Abstract

Parafoveal function is important for daily visual tasks such as reading. Here the variability in cone density along the four cardinal meridians in parafoveal regions of the retina was investigated in vivo using an adaptive optics fundus camera. Ten healthy normal trichromatic individuals were included in the study. There were significant differences in cone density between individuals at all four tested eccentricities (0.5, 1, 2 and 3°) and meridians. Cone density ranged from 34,900 to 63,000 cones/mm2 at 1° horizontally, and from 31,600 to 60,700 at 1° vertically. The results were consistent with those of Curcio et al. (1990), although between-individual variability is greater than previously reported in the parafovea from 1 to 3.2°.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

E. A. Rossi and A. Roorda, “The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(2), 156–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Intersubject variability of foveal cone photoreceptor density in relation to eye length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(12), 6858–6867 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, E. A. Rossi, J. Porter, J. Neitz, A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, and M. Neitz, “Deletion of the X-linked opsin gene array locus control region (LCR) results in disruption of the cone mosaic,” Vision Res. 50(19), 1989–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Neitz, J. Rha, D. R. Williams, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Color-deficient cone mosaics associated with Xq28 opsin mutations: a stop codon versus gene deletions,” Vision Res. 50(23), 2396–2402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Evans, Y. Wang, K. M. Haggerty, and L. N. Thibos, “Effect of sampling array irregularity and window size on the discrimination of sampled gratings,” Vision Res. 50(1), 20–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rha, B. Schroeder, P. Godara, and J. Carroll, “Variable optical activation of human cone photoreceptors visualized using a short coherence light source,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3782–3784 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2005

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, “The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic,” J. Vis. 5(7), 3 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992

C. A. Curcio and K. R. Sloan, “Packing geometry of human cone photoreceptors: variation with eccentricity and evidence for local anisotropy,” Vis. Neurosci. 9(02), 169–180 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300(1), 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

M. B. Shapiro, S. J. Schein, and F. M. de Monasterio, “Regularity and structure of the spatial pattern of blue cones of the macaque retina,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 80(392), 803–812 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978

H. Wässle and H. J. Riemann, “The mosaic of nerve cells in the mammalian retina,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 200(1141), 441–461 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
[PubMed]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300(1), 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baraas, R. C.

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Baraas, J. Carroll, K. L. Gunther, M. Chung, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging reveals S-cone dystrophy in tritan color-vision deficiency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1438–1447 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, A. G.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Branham, K. E.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, J.

J. Carroll, E. A. Rossi, J. Porter, J. Neitz, A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, and M. Neitz, “Deletion of the X-linked opsin gene array locus control region (LCR) results in disruption of the cone mosaic,” Vision Res. 50(19), 1989–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Neitz, J. Rha, D. R. Williams, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Color-deficient cone mosaics associated with Xq28 opsin mutations: a stop codon versus gene deletions,” Vision Res. 50(23), 2396–2402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rha, B. Schroeder, P. Godara, and J. Carroll, “Variable optical activation of human cone photoreceptors visualized using a short coherence light source,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3782–3784 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Baraas, J. Carroll, K. L. Gunther, M. Chung, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging reveals S-cone dystrophy in tritan color-vision deficiency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1438–1447 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, “The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic,” J. Vis. 5(7), 3 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, “The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic,” J. Vis. 5(7), 3 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, T. Y.

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, M.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
[PubMed]

C. A. Curcio and K. R. Sloan, “Packing geometry of human cone photoreceptors: variation with eccentricity and evidence for local anisotropy,” Vis. Neurosci. 9(02), 169–180 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300(1), 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Monasterio, F. M.

M. B. Shapiro, S. J. Schein, and F. M. de Monasterio, “Regularity and structure of the spatial pattern of blue cones of the macaque retina,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 80(392), 803–812 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Delori, F. C.

Doble, N.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, “The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic,” J. Vis. 5(7), 3 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, J. L.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edgar, D. F.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, D. W.

D. W. Evans, Y. Wang, K. M. Haggerty, and L. N. Thibos, “Effect of sampling array irregularity and window size on the discrimination of sampled gratings,” Vision Res. 50(1), 20–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, D. H.

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Baraas, J. Carroll, K. L. Gunther, M. Chung, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging reveals S-cone dystrophy in tritan color-vision deficiency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1438–1447 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandhi, J.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godara, P.

