Abstract

Variations of hemoglobin (Hb) oxygenation in tissue provide important indications concerning the physiological conditions of tissue, and the data related to these variations are of intense interest in medical research as well as in clinical care. In this study, we derived a new algorithm to estimate Hb oxygenation from diffuse reflectance spectra. The algorithm was developed based on the unique spectral profile differences between the extinction coefficient spectra of oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb within the visible wavelength region. Using differential wavelet transformation, these differences were quantified using the locations of certain spectral features, and, then, they were related to the oxygenation saturation level of Hb. The applicability of the algorithm was evaluated using a set of diffuse reflectance spectra produced by a Monte Carlo simulation model of photon migration and by tissue phantoms experimentally. The algorithm was further applied to the diffuse reflectance spectra acquired from in vivo experiments to demonstrate its clinical utility. The validation and evaluation results concluded that the algorithm is applicable to various tissue types (i.e., scattering properties) and can be easily used in conjunction with a diverse range of probe geometries for real-time monitoring of Hb oxygenation.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (2)

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, and N. Choudhury, “Rapid spectral analysis for spectral imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 157–164 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

Y. Ti and W. C. Lin, “Effects of probe contact pressure on in vivo optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4250–4262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, and N. Subhash, “Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio for in vivo detection of oral pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. Knotzer and W. R. Hasibeder, “Microcirculatory function monitoring at the bedside--a view from the intensive care,” Physiol. Meas. 28(9), R65–R86 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, “Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7317–7328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gade, D. Palmqvist, P. Plomgård, and G. Greisen, “Diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with visible light: comparison of four different methods in a tissue phantom,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(1), 121–136 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Verdant and D. De Backer, “How monitoring of the microcirculation may help us at the bedside,” Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 11(3), 240–244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Effect of pigment packaging on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of samples containing red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 965–967 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. M. Bateman, M. D. Sharpe, and C. G. Ellis, “Bench-to-bedside review: microvascular dysfunction in sepsis--hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and nitric oxide,” Crit. Care 7(5), 359–373 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. A. Stratonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, “Evaluation of blood oxygen saturation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 457–467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siegemund, J. van Bommel, and C. Ince, “Assessment of regional tissue oxygenation,” Intensive Care Med. 25(10), 1044–1060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Meyer, C. Schaller, C. Frenkel, B. Ebeling, and J. Schramm, “Distributions of local oxygen saturation and its response to changes of mean arterial blood pressure in the cerebral cortex adjacent to arteriovenous malformations,” Stroke 30(12), 2623–2630 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80(1), 116–123 (1996).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

S. Mallat, “Zero-crossings of a wavelet transform,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37(4), 1019–1033 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

L. J. Brown, “A new instrument for the simultaneous measurement of total hemoglobin, % oxyhemoglobin, % carboxyhemoglobin, % methemoglobin, and oxygen content in whole blood,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27(3), 132–138 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

N. T. Evans and P. F. Naylor, “The oxygen tension gradient across human epidermis,” Respir. Physiol. 3(1), 38–42 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A’Amar, O.

Aalders, M. C.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alerstam, E.

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Bargo, P. R.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bateman, R. M.

R. M. Bateman, M. D. Sharpe, and C. G. Ellis, “Bench-to-bedside review: microvascular dysfunction in sepsis--hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and nitric oxide,” Crit. Care 7(5), 359–373 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benaron, D. A.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, S.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

Blair, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brock-Utne, J.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, L. J.

L. J. Brown, “A new instrument for the simultaneous measurement of total hemoglobin, % oxyhemoglobin, % carboxyhemoglobin, % methemoglobin, and oxygen content in whole blood,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27(3), 132–138 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carson, J. J.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. F.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choudhury, N.

Clark, F. L.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cross, F. W.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Backer, D.

C. Verdant and D. De Backer, “How monitoring of the microcirculation may help us at the bedside,” Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 11(3), 240–244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doornbos, R. M.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duckworth, J. L.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebeling, B.

B. Meyer, C. Schaller, C. Frenkel, B. Ebeling, and J. Schramm, “Distributions of local oxygen saturation and its response to changes of mean arterial blood pressure in the cerebral cortex adjacent to arteriovenous malformations,” Stroke 30(12), 2623–2630 (1999).
[PubMed]

Ellis, C. G.

