S. L. Jacques, and N. S. Nishioka, “Optical properties of rat liver between 350 and 2200 nm,” Appl. Opt. 28(12), 2325–2330 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

P. Sun and Y. Wang, “Measurements of optical parameters of phantom solution and bulk animal tissues in vitro at 650 nm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(1), 1–7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Y. Shang, Y. Q. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. X. Dong, D. Irwin, and G. Q. Yu, “Portable optical tissue flow oximeter based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3556–3558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

2003 (2)

D. Zhu, Q. M. Luo, and J. A. Cen, “Effects of dehydration on the optical properties of in vitro porcine liver,” Lasers Surg. Med. 33(4), 226–231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. M. Olerud, J. B. Olsen, and A. Skretting, “An anthropomorphic phantom for receiver operating characteristic studies in CT imaging of liver lesions,” Br. J. Radiol. 72(853), 35–43 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical-properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1986 (1)

B. C. Wilson and M. S. Patterson, “The physics of photodynamic therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 31(4), 327–360 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akl, T. J.

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Araya, V.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnfield, M. R.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, J.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Baba, J. S.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Bamber, J. C.

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechstein, W. O.

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Bobrek, M.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Bolin, F. P.

Britton, C. L.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Browne, J. E.

S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buhr, H. J.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, T. M.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cannon, L.

S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casciaro, E.

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casciaro, S.

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cen, J. A.

D. Zhu, Q. M. Luo, and J. A. Cen, “Effects of dehydration on the optical properties of in vitro porcine liver,” Lasers Surg. Med. 33(4), 226–231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, H. Y.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Cheng, R.

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical-properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, B. I.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conversano, F.

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Converse, M. C.

P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cote, G.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Cote, G. L.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Coté, G. L.

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cournane, S.

S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLong, D. M.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demitri, C.

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, L. X.

Durduran, T.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, M. S.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Ericson, M. N.

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Evans, P. M.

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fagan, A. J.

S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ference, R. J.

Finlay, J. C.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foley, W. D.

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Frank, S.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Fung, J. J.

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Germer, C. T.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glanemann, M.

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grabbe, E. H.

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Guerra, R.

D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guidinger, M. K.

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haase, R.

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. M.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J. K.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, E. J.

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, H. D.

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heise, M.

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hileman, M.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Hileman, M. S.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Hu, H.

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Huang, Q. M.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Huang, Y.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Ibey, B. L.

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irwin, D.

Isbert, C.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobson, D. R.

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Jaffe, T. A.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, L. B.

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawaji, K.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. W.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopka, L.

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Lee, J. M.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenarcluzzil, R.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Li, G. Y.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Long, R.

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Lu, L.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Luo, Q. M.

D. Zhu, Q. M. Luo, and J. A. Cen, “Effects of dehydration on the optical properties of in vitro porcine liver,” Lasers Surg. Med. 33(4), 226–231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahvi, D. M.

P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malkowicz, S. B.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzarbeitia, C.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinsen, A. C. T.

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathew, R. P.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhee, M. S.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McShane, M. J.

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Miller, C. M.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, N. R.

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, M.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Moore, M. R.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Mukundan, S.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, G.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muñoz, S. J.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musio, S.

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, R. C.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuhaus, P.

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

Nuessler, N. C.

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olerud, H. M.

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Olerud, J. B. Olsen, and A. Skretting, “An anthropomorphic phantom for receiver operating characteristic studies in CT imaging of liver lesions,” Br. J. Radiol. 72(853), 35–43 (1999).
[PubMed]

Olsen, D. R.

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsen, J. B.

H. M. Olerud, J. B. Olsen, and A. Skretting, “An anthropomorphic phantom for receiver operating characteristic studies in CT imaging of liver lesions,” Br. J. Radiol. 72(853), 35–43 (1999).
[PubMed]

Ortiz, J.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parsa, P.

Passos, D.

D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson and M. S. Patterson, “The physics of photodynamic therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 31(4), 327–360 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulson, E. K.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelletier, S. J.

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinto, P. N.