Gunther, K. L.

Haggerty, K. M.

D. W. Evans, Y. Wang, K. M. Haggerty, and L. N. Thibos, “Effect of sampling array irregularity and window size on the discrimination of sampled gratings,” Vision Res. 50(1), 20–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, H.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, H. J.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, “The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic,” J. Vis. 5(7), 3 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
[PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K. Y.

K. Y. Li, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Intersubject variability of foveal cone photoreceptor density in relation to eye length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(12), 6858–6867 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li and A. Roorda, “Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics retinal images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1358–1363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millican, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
[PubMed]

Morgan, J. I.

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakanishi, C.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, J.

M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Neitz, J. Rha, D. R. Williams, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Color-deficient cone mosaics associated with Xq28 opsin mutations: a stop codon versus gene deletions,” Vision Res. 50(23), 2396–2402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, E. A. Rossi, J. Porter, J. Neitz, A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, and M. Neitz, “Deletion of the X-linked opsin gene array locus control region (LCR) results in disruption of the cone mosaic,” Vision Res. 50(19), 1989–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Neitz, J. Rha, D. R. Williams, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Color-deficient cone mosaics associated with Xq28 opsin mutations: a stop codon versus gene deletions,” Vision Res. 50(23), 2396–2402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, E. A. Rossi, J. Porter, J. Neitz, A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, and M. Neitz, “Deletion of the X-linked opsin gene array locus control region (LCR) results in disruption of the cone mosaic,” Vision Res. 50(19), 1989–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Baraas, J. Carroll, K. L. Gunther, M. Chung, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging reveals S-cone dystrophy in tritan color-vision deficiency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1438–1447 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Othman, M.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, J.

J. Carroll, E. A. Rossi, J. Porter, J. Neitz, A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, and M. Neitz, “Deletion of the X-linked opsin gene array locus control region (LCR) results in disruption of the cone mosaic,” Vision Res. 50(19), 1989–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putnam, N. M.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, “The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic,” J. Vis. 5(7), 3 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J.

M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Neitz, J. Rha, D. R. Williams, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Color-deficient cone mosaics associated with Xq28 opsin mutations: a stop codon versus gene deletions,” Vision Res. 50(23), 2396–2402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rha, B. Schroeder, P. Godara, and J. Carroll, “Variable optical activation of human cone photoreceptors visualized using a short coherence light source,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3782–3784 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riemann, H. J.

H. Wässle and H. J. Riemann, “The mosaic of nerve cells in the mammalian retina,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 200(1141), 441–461 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

E. A. Rossi and A. Roorda, “The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(2), 156–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Intersubject variability of foveal cone photoreceptor density in relation to eye length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(12), 6858–6867 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, E. A. Rossi, J. Porter, J. Neitz, A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, and M. Neitz, “Deletion of the X-linked opsin gene array locus control region (LCR) results in disruption of the cone mosaic,” Vision Res. 50(19), 1989–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li and A. Roorda, “Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics retinal images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1358–1363 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, E. A.

E. A. Rossi and A. Roorda, “The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(2), 156–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, E. A. Rossi, J. Porter, J. Neitz, A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, and M. Neitz, “Deletion of the X-linked opsin gene array locus control region (LCR) results in disruption of the cone mosaic,” Vision Res. 50(19), 1989–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudnicka, A. R.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schein, S. J.

M. B. Shapiro, S. J. Schein, and F. M. de Monasterio, “Regularity and structure of the spatial pattern of blue cones of the macaque retina,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 80(392), 803–812 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, B.

Shapiro, M. B.

M. B. Shapiro, S. J. Schein, and F. M. de Monasterio, “Regularity and structure of the spatial pattern of blue cones of the macaque retina,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 80(392), 803–812 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Siebe, C. A.

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sliney, D. H.

Sloan, C.

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio and K. R. Sloan, “Packing geometry of human cone photoreceptors: variation with eccentricity and evidence for local anisotropy,” Vis. Neurosci. 9(02), 169–180 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H.

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swaroop, A.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tait, D. M.

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

D. W. Evans, Y. Wang, K. M. Haggerty, and L. N. Thibos, “Effect of sampling array irregularity and window size on the discrimination of sampled gratings,” Vision Res. 50(1), 20–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, S.