R. M. Bateman, M. D. Sharpe, and C. G. Ellis, “Bench-to-bedside review: microvascular dysfunction in sepsis--hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and nitric oxide,” Crit. Care 7(5), 359–373 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, N. T.

N. T. Evans and P. F. Naylor, “The oxygen tension gradient across human epidermis,” Respir. Physiol. 3(1), 38–42 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fincher, E. F.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, J. C.

Foster, T. H.

Frenkel, C.

B. Meyer, C. Schaller, C. Frenkel, B. Ebeling, and J. Schramm, “Distributions of local oxygen saturation and its response to changes of mean arterial blood pressure in the cerebral cortex adjacent to arteriovenous malformations,” Stroke 30(12), 2623–2630 (1999).
[PubMed]

Friedland, S.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gade, J.

J. Gade, D. Palmqvist, P. Plomgård, and G. Greisen, “Diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with visible light: comparison of four different methods in a tissue phantom,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(1), 121–136 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladstone, H. B.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodell, T. T.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greisen, G.

J. Gade, D. Palmqvist, P. Plomgård, and G. Greisen, “Diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with visible light: comparison of four different methods in a tissue phantom,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(1), 121–136 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasibeder, W. R.

H. Knotzer and W. R. Hasibeder, “Microcirculatory function monitoring at the bedside--a view from the intensive care,” Physiol. Meas. 28(9), R65–R86 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. P.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, G. J.

Ince, C.

M. Siegemund, J. van Bommel, and C. Ince, “Assessment of regional tissue oxygenation,” Intensive Care Med. 25(10), 1044–1060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, and N. Choudhury, “Rapid spectral analysis for spectral imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 157–164 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, R. L.

R. L. Jensen, “Brain tumor hypoxia: tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, imaging, pseudoprogression, and as a therapeutic target,” J. Neurooncol. 92(3), 317–335 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J. K.

Johnson, M.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoefel, W. T.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80(1), 116–123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Knotzer, H.

H. Knotzer and W. R. Hasibeder, “Microcirculatory function monitoring at the bedside--a view from the intensive care,” Physiol. Meas. 28(9), R65–R86 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollias, N.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80(1), 116–123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Koval, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, R.

R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, and N. Subhash, “Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio for in vivo detection of oral pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, R.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

Lin, J. K.

Lin, W. C.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ti and W. C. Lin, “Effects of probe contact pressure on in vivo optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4250–4262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D. L.

Loschenov, V. B.

A. A. Stratonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, “Evaluation of blood oxygen saturation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 457–467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madhavan, J.

R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, and N. Subhash, “Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio for in vivo detection of oral pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallat, S.

S. Mallat, “Zero-crossings of a wavelet transform,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37(4), 1019–1033 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mallia, R.

R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, and N. Subhash, “Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio for in vivo detection of oral pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathews, A.

R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, and N. Subhash, “Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio for in vivo detection of oral pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maxim, P. G.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, B.

B. Meyer, C. Schaller, C. Frenkel, B. Ebeling, and J. Schramm, “Distributions of local oxygen saturation and its response to changes of mean arterial blood pressure in the cerebral cortex adjacent to arteriovenous malformations,” Stroke 30(12), 2623–2630 (1999).
[PubMed]

Naylor, P. F.

N. T. Evans and P. F. Naylor, “The oxygen tension gradient across human epidermis,” Respir. Physiol. 3(1), 38–42 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nezhat, C.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, A. M.

Nishioka, N. S.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80(1), 116–123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Oh, S.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

Palmqvist, D.

J. Gade, D. Palmqvist, P. Plomgård, and G. Greisen, “Diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with visible light: comparison of four different methods in a tissue phantom,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(1), 121–136 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parachikov, I. H.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plomgård, P.

J. Gade, D. Palmqvist, P. Plomgård, and G. Greisen, “Diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with visible light: comparison of four different methods in a tissue phantom,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(1), 121–136 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ragheb, J.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

Rattner, D. W.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80(1), 116–123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Razavi, M. K.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, R.

Samatham, R.

Sandberg, D. I.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaller, C.

B. Meyer, C. Schaller, C. Frenkel, B. Ebeling, and J. Schramm, “Distributions of local oxygen saturation and its response to changes of mean arterial blood pressure in the cerebral cortex adjacent to arteriovenous malformations,” Stroke 30(12), 2623–2630 (1999).
[PubMed]

Schramm, J.