D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid mediaby using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 559–568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical-properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prakash, P.

P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preuss, L. E.

Pungpapong, S.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayhill, S. C.

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reich, D. J.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritz, J. P.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roggan, A.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothstein, K. D.

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saether, H. K.

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samei, E.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sannino, A.

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schindera, S. T.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Settmacher, U.

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shang, Y.

Skaane, P.

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skretting, A.

H. M. Olerud, J. B. Olsen, and A. Skretting, “An anthropomorphic phantom for receiver operating characteristic studies in CT imaging of liver lesions,” Br. J. Radiol. 72(853), 35–43 (1999).
[PubMed]

Stange, B.

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stange, B. J.

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmüller, T.

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramanian, H.

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, P.

P. Sun and Y. Wang, “Measurements of optical parameters of phantom solution and bulk animal tissues in vitro at 650 nm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(1), 1–7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Symonds-Tayler, J. R. N.

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R. C.

Thuluvath, P. J.

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tulip, J.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wang, H.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Wang, H. Z.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Wang, X. Y.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Wang, Y.

P. Sun and Y. Wang, “Measurements of optical parameters of phantom solution and bulk animal tissues in vitro at 650 nm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(1), 1–7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Webster, J. G.

P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid mediaby using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 559–568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical-properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

B. C. Wilson and M. S. Patterson, “The physics of photodynamic therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 31(4), 327–360 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, M.

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

Wilson, M. A.

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Xu, L. F.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Xu, W.

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

Xu, W. J.

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 192–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizumi, T. T.

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G. Q.

Y. Shang, Y. Q. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. X. Dong, D. Irwin, and G. Q. Yu, “Portable optical tissue flow oximeter based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3556–3558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Zhang, X. L.

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Zhao, Y. Q.

Zhou, C.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, D.

D. Zhu, Q. M. Luo, and J. A. Cen, “Effects of dehydration on the optical properties of in vitro porcine liver,” Lasers Surg. Med. 33(4), 226–231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, T. C.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. (1)

H. Z. Wang, L. F. Xu, J. Yu, Q. M. Huang, X. Y. Wang, L. Lu, H. Wang, Y. Huang, H. Y. Cheng, X. L. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Phantom study of the classification of liver fibrosis based on nuclear magnetic resonance elasto-graphy,” Acta Phys Sinica Ch. Ed. 59, 7463–7471 (2010).

Acta Radiol. (1)

A. C. T. Martinsen, H. K. Saether, D. R. Olsen, P. Skaane, and H. M. Olerud, “Reduction in dose from CT examinations of liver lesions with a new postprocessing filter: a ROC phantom study,” Acta Radiol. 49(3), 303–309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Transplant. (1)

P. J. Thuluvath, M. K. Guidinger, J. J. Fung, L. B. Johnson, S. C. Rayhill, and S. J. Pelletier, “Liver transplantation in the United States, 1999-2008,” Am. J. Transplant. 10(4p2), 1003–1019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor,” submitted to Biomed. Opt. Express .

Br. J. Radiol. (1)

H. M. Olerud, J. B. Olsen, and A. Skretting, “An anthropomorphic phantom for receiver operating characteristic studies in CT imaging of liver lesions,” Br. J. Radiol. 72(853), 35–43 (1999).
[PubMed]

Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. (1)

M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. Cote, C. L. Britton, W. Xu, J. Baba, M. Bobrek, M. Hileman, M. Moore, and S. Frank, “Development of an implantable oximetry-based organ perfusion sensor,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 3, 2235–2238 (2004).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical-properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (3)

S. J. Lee, B. L. Ibey, W. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Processing of pulse oximeter data using discrete wavelet analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1350–1352 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “Real-time separation of perfusion and oxygenation signals for an implantable sensor using adaptive filtering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(12), 2016–2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, B. L. Ibey, W. J. Xu, M. A. Wilson, M. N. Ericson, and G. L. Coté, “An autocorrelation-based time domain analysis technique for monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(7), 1355–1358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Radiol. (1)