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiruveedhula, P.

K. Y. Li, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Intersubject variability of foveal cone photoreceptor density in relation to eye length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(12), 6858–6867 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner-Schuman, M.

M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Neitz, J. Rha, D. R. Williams, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Color-deficient cone mosaics associated with Xq28 opsin mutations: a stop codon versus gene deletions,” Vision Res. 50(23), 2396–2402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

D. W. Evans, Y. Wang, K. M. Haggerty, and L. N. Thibos, “Effect of sampling array irregularity and window size on the discrimination of sampled gratings,” Vision Res. 50(1), 20–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wässle, H.

H. Wässle and H. J. Riemann, “The mosaic of nerve cells in the mammalian retina,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 200(1141), 441–461 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Williams, D. R.

J. Carroll, E. A. Rossi, J. Porter, J. Neitz, A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, and M. Neitz, “Deletion of the X-linked opsin gene array locus control region (LCR) results in disruption of the cone mosaic,” Vision Res. 50(19), 1989–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Neitz, J. Rha, D. R. Williams, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Color-deficient cone mosaics associated with Xq28 opsin mutations: a stop codon versus gene deletions,” Vision Res. 50(23), 2396–2402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Baraas, J. Carroll, K. L. Gunther, M. Chung, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging reveals S-cone dystrophy in tritan color-vision deficiency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1438–1447 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, “The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic,” J. Vis. 5(7), 3 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

J. L. Duncan, Y. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Intersubject variability of foveal cone photoreceptor density in relation to eye length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(12), 6858–6867 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(12), 3278–3296 (1993).
[PubMed]

J. Am. Stat. Assoc.

M. B. Shapiro, S. J. Schein, and F. M. de Monasterio, “Regularity and structure of the spatial pattern of blue cones of the macaque retina,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 80(392), 803–812 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300(1), 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vis.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, “The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic,” J. Vis. 5(7), 3 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Neurosci.

E. A. Rossi and A. Roorda, “The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(2), 156–157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, R. C. Baraas, M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Rha, C. A. Siebe, C. Sloan, D. M. Tait, S. Thompson, J. I. Morgan, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, D. H. Foster, and M. Neitz, “Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(49), 20948–20953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci.

H. Wässle and H. J. Riemann, “The mosaic of nerve cells in the mammalian retina,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 200(1141), 441–461 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vis. Neurosci.

C. A. Curcio and K. R. Sloan, “Packing geometry of human cone photoreceptors: variation with eccentricity and evidence for local anisotropy,” Vis. Neurosci. 9(02), 169–180 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res.

J. Carroll, E. A. Rossi, J. Porter, J. Neitz, A. Roorda, D. R. Williams, and M. Neitz, “Deletion of the X-linked opsin gene array locus control region (LCR) results in disruption of the cone mosaic,” Vision Res. 50(19), 1989–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wagner-Schuman, J. Neitz, J. Rha, D. R. Williams, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Color-deficient cone mosaics associated with Xq28 opsin mutations: a stop codon versus gene deletions,” Vision Res. 50(23), 2396–2402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Evans, Y. Wang, K. M. Haggerty, and L. N. Thibos, “Effect of sampling array irregularity and window size on the discrimination of sampled gratings,” Vision Res. 50(1), 20–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the Kongsberg adaptive optics ophthalmoscope. BS1-BS2, beam splitters; SHWS, Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor; L1-15, achromatic lenses; M1-M3, spherical mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cone mosaic images at three different eccentricities. Shown are images for two females 4008 and 4010 at 1° (a) and (d), 2° (b) and (e), 3° (c) and (f), from temporal and nasal parafovea respectively. Scale bars are 50 μm. Retinal magnification estimates are 268.4 μm/° (4008) and 288.0 μm/° (4010).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spread in cone photoreceptor density between individuals at four different retinal eccentricities. The filled circles are the median values; the vertical lines encompass the full range between the minimum and maximum values, and each box shows how the middle half of all cone density values distributed at each eccentricity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cone photoreceptor mosaic regularity in terms of cones with six-sided Voronoi neighbors between individuals at four different eccentricities. Other details as for Fig. 3.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean cone density and standard deviations (SD) along the temporal meridian a

Metrics