B. Meyer, C. Schaller, C. Frenkel, B. Ebeling, and J. Schramm, “Distributions of local oxygen saturation and its response to changes of mean arterial blood pressure in the cerebral cortex adjacent to arteriovenous malformations,” Stroke 30(12), 2623–2630 (1999).
[PubMed]

Sebastian, P.

R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, and N. Subhash, “Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio for in vivo detection of oral pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, M. D.

R. M. Bateman, M. D. Sharpe, and C. G. Ellis, “Bench-to-bedside review: microvascular dysfunction in sepsis--hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and nitric oxide,” Crit. Care 7(5), 359–373 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegemund, M.

M. Siegemund, J. van Bommel, and C. Ince, “Assessment of regional tissue oxygenation,” Intensive Care Med. 25(10), 1044–1060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sleven, R. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soetikno, R.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, D. K.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stratonnikov, A. A.

A. A. Stratonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, “Evaluation of blood oxygen saturation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 457–467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturesson, C.

Subhash, N.

R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, and N. Subhash, “Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio for in vivo detection of oral pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svensson, T.

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terris, M. K.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S. S.

R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, and N. Subhash, “Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio for in vivo detection of oral pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ti, Y.

van Bommel, J.

M. Siegemund, J. van Bommel, and C. Ince, “Assessment of regional tissue oxygenation,” Intensive Care Med. 25(10), 1044–1060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Starre, P. J.

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verdant, C.

C. Verdant and D. De Backer, “How monitoring of the microcirculation may help us at the bedside,” Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 11(3), 240–244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. W.

Warshaw, A. L.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80(1), 116–123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Yu, J. S.

Anesthesiology (1)

D. A. Benaron, I. H. Parachikov, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. Brock-Utne, P. J. van der Starre, C. Nezhat, M. K. Terris, P. G. Maxim, J. J. Carson, M. K. Razavi, H. B. Gladstone, E. F. Fincher, C. P. Hsu, F. L. Clark, W. F. Cheong, J. L. Duckworth, and D. K. Stevenson, “Continuous, noninvasive, and localized microvascular tissue oximetry using visible light spectroscopy,” Anesthesiology 100(6), 1469–1475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Crit. Care (1)

R. M. Bateman, M. D. Sharpe, and C. G. Ellis, “Bench-to-bedside review: microvascular dysfunction in sepsis--hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and nitric oxide,” Crit. Care 7(5), 359–373 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Crit. Care (1)

C. Verdant and D. De Backer, “How monitoring of the microcirculation may help us at the bedside,” Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 11(3), 240–244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

L. J. Brown, “A new instrument for the simultaneous measurement of total hemoglobin, % oxyhemoglobin, % carboxyhemoglobin, % methemoglobin, and oxygen content in whole blood,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27(3), 132–138 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

S. Mallat, “Zero-crossings of a wavelet transform,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37(4), 1019–1033 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Intensive Care Med. (1)

M. Siegemund, J. van Bommel, and C. Ince, “Assessment of regional tissue oxygenation,” Intensive Care Med. 25(10), 1044–1060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80(1), 116–123 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Stratonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, “Evaluation of blood oxygen saturation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 457–467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, P. Sebastian, J. Madhavan, and N. Subhash, “Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio for in vivo detection of oral pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurooncol. (1)

R. L. Jensen, “Brain tumor hypoxia: tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, imaging, pseudoprogression, and as a therapeutic target,” J. Neurooncol. 92(3), 317–335 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

J. Gade, D. Palmqvist, P. Plomgård, and G. Greisen, “Diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with visible light: comparison of four different methods in a tissue phantom,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(1), 121–136 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

H. Knotzer and W. R. Hasibeder, “Microcirculatory function monitoring at the bedside--a view from the intensive care,” Physiol. Meas. 28(9), R65–R86 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Respir. Physiol. (1)

N. T. Evans and P. F. Naylor, “The oxygen tension gradient across human epidermis,” Respir. Physiol. 3(1), 38–42 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroke (1)

B. Meyer, C. Schaller, C. Frenkel, B. Ebeling, and J. Schramm, “Distributions of local oxygen saturation and its response to changes of mean arterial blood pressure in the cerebral cortex adjacent to arteriovenous malformations,” Stroke 30(12), 2623–2630 (1999).
[PubMed]

Other (2)

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis, 2nd ed. (SPIE, Bellingham, 2007).

S. Mallat, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing (Academic, London, 1999).

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