Abstract

We performed epi-mode pump-probe imaging of melanin in excised human pigmented lesions and both hemoglobin and melanin in live xenograft mouse melanoma models to depths greater than 100 µm. Eumelanin and pheomelanin images, which have been previously demonstrated to differentiate melanoma from benign lesions, were acquired at the dermal-epidermal junction with cellular resolution and modest optical powers (down to 15 mW). We imaged dermal microvasculature with the same wavelengths, allowing simultaneous acquisition of melanin, hemoglobin and multiphoton autofluorescence images. Molecular pump-probe imaging of melanocytes, skin structure and microvessels allows comprehensive, non-invasive characterization of pigmented lesions.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

L. P. Cui and W. H. Knox, “Forty-five degree backscattering-mode nonlinear absorption imaging in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, M. Carrara, and R. Marchesini, “In vivo optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions: common nevi, dysplastic nevi and malignant melanoma,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(1), 236–240 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Wang, K. König, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Two-photon microscopy of deep intravital tissues and its merits in clinical research,” J. Microsc. 238(1), 1–20 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R. Piletic, T. E. Matthews, and W. S. Warren, “Probing near-infrared photorelaxation pathways in eumelanins and pheomelanins,” J. Phys. Chem. A 114(43), 11483–11491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

E. Dimitrow, M. Ziemer, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, K. König, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Sensitivity and specificity of multiphoton laser tomography for in vivo and ex vivo diagnosis of malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(7), 1752–1758 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Tsai, S. H. Jee, C. Y. Dong, and S. J. Lin, “Multiphoton microscopy in dermatological imaging,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 56(1), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Krafft, G. Steiner, C. Beleites, and R. Salzer, “Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 13–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. E. Matthews, T. Ye, I. R. Piletic, and W. S. Warren, “Label-free in vivo optical imaging of microvasculature and oxygenation level,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, and W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Y. Chudnovsky, A. E. Adams, P. B. Robbins, Q. Lin, and P. A. Khavari, “Use of human tissue to assess the oncogenic activity of melanoma-associated mutations,” Nat. Genet. 37(7), 745–749 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Takeuchi, W. G. Zhang, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, V. J. Hearing, K. H. Kraemer, and D. E. Brash, “Melanin acts as a potent UVB photosensitizer to cause an atypical mode of cell death in murine skin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(42), 15076–15081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. Streit and M. Detmar, “Angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and melanoma metastasis,” Oncogene 22(20), 3172–3179 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kizaka-Kondoh, M. Inoue, H. Harada, and M. Hiraoka, “Tumor hypoxia: a target for selective cancer therapy,” Cancer Sci. 94(12), 1021–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

E. K. Nishimura, S. A. Jordan, H. Oshima, H. Yoshida, M. Osawa, M. Moriyama, I. J. Jackson, Y. Barrandon, Y. Miyachi, and S. Nishikawa, “Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination,” Nature 416(6883), 854–860 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

H. Z. Hill and G. J. Hill, ““UVA, pheomelanin and the carcinogenesis of melanoma,” Pigm,” Cell Res. 13, 140–144 (2000).

1995

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

H. Hara, N. Walsh, K. Yamada, and K. Jimbow, “High plasma level of a eumelanin precursor, 6-hydroxy-5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid as a prognostic marker for malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 102(4), 501–505 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, A. E.

Y. Chudnovsky, A. E. Adams, P. B. Robbins, Q. Lin, and P. A. Khavari, “Use of human tissue to assess the oncogenic activity of melanoma-associated mutations,” Nat. Genet. 37(7), 745–749 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agero, A. L. C.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrandon, Y.

E. K. Nishimura, S. A. Jordan, H. Oshima, H. Yoshida, M. Osawa, M. Moriyama, I. J. Jackson, Y. Barrandon, Y. Miyachi, and S. Nishikawa, “Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination,” Nature 416(6883), 854–860 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beleites, C.

C. Krafft, G. Steiner, C. Beleites, and R. Salzer, “Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 13–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benvenuto-Andrade, C.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brash, D. E.

S. Takeuchi, W. G. Zhang, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, V. J. Hearing, K. H. Kraemer, and D. E. Brash, “Melanin acts as a potent UVB photosensitizer to cause an atypical mode of cell death in murine skin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(42), 15076–15081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busam, K. J.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrara, M.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, M. Carrara, and R. Marchesini, “In vivo optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions: common nevi, dysplastic nevi and malignant melanoma,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(1), 236–240 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B. J.

Chong, S.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chudnovsky, Y.

Y. Chudnovsky, A. E. Adams, P. B. Robbins, Q. Lin, and P. A. Khavari, “Use of human tissue to assess the oncogenic activity of melanoma-associated mutations,” Nat. Genet. 37(7), 745–749 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, L. P.

L. P. Cui and W. H. Knox, “Forty-five degree backscattering-mode nonlinear absorption imaging in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detmar, M.

M. Streit and M. Detmar, “Angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and melanoma metastasis,” Oncogene 22(20), 3172–3179 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimitrow, E.

E. Dimitrow, M. Ziemer, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, K. König, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Sensitivity and specificity of multiphoton laser tomography for in vivo and ex vivo diagnosis of malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(7), 1752–1758 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimou, A.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, M. Carrara, and R. Marchesini, “In vivo optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions: common nevi, dysplastic nevi and malignant melanoma,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(1), 236–240 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

T. H. Tsai, S. H. Jee, C. Y. Dong, and S. J. Lin, “Multiphoton microscopy in dermatological imaging,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 56(1), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsner, P.

E. Dimitrow, M. Ziemer, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, K. König, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Sensitivity and specificity of multiphoton laser tomography for in vivo and ex vivo diagnosis of malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(7), 1752–1758 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

D. Fu, T. E. Matthews, T. Ye, I. R. Piletic, and W. S. Warren, “Label-free in vivo optical imaging of microvasculature and oxygenation level,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, and W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, S.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halbhuber, K. J.

B. G. Wang, K. König, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Two-photon microscopy of deep intravital tissues and its merits in clinical research,” J. Microsc. 238(1), 1–20 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halpern, A. C.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hara, H.

H. Hara, N. Walsh, K. Yamada, and K. Jimbow, “High plasma level of a eumelanin precursor, 6-hydroxy-5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid as a prognostic marker for malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 102(4), 501–505 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harada, H.

S. Kizaka-Kondoh, M. Inoue, H. Harada, and M. Hiraoka, “Tumor hypoxia: a target for selective cancer therapy,” Cancer Sci. 94(12), 1021–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hearing, V. J.

S. Takeuchi, W. G. Zhang, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, V. J. Hearing, K. H. Kraemer, and D. E. Brash, “Melanin acts as a potent UVB photosensitizer to cause an atypical mode of cell death in murine skin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(42), 15076–15081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, G. J.

H. Z. Hill and G. J. Hill, ““UVA, pheomelanin and the carcinogenesis of melanoma,” Pigm,” Cell Res. 13, 140–144 (2000).

Hill, H. Z.

H. Z. Hill and G. J. Hill, ““UVA, pheomelanin and the carcinogenesis of melanoma,” Pigm,” Cell Res. 13, 140–144 (2000).

Hiraoka, M.

S. Kizaka-Kondoh, M. Inoue, H. Harada, and M. Hiraoka, “Tumor hypoxia: a target for selective cancer therapy,” Cancer Sci. 94(12), 1021–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtom, G. R.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, M.

S. Kizaka-Kondoh, M. Inoue, H. Harada, and M. Hiraoka, “Tumor hypoxia: a target for selective cancer therapy,” Cancer Sci. 94(12), 1021–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, S.

S. Takeuchi, W. G. Zhang, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, V. J. Hearing, K. H. Kraemer, and D. E. Brash, “Melanin acts as a potent UVB photosensitizer to cause an atypical mode of cell death in murine skin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(42), 15076–15081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, I. J.

E. K. Nishimura, S. A. Jordan, H. Oshima, H. Yoshida, M. Osawa, M. Moriyama, I. J. Jackson, Y. Barrandon, Y. Miyachi, and S. Nishikawa, “Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination,” Nature 416(6883), 854–860 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jee, S. H.

T. H. Tsai, S. H. Jee, C. Y. Dong, and S. J. Lin, “Multiphoton microscopy in dermatological imaging,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 56(1), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jimbow, K.

H. Hara, N. Walsh, K. Yamada, and K. Jimbow, “High plasma level of a eumelanin precursor, 6-hydroxy-5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid as a prognostic marker for malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 102(4), 501–505 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, S. A.

E. K. Nishimura, S. A. Jordan, H. Oshima, H. Yoshida, M. Osawa, M. Moriyama, I. J. Jackson, Y. Barrandon, Y. Miyachi, and S. Nishikawa, “Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination,” Nature 416(6883), 854–860 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaatz, M.

E. Dimitrow, M. Ziemer, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, K. König, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Sensitivity and specificity of multiphoton laser tomography for in vivo and ex vivo diagnosis of malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(7), 1752–1758 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khavari, P. A.

Y. Chudnovsky, A. E. Adams, P. B. Robbins, Q. Lin, and P. A. Khavari, “Use of human tissue to assess the oncogenic activity of melanoma-associated mutations,” Nat. Genet. 37(7), 745–749 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kizaka-Kondoh, S.

S. Kizaka-Kondoh, M. Inoue, H. Harada, and M. Hiraoka, “Tumor hypoxia: a target for selective cancer therapy,” Cancer Sci. 94(12), 1021–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knox, W. H.

L. P. Cui and W. H. Knox, “Forty-five degree backscattering-mode nonlinear absorption imaging in turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koehler, M. J.

E. Dimitrow, M. Ziemer, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, K. König, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Sensitivity and specificity of multiphoton laser tomography for in vivo and ex vivo diagnosis of malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(7), 1752–1758 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, K.

B. G. Wang, K. König, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Two-photon microscopy of deep intravital tissues and its merits in clinical research,” J. Microsc. 238(1), 1–20 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dimitrow, M. Ziemer, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, K. König, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Sensitivity and specificity of multiphoton laser tomography for in vivo and ex vivo diagnosis of malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(7), 1752–1758 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraemer, K. H.

S. Takeuchi, W. G. Zhang, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, V. J. Hearing, K. H. Kraemer, and D. E. Brash, “Melanin acts as a potent UVB photosensitizer to cause an atypical mode of cell death in murine skin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(42), 15076–15081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krafft, C.

C. Krafft, G. Steiner, C. Beleites, and R. Salzer, “Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 13–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langley, R. G.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M. L.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Q.

Y. Chudnovsky, A. E. Adams, P. B. Robbins, Q. Lin, and P. A. Khavari, “Use of human tissue to assess the oncogenic activity of melanoma-associated mutations,” Nat. Genet. 37(7), 745–749 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. J.

T. H. Tsai, S. H. Jee, C. Y. Dong, and S. J. Lin, “Multiphoton microscopy in dermatological imaging,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 56(1), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malvehy, J.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, R.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, M. Carrara, and R. Marchesini, “In vivo optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions: common nevi, dysplastic nevi and malignant melanoma,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(1), 236–240 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marghoob, A. A.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, T. E.

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R. Piletic, T. E. Matthews, and W. S. Warren, “Probing near-infrared photorelaxation pathways in eumelanins and pheomelanins,” J. Phys. Chem. A 114(43), 11483–11491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. E. Matthews, T. Ye, I. R. Piletic, and W. S. Warren, “Label-free in vivo optical imaging of microvasculature and oxygenation level,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, and W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, W.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyachi, Y.

E. K. Nishimura, S. A. Jordan, H. Oshima, H. Yoshida, M. Osawa, M. Moriyama, I. J. Jackson, Y. Barrandon, Y. Miyachi, and S. Nishikawa, “Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination,” Nature 416(6883), 854–860 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriyama, M.

E. K. Nishimura, S. A. Jordan, H. Oshima, H. Yoshida, M. Osawa, M. Moriyama, I. J. Jackson, Y. Barrandon, Y. Miyachi, and S. Nishikawa, “Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination,” Nature 416(6883), 854–860 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishikawa, S.

E. K. Nishimura, S. A. Jordan, H. Oshima, H. Yoshida, M. Osawa, M. Moriyama, I. J. Jackson, Y. Barrandon, Y. Miyachi, and S. Nishikawa, “Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination,” Nature 416(6883), 854–860 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, E. K.

E. K. Nishimura, S. A. Jordan, H. Oshima, H. Yoshida, M. Osawa, M. Moriyama, I. J. Jackson, Y. Barrandon, Y. Miyachi, and S. Nishikawa, “Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination,” Nature 416(6883), 854–860 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norgauer, J.

E. Dimitrow, M. Ziemer, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, K. König, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Sensitivity and specificity of multiphoton laser tomography for in vivo and ex vivo diagnosis of malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(7), 1752–1758 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, J. T.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osawa, M.

E. K. Nishimura, S. A. Jordan, H. Oshima, H. Yoshida, M. Osawa, M. Moriyama, I. J. Jackson, Y. Barrandon, Y. Miyachi, and S. Nishikawa, “Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination,” Nature 416(6883), 854–860 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oshima, H.

E. K. Nishimura, S. A. Jordan, H. Oshima, H. Yoshida, M. Osawa, M. Moriyama, I. J. Jackson, Y. Barrandon, Y. Miyachi, and S. Nishikawa, “Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination,” Nature 416(6883), 854–860 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellacani, G. A.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piletic, I. R.

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R. Piletic, T. E. Matthews, and W. S. Warren, “Probing near-infrared photorelaxation pathways in eumelanins and pheomelanins,” J. Phys. Chem. A 114(43), 11483–11491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. E. Matthews, T. Ye, I. R. Piletic, and W. S. Warren, “Label-free in vivo optical imaging of microvasculature and oxygenation level,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Propperova, I.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puig, S.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Chudnovsky, A. E. Adams, P. B. Robbins, Q. Lin, and P. A. Khavari, “Use of human tissue to assess the oncogenic activity of melanoma-associated mutations,” Nat. Genet. 37(7), 745–749 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, R.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salzer, R.

C. Krafft, G. Steiner, C. Beleites, and R. Salzer, “Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 13–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selim, M. A.

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, M. J.

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, G.

C. Krafft, G. Steiner, C. Beleites, and R. Salzer, “Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 13–28 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Streit and M. Detmar, “Angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and melanoma metastasis,” Oncogene 22(20), 3172–3179 (2003).
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S. Takeuchi, W. G. Zhang, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, V. J. Hearing, K. H. Kraemer, and D. E. Brash, “Melanin acts as a potent UVB photosensitizer to cause an atypical mode of cell death in murine skin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(42), 15076–15081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, A.

A. Scope, C. Benvenuto-Andrade, A. L. C. Agero, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. Rajadhyaksha, K. J. Busam, D. E. Marra, A. Torres, I. Propperova, R. G. Langley, A. A. Marghoob, G. A. Pellacani, S. Seidenari, A. C. Halpern, and S. Gonzalez, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 644–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T. H.

T. H. Tsai, S. H. Jee, C. Y. Dong, and S. J. Lin, “Multiphoton microscopy in dermatological imaging,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 56(1), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wakamatsu, K.

S. Takeuchi, W. G. Zhang, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, V. J. Hearing, K. H. Kraemer, and D. E. Brash, “Melanin acts as a potent UVB photosensitizer to cause an atypical mode of cell death in murine skin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(42), 15076–15081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, N.

H. Hara, N. Walsh, K. Yamada, and K. Jimbow, “High plasma level of a eumelanin precursor, 6-hydroxy-5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid as a prognostic marker for malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 102(4), 501–505 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B. G.

B. G. Wang, K. König, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Two-photon microscopy of deep intravital tissues and its merits in clinical research,” J. Microsc. 238(1), 1–20 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
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L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, W. S.

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, and W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R. Piletic, T. E. Matthews, and W. S. Warren, “Probing near-infrared photorelaxation pathways in eumelanins and pheomelanins,” J. Phys. Chem. A 114(43), 11483–11491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. E. Matthews, T. Ye, I. R. Piletic, and W. S. Warren, “Label-free in vivo optical imaging of microvasculature and oxygenation level,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, and W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

H. Hara, N. Walsh, K. Yamada, and K. Jimbow, “High plasma level of a eumelanin precursor, 6-hydroxy-5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid as a prognostic marker for malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 102(4), 501–505 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, T.

D. Fu, T. E. Matthews, T. Ye, I. R. Piletic, and W. S. Warren, “Label-free in vivo optical imaging of microvasculature and oxygenation level,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, and W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, H.

E. K. Nishimura, S. A. Jordan, H. Oshima, H. Yoshida, M. Osawa, M. Moriyama, I. J. Jackson, Y. Barrandon, Y. Miyachi, and S. Nishikawa, “Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination,” Nature 416(6883), 854–860 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurtserver, G.

Yurtsever, G.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. G.

S. Takeuchi, W. G. Zhang, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, V. J. Hearing, K. H. Kraemer, and D. E. Brash, “Melanin acts as a potent UVB photosensitizer to cause an atypical mode of cell death in murine skin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(42), 15076–15081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziemer, M.

E. Dimitrow, M. Ziemer, M. J. Koehler, J. Norgauer, K. König, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Sensitivity and specificity of multiphoton laser tomography for in vivo and ex vivo diagnosis of malignant melanoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(7), 1752–1758 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, M. Carrara, and R. Marchesini, “In vivo optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions: common nevi, dysplastic nevi and malignant melanoma,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(1), 236–240 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
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Cancer Sci.

S. Kizaka-Kondoh, M. Inoue, H. Harada, and M. Hiraoka, “Tumor hypoxia: a target for selective cancer therapy,” Cancer Sci. 94(12), 1021–1028 (2003).
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Cell Res.

H. Z. Hill and G. J. Hill, ““UVA, pheomelanin and the carcinogenesis of melanoma,” Pigm,” Cell Res. 13, 140–144 (2000).

J Biophotonics

C. Krafft, G. Steiner, C. Beleites, and R. Salzer, “Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 13–28 (2009).
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