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. W. Kim, S. J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of hypervascular liver hepatocellular carcinoma: phantom and preliminary studies,” Invest. Radiol. 45(3), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Passos, J. C. Hebden, P. N. Pinto, and R. Guerra, “Tissue phantom for optical diagnostics based on a suspension of microspheres with a fractal size distribution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (1)

S. Casciaro, F. Conversano, S. Musio, E. Casciaro, C. Demitri, and A. Sannino, “Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 20(4), 983–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, Q. M. Luo, and J. A. Cen, “Effects of dehydration on the optical properties of in vitro porcine liver,” Lasers Surg. Med. 33(4), 226–231 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liver Transpl. (2)

B. J. Stange, M. Glanemann, N. C. Nuessler, U. Settmacher, T. Steinmüller, and P. Neuhaus, “Hepatic artery thrombosis after adult liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 9(6), 612–620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pungpapong, C. Manzarbeitia, J. Ortiz, D. J. Reich, V. Araya, K. D. Rothstein, and S. J. Muñoz, “Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications after liver transplantation,” Liver Transpl. 8(7), 582–587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

P. Sun and Y. Wang, “Measurements of optical parameters of phantom solution and bulk animal tissues in vitro at 650 nm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(1), 1–7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1279–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

B. C. Wilson and M. S. Patterson, “The physics of photodynamic therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 31(4), 327–360 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cournane, L. Cannon, J. E. Browne, and A. J. Fagan, “Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(19), 5965–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Harris, N. R. Miller, J. C. Bamber, J. R. N. Symonds-Tayler, and P. M. Evans, “Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3363–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

P. Prakash, M. C. Converse, D. M. Mahvi, and J. G. Webster, “Measurement of the specific heat capacity of liver phantom,” Physiol. Meas. 27(10), N41–N46 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (2)

S. T. Schindera, R. C. Nelson, S. Mukundan, E. K. Paulson, T. A. Jaffe, C. M. Miller, D. M. DeLong, K. Kawaji, T. T. Yoshizumi, and E. Samei, “Hypervascular liver tumors: low tube voltage, high tube current multi-detector row CT for enhanced detection--phantom study,” Radiology 246(1), 125–132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kopka, H. D. He, W. D. Foley, H. Hu, D. R. Jacobson, and E. H. Grabbe, “Low-contrast detectability of a new multislice versus a monoslice helical CT in a liver phantom,” Radiology 209(P), 284 (1998).
[PubMed]

Transpl. Int. (1)

U. Settmacher, B. Stange, R. Haase, M. Heise, T. Steinmüller, W. O. Bechstein, and P. Neuhaus, “Arterial complications after liver transplantation,” Transpl. Int. 13(5), 372–378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

T. J. King, T. J. Akl, R. Long, M. J. McShane, M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, and G. L. Cote, “A phantom that mimics optical and flow properties of liver for developing a perfusion sensor,” presented at Biomedical Engineering Society Annual Meeting, Austin, TX (Oct. 6–9, 2010).

“Liver,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver .

“Lobules of liver,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_lobule .

“Polydimethylsiloxane,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polydimethylsiloxane .

J. F. Beek, H. J. van Staveren, P. Posthumus, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. Gemert, “The influence of respiration on the optical properties of piglet lung at 632.8 nm,” in Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, G. Müller, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, S. R. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. R. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. van der Zee, eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, 1993), Vol. IS11, pp. 193–210.

A. C. Guyton, “The liver as an organ,” in Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed. (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1991), p. 771.

M. N. Ericson, M. A. Wilson, G. L. Cote, J. S. Baba, W. Xu, M. Bobrek, C. L. Britton, M. S. Hileman, M. R. Moore, M. S. Emery, and R. Lenarcluzzil, “Implantable sensor for blood flow monitoring after transplant surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technol. 13, 87–94 (2004).

S. L. Jacques, “Skin Optics” (1998), http://omlc.ogi.edu/news/jan98/skinoptics.html .

S. A. Prahl, “Inverse Adding-Doubling,” http://omlc.ogi.edu/software/iad/ .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics