Abstract

Micron-sized liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets are currently being investigated as activatable agents for medical imaging and cancer therapy. After injection into the bloodstream, superheated PFC droplets can be vaporized to a gas phase for ultrasound imaging, or for cancer therapy via targeted drug delivery and vessel occlusion. Droplet vaporization has been previously demonstrated using acoustic methods. We propose using laser irradiation as a means to induce PFC droplet vaporization using a method we term optical droplet vaporization (ODV). In order to facilitate ODV of PFC droplets which have negligible absorption in the infrared spectrum, optical absorbing nanoparticles were incorporated into the droplet. In this study, micron-sized PFC droplets loaded with silica-coated lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles were evaluated using a 1064 nm laser and ultra-high frequency photoacoustic ultrasound (at 200 and 375 MHz). The photoacoustic response was proportional to nanoparticle loading and successful optical droplet vaporization of individual PFC droplets was confirmed using photoacoustic, acoustic, and optical measurements. A minimum laser fluence of 1.4 J/cm2 was required to vaporize the droplets. The vaporization of PFC droplets via laser irradiation can lead to the activation of PFC agents in tissues previously not accessible using standard ultrasound-based techniques.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. S. Cohn and M. M. Cushing, “Oxygen therapeutics: perfluorocarbons and blood substitute safety,” Crit. Care Clin. 25(2), 399–414 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Behan, D. O’Connell, R. F. Mattrey, and D. N. Carney, “Perfluorooctylbromide as a contrast agent for CT and sonography: preliminary clinical results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 160(2), 399–405 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  3. R. F. Mattrey, P. C. Hajek, V. M. Gylys-Morin, L. L. Baker, J. Martin, D. C. Long, and D. M. Long, “Perfluorochemicals as gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging: preliminary studies in rats and humans,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 148(6), 1259–1263 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  4. N. Matsuura, R. Williams, I. Gorelikov, J. Chaudhuri, J. Rowlands, K. Hynynen, S. Foster, P. Burns, and N. Resnik, “Nanoparticle-loaded perfluorocarbon droplets for imaging and therapy,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, New York, 2009), pp. 5–8.
  5. J. G. Riess and M. LeBlanc, “Solubility and transport phenomena in perfluorochemicals relevant to blood substitution and other biomedical applications,” Pure Appl. Chem. 54(12), 2383–2406 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, I. E. Sebastian, O. D. Kripfgans, P. L. Carson, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Delivery of chlorambucil using an acoustically-triggered perfluoropentane emulsion,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(8), 1364–1375 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, M. Woydt, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “In vivo droplet vaporization for occlusion therapy and phase aberration correction,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 49(6), 726–738 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Giesecke and K. Hynynen, “Ultrasound-mediated cavitation thresholds of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(9), 1359–1365 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. C. Unger, T. Porter, W. Culp, R. Labell, T. Matsunaga, and R. Zutshi, “Therapeutic applications of lipid-coated microbubbles,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(9), 1291–1314 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, D. L. Miller, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “Acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic and diagnostic applications,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26(7), 1177–1189 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Zhang, M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, J. B. Fowlkes, O. D. Kripfgans, W. W. Roberts, K. A. Ives, and P. L. Carson, “Initial investigation of acoustic droplet vaporization for occlusion in canine kidney,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(10), 1691–1703 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. L. J. Hasi, Z. W. Lu, S. Gong, S. J. Liu, Q. Li, and W. M. He, “Investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering media perfluoro-compound and perfluoropolyether with a low absorption coefficient and high power-load ability,” Appl. Opt. 47(7), 1010–1014 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. J. Diebold, T. Sun, and M. I. Khan, “Photoacoustic monopole radiation in one, two, and three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(24), 3384–3387 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. M. Strohm, M. Rui, I. Gorelikov, N. Matsuura, and M. Kolios, “Optical droplet vaporization of micron-sized perfluorocarbon droplets and their photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78993H, 78993H-7 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Paltauf and P. E. Dyer, “Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 487–518 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(21), 1844–1849 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. Gorelikov and N. Matsuura, “Single-step coating of mesoporous silica on cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-capped nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 369–373 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. K. Yi, S. T. Selvan, S. S. Lee, G. C. Papaefthymiou, D. Kundaliya, and J. Y. Ying, “Silica-coated nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(14), 4990–4991 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N. Matsuura, I. Gorelikov, R. Williams, K. Wan, S. Zhu, J. Booth, P. Burns, K. Hynynen, and J. A. Rowlands, “Nanoparticle-tagged perfluorocarbon droplets for medical imaging,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1140, 1–6 (2009).
  20. M. Rui, S. Narashimhan, W. Bost, F. Stracke, E. Weiss, R. Lemor, and M. C. Kolios, “Gigahertz optoacoustic imaging for cellular imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756411, 756411-6 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. M. Strohm, G. J. Czarnota, and M. C. Kolios, “Quantitative measurements of apoptotic cell properties using acoustic microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(10), 2293–2304 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. N. Marsh, C. S. Hall, S. A. Wickline, and G. M. Lanza, “Temperature dependence of acoustic impedance for specific fluorocarbon liquids,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112(6), 2858–2862 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. V. S. Ardebili, A. N. Sinclair, and J. K. Spelt, “Ultrasonic couplants for acoustic microscopy of low speed materials,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44(1), 102–107 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Z. Z. Wong, O. D. Kripfgans, A. Qamar, J. B. Fowlkes, and J. L. Bull, “Bubble evolution in acoustic droplet vaporization at physiological temperature via ultra-high speed imaging,” Soft Matter 7(8), 4009–4016 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. M. Strohm, M. C. Kolios, I. Gorelikov, and N. Matsuura, “Optical droplet vaporization (ODV): photoacoustic characterization of perfluorocarbon droplets,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, New York, 2010) (to be published).

2011

E. M. Strohm, M. Rui, I. Gorelikov, N. Matsuura, and M. Kolios, “Optical droplet vaporization of micron-sized perfluorocarbon droplets and their photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78993H, 78993H-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Z. Wong, O. D. Kripfgans, A. Qamar, J. B. Fowlkes, and J. L. Bull, “Bubble evolution in acoustic droplet vaporization at physiological temperature via ultra-high speed imaging,” Soft Matter 7(8), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. Zhang, M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, J. B. Fowlkes, O. D. Kripfgans, W. W. Roberts, K. A. Ives, and P. L. Carson, “Initial investigation of acoustic droplet vaporization for occlusion in canine kidney,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(10), 1691–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rui, S. Narashimhan, W. Bost, F. Stracke, E. Weiss, R. Lemor, and M. C. Kolios, “Gigahertz optoacoustic imaging for cellular imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756411, 756411-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Strohm, G. J. Czarnota, and M. C. Kolios, “Quantitative measurements of apoptotic cell properties using acoustic microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(10), 2293–2304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, I. E. Sebastian, O. D. Kripfgans, P. L. Carson, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Delivery of chlorambucil using an acoustically-triggered perfluoropentane emulsion,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(8), 1364–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C. S. Cohn and M. M. Cushing, “Oxygen therapeutics: perfluorocarbons and blood substitute safety,” Crit. Care Clin. 25(2), 399–414 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2005

D. K. Yi, S. T. Selvan, S. S. Lee, G. C. Papaefthymiou, D. Kundaliya, and J. Y. Ying, “Silica-coated nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(14), 4990–4991 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

E. C. Unger, T. Porter, W. Culp, R. Labell, T. Matsunaga, and R. Zutshi, “Therapeutic applications of lipid-coated microbubbles,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(9), 1291–1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

G. Paltauf and P. E. Dyer, “Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 487–518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(21), 1844–1849 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Giesecke and K. Hynynen, “Ultrasound-mediated cavitation thresholds of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(9), 1359–1365 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. N. Marsh, C. S. Hall, S. A. Wickline, and G. M. Lanza, “Temperature dependence of acoustic impedance for specific fluorocarbon liquids,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112(6), 2858–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, M. Woydt, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “In vivo droplet vaporization for occlusion therapy and phase aberration correction,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 49(6), 726–738 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, D. L. Miller, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “Acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic and diagnostic applications,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26(7), 1177–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

V. S. Ardebili, A. N. Sinclair, and J. K. Spelt, “Ultrasonic couplants for acoustic microscopy of low speed materials,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44(1), 102–107 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

M. Behan, D. O’Connell, R. F. Mattrey, and D. N. Carney, “Perfluorooctylbromide as a contrast agent for CT and sonography: preliminary clinical results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 160(2), 399–405 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991

G. J. Diebold, T. Sun, and M. I. Khan, “Photoacoustic monopole radiation in one, two, and three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(24), 3384–3387 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

R. F. Mattrey, P. C. Hajek, V. M. Gylys-Morin, L. L. Baker, J. Martin, D. C. Long, and D. M. Long, “Perfluorochemicals as gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging: preliminary studies in rats and humans,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 148(6), 1259–1263 (1987).
[PubMed]

1982

J. G. Riess and M. LeBlanc, “Solubility and transport phenomena in perfluorochemicals relevant to blood substitution and other biomedical applications,” Pure Appl. Chem. 54(12), 2383–2406 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ardebili, V. S.

V. S. Ardebili, A. N. Sinclair, and J. K. Spelt, “Ultrasonic couplants for acoustic microscopy of low speed materials,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44(1), 102–107 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, L. L.

R. F. Mattrey, P. C. Hajek, V. M. Gylys-Morin, L. L. Baker, J. Martin, D. C. Long, and D. M. Long, “Perfluorochemicals as gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging: preliminary studies in rats and humans,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 148(6), 1259–1263 (1987).
[PubMed]

Behan, M.

M. Behan, D. O’Connell, R. F. Mattrey, and D. N. Carney, “Perfluorooctylbromide as a contrast agent for CT and sonography: preliminary clinical results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 160(2), 399–405 (1993).
[PubMed]

Bost, W.

M. Rui, S. Narashimhan, W. Bost, F. Stracke, E. Weiss, R. Lemor, and M. C. Kolios, “Gigahertz optoacoustic imaging for cellular imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756411, 756411-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bull, J. L.

Z. Z. Wong, O. D. Kripfgans, A. Qamar, J. B. Fowlkes, and J. L. Bull, “Bubble evolution in acoustic droplet vaporization at physiological temperature via ultra-high speed imaging,” Soft Matter 7(8), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carney, D. N.

M. Behan, D. O’Connell, R. F. Mattrey, and D. N. Carney, “Perfluorooctylbromide as a contrast agent for CT and sonography: preliminary clinical results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 160(2), 399–405 (1993).
[PubMed]

Carson, P. L.

M. Zhang, M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, J. B. Fowlkes, O. D. Kripfgans, W. W. Roberts, K. A. Ives, and P. L. Carson, “Initial investigation of acoustic droplet vaporization for occlusion in canine kidney,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(10), 1691–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, I. E. Sebastian, O. D. Kripfgans, P. L. Carson, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Delivery of chlorambucil using an acoustically-triggered perfluoropentane emulsion,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(8), 1364–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, M. Woydt, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “In vivo droplet vaporization for occlusion therapy and phase aberration correction,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 49(6), 726–738 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, D. L. Miller, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “Acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic and diagnostic applications,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26(7), 1177–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohn, C. S.

C. S. Cohn and M. M. Cushing, “Oxygen therapeutics: perfluorocarbons and blood substitute safety,” Crit. Care Clin. 25(2), 399–414 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culp, W.

E. C. Unger, T. Porter, W. Culp, R. Labell, T. Matsunaga, and R. Zutshi, “Therapeutic applications of lipid-coated microbubbles,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(9), 1291–1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cushing, M. M.

C. S. Cohn and M. M. Cushing, “Oxygen therapeutics: perfluorocarbons and blood substitute safety,” Crit. Care Clin. 25(2), 399–414 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czarnota, G. J.

E. M. Strohm, G. J. Czarnota, and M. C. Kolios, “Quantitative measurements of apoptotic cell properties using acoustic microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(10), 2293–2304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diebold, G. J.

G. J. Diebold, T. Sun, and M. I. Khan, “Photoacoustic monopole radiation in one, two, and three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(24), 3384–3387 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyer, P. E.

G. Paltauf and P. E. Dyer, “Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 487–518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eldevik, O. P.

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, M. Woydt, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “In vivo droplet vaporization for occlusion therapy and phase aberration correction,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 49(6), 726–738 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, D. L. Miller, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “Acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic and diagnostic applications,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26(7), 1177–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabiilli, M. L.

M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, I. E. Sebastian, O. D. Kripfgans, P. L. Carson, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Delivery of chlorambucil using an acoustically-triggered perfluoropentane emulsion,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(8), 1364–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, J. B. Fowlkes, O. D. Kripfgans, W. W. Roberts, K. A. Ives, and P. L. Carson, “Initial investigation of acoustic droplet vaporization for occlusion in canine kidney,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(10), 1691–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fowlkes, J. B.

Z. Z. Wong, O. D. Kripfgans, A. Qamar, J. B. Fowlkes, and J. L. Bull, “Bubble evolution in acoustic droplet vaporization at physiological temperature via ultra-high speed imaging,” Soft Matter 7(8), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhang, M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, J. B. Fowlkes, O. D. Kripfgans, W. W. Roberts, K. A. Ives, and P. L. Carson, “Initial investigation of acoustic droplet vaporization for occlusion in canine kidney,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(10), 1691–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, I. E. Sebastian, O. D. Kripfgans, P. L. Carson, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Delivery of chlorambucil using an acoustically-triggered perfluoropentane emulsion,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(8), 1364–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, M. Woydt, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “In vivo droplet vaporization for occlusion therapy and phase aberration correction,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 49(6), 726–738 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, D. L. Miller, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “Acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic and diagnostic applications,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26(7), 1177–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giesecke, T.

T. Giesecke and K. Hynynen, “Ultrasound-mediated cavitation thresholds of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(9), 1359–1365 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, S.

Gorelikov, I.

E. M. Strohm, M. Rui, I. Gorelikov, N. Matsuura, and M. Kolios, “Optical droplet vaporization of micron-sized perfluorocarbon droplets and their photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78993H, 78993H-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Gorelikov and N. Matsuura, “Single-step coating of mesoporous silica on cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-capped nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 369–373 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gylys-Morin, V. M.

R. F. Mattrey, P. C. Hajek, V. M. Gylys-Morin, L. L. Baker, J. Martin, D. C. Long, and D. M. Long, “Perfluorochemicals as gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging: preliminary studies in rats and humans,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 148(6), 1259–1263 (1987).
[PubMed]

Hajek, P. C.

R. F. Mattrey, P. C. Hajek, V. M. Gylys-Morin, L. L. Baker, J. Martin, D. C. Long, and D. M. Long, “Perfluorochemicals as gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging: preliminary studies in rats and humans,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 148(6), 1259–1263 (1987).
[PubMed]

Hall, C. S.

J. N. Marsh, C. S. Hall, S. A. Wickline, and G. M. Lanza, “Temperature dependence of acoustic impedance for specific fluorocarbon liquids,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112(6), 2858–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasi, W. L. J.

Haworth, K. J.

M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, I. E. Sebastian, O. D. Kripfgans, P. L. Carson, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Delivery of chlorambucil using an acoustically-triggered perfluoropentane emulsion,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(8), 1364–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, J. B. Fowlkes, O. D. Kripfgans, W. W. Roberts, K. A. Ives, and P. L. Carson, “Initial investigation of acoustic droplet vaporization for occlusion in canine kidney,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(10), 1691–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, W. M.

Hines, M. A.

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(21), 1844–1849 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hynynen, K.

T. Giesecke and K. Hynynen, “Ultrasound-mediated cavitation thresholds of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(9), 1359–1365 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ives, K. A.

M. Zhang, M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, J. B. Fowlkes, O. D. Kripfgans, W. W. Roberts, K. A. Ives, and P. L. Carson, “Initial investigation of acoustic droplet vaporization for occlusion in canine kidney,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(10), 1691–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, M. I.

G. J. Diebold, T. Sun, and M. I. Khan, “Photoacoustic monopole radiation in one, two, and three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(24), 3384–3387 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolios, M.

E. M. Strohm, M. Rui, I. Gorelikov, N. Matsuura, and M. Kolios, “Optical droplet vaporization of micron-sized perfluorocarbon droplets and their photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78993H, 78993H-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kolios, M. C.

E. M. Strohm, G. J. Czarnota, and M. C. Kolios, “Quantitative measurements of apoptotic cell properties using acoustic microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(10), 2293–2304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rui, S. Narashimhan, W. Bost, F. Stracke, E. Weiss, R. Lemor, and M. C. Kolios, “Gigahertz optoacoustic imaging for cellular imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756411, 756411-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kripfgans, O. D.

Z. Z. Wong, O. D. Kripfgans, A. Qamar, J. B. Fowlkes, and J. L. Bull, “Bubble evolution in acoustic droplet vaporization at physiological temperature via ultra-high speed imaging,” Soft Matter 7(8), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhang, M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, J. B. Fowlkes, O. D. Kripfgans, W. W. Roberts, K. A. Ives, and P. L. Carson, “Initial investigation of acoustic droplet vaporization for occlusion in canine kidney,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(10), 1691–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, I. E. Sebastian, O. D. Kripfgans, P. L. Carson, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Delivery of chlorambucil using an acoustically-triggered perfluoropentane emulsion,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(8), 1364–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, M. Woydt, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “In vivo droplet vaporization for occlusion therapy and phase aberration correction,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 49(6), 726–738 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, D. L. Miller, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “Acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic and diagnostic applications,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26(7), 1177–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kundaliya, D.

D. K. Yi, S. T. Selvan, S. S. Lee, G. C. Papaefthymiou, D. Kundaliya, and J. Y. Ying, “Silica-coated nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(14), 4990–4991 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Labell, R.

E. C. Unger, T. Porter, W. Culp, R. Labell, T. Matsunaga, and R. Zutshi, “Therapeutic applications of lipid-coated microbubbles,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(9), 1291–1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanza, G. M.

J. N. Marsh, C. S. Hall, S. A. Wickline, and G. M. Lanza, “Temperature dependence of acoustic impedance for specific fluorocarbon liquids,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112(6), 2858–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeBlanc, M.

J. G. Riess and M. LeBlanc, “Solubility and transport phenomena in perfluorochemicals relevant to blood substitution and other biomedical applications,” Pure Appl. Chem. 54(12), 2383–2406 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

D. K. Yi, S. T. Selvan, S. S. Lee, G. C. Papaefthymiou, D. Kundaliya, and J. Y. Ying, “Silica-coated nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(14), 4990–4991 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemor, R.

M. Rui, S. Narashimhan, W. Bost, F. Stracke, E. Weiss, R. Lemor, and M. C. Kolios, “Gigahertz optoacoustic imaging for cellular imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756411, 756411-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Liu, S. J.

Long, D. C.

R. F. Mattrey, P. C. Hajek, V. M. Gylys-Morin, L. L. Baker, J. Martin, D. C. Long, and D. M. Long, “Perfluorochemicals as gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging: preliminary studies in rats and humans,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 148(6), 1259–1263 (1987).
[PubMed]

Long, D. M.

R. F. Mattrey, P. C. Hajek, V. M. Gylys-Morin, L. L. Baker, J. Martin, D. C. Long, and D. M. Long, “Perfluorochemicals as gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging: preliminary studies in rats and humans,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 148(6), 1259–1263 (1987).
[PubMed]

Lu, Z. W.

Marsh, J. N.

J. N. Marsh, C. S. Hall, S. A. Wickline, and G. M. Lanza, “Temperature dependence of acoustic impedance for specific fluorocarbon liquids,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112(6), 2858–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J.

R. F. Mattrey, P. C. Hajek, V. M. Gylys-Morin, L. L. Baker, J. Martin, D. C. Long, and D. M. Long, “Perfluorochemicals as gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging: preliminary studies in rats and humans,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 148(6), 1259–1263 (1987).
[PubMed]

Matsunaga, T.

E. C. Unger, T. Porter, W. Culp, R. Labell, T. Matsunaga, and R. Zutshi, “Therapeutic applications of lipid-coated microbubbles,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(9), 1291–1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuura, N.

E. M. Strohm, M. Rui, I. Gorelikov, N. Matsuura, and M. Kolios, “Optical droplet vaporization of micron-sized perfluorocarbon droplets and their photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78993H, 78993H-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Gorelikov and N. Matsuura, “Single-step coating of mesoporous silica on cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-capped nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 369–373 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattrey, R. F.

M. Behan, D. O’Connell, R. F. Mattrey, and D. N. Carney, “Perfluorooctylbromide as a contrast agent for CT and sonography: preliminary clinical results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 160(2), 399–405 (1993).
[PubMed]

R. F. Mattrey, P. C. Hajek, V. M. Gylys-Morin, L. L. Baker, J. Martin, D. C. Long, and D. M. Long, “Perfluorochemicals as gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging: preliminary studies in rats and humans,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 148(6), 1259–1263 (1987).
[PubMed]

Miller, D. L.

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, D. L. Miller, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “Acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic and diagnostic applications,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26(7), 1177–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narashimhan, S.

M. Rui, S. Narashimhan, W. Bost, F. Stracke, E. Weiss, R. Lemor, and M. C. Kolios, “Gigahertz optoacoustic imaging for cellular imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756411, 756411-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Connell, D.

M. Behan, D. O’Connell, R. F. Mattrey, and D. N. Carney, “Perfluorooctylbromide as a contrast agent for CT and sonography: preliminary clinical results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 160(2), 399–405 (1993).
[PubMed]

Paltauf, G.

G. Paltauf and P. E. Dyer, “Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 487–518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papaefthymiou, G. C.

D. K. Yi, S. T. Selvan, S. S. Lee, G. C. Papaefthymiou, D. Kundaliya, and J. Y. Ying, “Silica-coated nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(14), 4990–4991 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, T.

E. C. Unger, T. Porter, W. Culp, R. Labell, T. Matsunaga, and R. Zutshi, “Therapeutic applications of lipid-coated microbubbles,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(9), 1291–1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qamar, A.

Z. Z. Wong, O. D. Kripfgans, A. Qamar, J. B. Fowlkes, and J. L. Bull, “Bubble evolution in acoustic droplet vaporization at physiological temperature via ultra-high speed imaging,” Soft Matter 7(8), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Riess, J. G.

J. G. Riess and M. LeBlanc, “Solubility and transport phenomena in perfluorochemicals relevant to blood substitution and other biomedical applications,” Pure Appl. Chem. 54(12), 2383–2406 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, W. W.

M. Zhang, M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, J. B. Fowlkes, O. D. Kripfgans, W. W. Roberts, K. A. Ives, and P. L. Carson, “Initial investigation of acoustic droplet vaporization for occlusion in canine kidney,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(10), 1691–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rui, M.

E. M. Strohm, M. Rui, I. Gorelikov, N. Matsuura, and M. Kolios, “Optical droplet vaporization of micron-sized perfluorocarbon droplets and their photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78993H, 78993H-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Rui, S. Narashimhan, W. Bost, F. Stracke, E. Weiss, R. Lemor, and M. C. Kolios, “Gigahertz optoacoustic imaging for cellular imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756411, 756411-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scholes, G. D.

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(21), 1844–1849 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sebastian, I. E.

M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, I. E. Sebastian, O. D. Kripfgans, P. L. Carson, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Delivery of chlorambucil using an acoustically-triggered perfluoropentane emulsion,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(8), 1364–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selvan, S. T.

D. K. Yi, S. T. Selvan, S. S. Lee, G. C. Papaefthymiou, D. Kundaliya, and J. Y. Ying, “Silica-coated nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(14), 4990–4991 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinclair, A. N.

V. S. Ardebili, A. N. Sinclair, and J. K. Spelt, “Ultrasonic couplants for acoustic microscopy of low speed materials,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44(1), 102–107 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spelt, J. K.

V. S. Ardebili, A. N. Sinclair, and J. K. Spelt, “Ultrasonic couplants for acoustic microscopy of low speed materials,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44(1), 102–107 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stracke, F.

M. Rui, S. Narashimhan, W. Bost, F. Stracke, E. Weiss, R. Lemor, and M. C. Kolios, “Gigahertz optoacoustic imaging for cellular imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756411, 756411-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Strohm, E. M.

E. M. Strohm, M. Rui, I. Gorelikov, N. Matsuura, and M. Kolios, “Optical droplet vaporization of micron-sized perfluorocarbon droplets and their photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78993H, 78993H-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Strohm, G. J. Czarnota, and M. C. Kolios, “Quantitative measurements of apoptotic cell properties using acoustic microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(10), 2293–2304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, T.

G. J. Diebold, T. Sun, and M. I. Khan, “Photoacoustic monopole radiation in one, two, and three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(24), 3384–3387 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unger, E. C.

E. C. Unger, T. Porter, W. Culp, R. Labell, T. Matsunaga, and R. Zutshi, “Therapeutic applications of lipid-coated microbubbles,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(9), 1291–1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, E.

M. Rui, S. Narashimhan, W. Bost, F. Stracke, E. Weiss, R. Lemor, and M. C. Kolios, “Gigahertz optoacoustic imaging for cellular imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756411, 756411-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wickline, S. A.

J. N. Marsh, C. S. Hall, S. A. Wickline, and G. M. Lanza, “Temperature dependence of acoustic impedance for specific fluorocarbon liquids,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112(6), 2858–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, Z. Z.

Z. Z. Wong, O. D. Kripfgans, A. Qamar, J. B. Fowlkes, and J. L. Bull, “Bubble evolution in acoustic droplet vaporization at physiological temperature via ultra-high speed imaging,” Soft Matter 7(8), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Woydt, M.

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, M. Woydt, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “In vivo droplet vaporization for occlusion therapy and phase aberration correction,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 49(6), 726–738 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, D. K.

D. K. Yi, S. T. Selvan, S. S. Lee, G. C. Papaefthymiou, D. Kundaliya, and J. Y. Ying, “Silica-coated nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(14), 4990–4991 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ying, J. Y.

D. K. Yi, S. T. Selvan, S. S. Lee, G. C. Papaefthymiou, D. Kundaliya, and J. Y. Ying, “Silica-coated nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(14), 4990–4991 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, J. B. Fowlkes, O. D. Kripfgans, W. W. Roberts, K. A. Ives, and P. L. Carson, “Initial investigation of acoustic droplet vaporization for occlusion in canine kidney,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(10), 1691–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zutshi, R.

E. C. Unger, T. Porter, W. Culp, R. Labell, T. Matsunaga, and R. Zutshi, “Therapeutic applications of lipid-coated microbubbles,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(9), 1291–1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.

E. C. Unger, T. Porter, W. Culp, R. Labell, T. Matsunaga, and R. Zutshi, “Therapeutic applications of lipid-coated microbubbles,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(9), 1291–1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(21), 1844–1849 (2003).
[CrossRef]

AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.

M. Behan, D. O’Connell, R. F. Mattrey, and D. N. Carney, “Perfluorooctylbromide as a contrast agent for CT and sonography: preliminary clinical results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 160(2), 399–405 (1993).
[PubMed]

R. F. Mattrey, P. C. Hajek, V. M. Gylys-Morin, L. L. Baker, J. Martin, D. C. Long, and D. M. Long, “Perfluorochemicals as gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging: preliminary studies in rats and humans,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 148(6), 1259–1263 (1987).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Rev.

G. Paltauf and P. E. Dyer, “Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 487–518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crit. Care Clin.

C. S. Cohn and M. M. Cushing, “Oxygen therapeutics: perfluorocarbons and blood substitute safety,” Crit. Care Clin. 25(2), 399–414 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, M. Woydt, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “In vivo droplet vaporization for occlusion therapy and phase aberration correction,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 49(6), 726–738 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Strohm, G. J. Czarnota, and M. C. Kolios, “Quantitative measurements of apoptotic cell properties using acoustic microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(10), 2293–2304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ardebili, A. N. Sinclair, and J. K. Spelt, “Ultrasonic couplants for acoustic microscopy of low speed materials,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44(1), 102–107 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

J. N. Marsh, C. S. Hall, S. A. Wickline, and G. M. Lanza, “Temperature dependence of acoustic impedance for specific fluorocarbon liquids,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112(6), 2858–2862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

D. K. Yi, S. T. Selvan, S. S. Lee, G. C. Papaefthymiou, D. Kundaliya, and J. Y. Ying, “Silica-coated nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(14), 4990–4991 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

I. Gorelikov and N. Matsuura, “Single-step coating of mesoporous silica on cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-capped nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 369–373 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. J. Diebold, T. Sun, and M. I. Khan, “Photoacoustic monopole radiation in one, two, and three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(24), 3384–3387 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

E. M. Strohm, M. Rui, I. Gorelikov, N. Matsuura, and M. Kolios, “Optical droplet vaporization of micron-sized perfluorocarbon droplets and their photoacoustic detection,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78993H, 78993H-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Rui, S. Narashimhan, W. Bost, F. Stracke, E. Weiss, R. Lemor, and M. C. Kolios, “Gigahertz optoacoustic imaging for cellular imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7564, 756411, 756411-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Chem.

J. G. Riess and M. LeBlanc, “Solubility and transport phenomena in perfluorochemicals relevant to blood substitution and other biomedical applications,” Pure Appl. Chem. 54(12), 2383–2406 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Soft Matter

Z. Z. Wong, O. D. Kripfgans, A. Qamar, J. B. Fowlkes, and J. L. Bull, “Bubble evolution in acoustic droplet vaporization at physiological temperature via ultra-high speed imaging,” Soft Matter 7(8), 4009–4016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, I. E. Sebastian, O. D. Kripfgans, P. L. Carson, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Delivery of chlorambucil using an acoustically-triggered perfluoropentane emulsion,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(8), 1364–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Giesecke and K. Hynynen, “Ultrasound-mediated cavitation thresholds of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(9), 1359–1365 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Kripfgans, J. B. Fowlkes, D. L. Miller, O. P. Eldevik, and P. L. Carson, “Acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic and diagnostic applications,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26(7), 1177–1189 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, M. L. Fabiilli, K. J. Haworth, J. B. Fowlkes, O. D. Kripfgans, W. W. Roberts, K. A. Ives, and P. L. Carson, “Initial investigation of acoustic droplet vaporization for occlusion in canine kidney,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(10), 1691–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

N. Matsuura, R. Williams, I. Gorelikov, J. Chaudhuri, J. Rowlands, K. Hynynen, S. Foster, P. Burns, and N. Resnik, “Nanoparticle-loaded perfluorocarbon droplets for imaging and therapy,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, New York, 2009), pp. 5–8.

N. Matsuura, I. Gorelikov, R. Williams, K. Wan, S. Zhu, J. Booth, P. Burns, K. Hynynen, and J. A. Rowlands, “Nanoparticle-tagged perfluorocarbon droplets for medical imaging,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1140, 1–6 (2009).

E. M. Strohm, M. C. Kolios, I. Gorelikov, and N. Matsuura, “Optical droplet vaporization (ODV): photoacoustic characterization of perfluorocarbon droplets,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, New York, 2010) (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) A TEM image of silica-coated PbS nanoparticles after miscibilization into PFC. The PbS nanoparticles were approximately 10 nm in diameter, composed of a 5 nm PbS core and a 2.5 nm silica shell. The scale bar is 10 nm. (B) The absorption spectrum of droplets at low PbS loading (2.07 cm−1 at 1064 nm, solid line) and high PbS loading (4.31 cm−1 at 1064 nm, dotted line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoacoustic c-scan image sequence of a single 6.9 µm droplet with high PbS loading as a function of laser fluence, measured at 200 MHz. Intensity was normalized to maximum amplitude across all measurements and the same dynamic range was used for all images. An increase in the photoacoustic signal was observed with increasing laser fluence, until vaporization occurred in the last frame as indicated by the arrow. The scale bar is 2.5 µm and is the same for all images.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The photoacoustic signal vs. laser fluence for droplets measured at (A) low PbS loading at 200 MHz, (B) high PbS loading at 200 MHz, (C) low PbS loading at 375 MHz, and (D) high PbS loading at 375 MHz. A line of best fit is shown for each droplet, and the average slope is shown by the thick black line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Droplet vaporization observed via optical microscopy. The initial droplet size was 4.5 µm (left). The bubble size was 19.5 µm one second after vaporization (right). The scale bar is 30 µm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Slope Calculation vs. Droplet Concentration and Ultrasound Frequency

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p ( q ) = μ a I 0 A ( q ) ,
A ( q ) = i a c d β C p ( r / a ) e i q τ ( sin q q cos q ) / q 2 ( 1 ρ ) ( sin q / q ) cos q + i c ρ sin q ,
t s t r e s s = d c d , t t h e r m a l = d 2 4 α ,
p ( q ) = B ( q ) F ,

Metrics