Abstract

Cortical mapping, also called optical topography is a new medical imaging modality which allows the non-invasive investigation of the outer layers of the cortex. This technique is challenging and the geometry of the subject is very often over-simplified. We aim here to localize activated regions of an anatomically accurate brain. A Boundary Element Method is used for the forward model. The reconstruction of perturbations in the absorption coefficient is demonstrated in a geometrically realistic simulation and in vivo. These results show that diffuse optical imaging of the head can provide reliable activity maps when anatomical data is available.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

2010 (2)

A. Custo, D. A. Boas, D. Tsuzuki, I. Dan, R. Mesquita, B. Fischl, W. E. L. Grimson, W. Wells, “Anatomical atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography of brain activation,” Neuroimage 49(1), 561–567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Elisee, A. Gibson, S. Arridge, “Combination of boundary element method and finite element method in diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(11), 2737–2745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

F. Abdelnour, B. Schmidt, T. J. Huppert, “Topographic localization of brain activation in diffuse optical imaging using spherical wavelets,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(20), 6383–6413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tong, B. Frederick, “Using fmri analysis tools (fsl/freesurfer) to analyze near-infrared imaging of the brain,” Neuroimage 47, S58 (2009) [presented at Organization for Human Brain Mapping 2009 Annual Meeting].

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

T. Nakahachi, R. Ishii, M. Iwase, L. Canuet, H. Takahashi, R. Kurimoto, K. Ikezawa, M. Azechi, R. Sekiyama, E. Honaga, C. Uchiumi, M. Iwakiri, N. Motomura, M. Takeda, “Frontal activity during the digit symbol substitution test determined by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuropsychobiology 57(4), 151–158 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder, M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Liu, D. S. Borrett, A. Cheng, D. Gasparro, H. C. Kwan, “Near-infrared spectroscopy study of language activated hyper- and hypo-oxygenation in human prefrontal cortex,” Int. J. Neurosci. 118(5), 657–666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, T. Austin, “Optical tomography of the neonatal brain,” Eur. Radiol. 17(11), 2926–2933 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, R. Cubeddu, “Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5418–5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sikora, A. Zacharopoulos, A. Douiri, M. Schweiger, L. Horesh, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, “Diffuse photon propagation in multilayered geometries,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(3), 497–516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, I. Nissilä, “Gauss-Newton method for image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(10), 2365–2386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Leung, C. E. Elwell, D. T. Delpy, “Estimation of cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes in a layered adult head model using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(24), 5783–5798 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A frequency multiplexed near-infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Tizzard, L. Horesh, R. J. Yerworth, D. S. Holder, R. H. Bayford, “Generating accurate finite element meshes for the forward model of the human head in EIT,” Physiol. Meas. 26(2), S251–S261 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

T. Shinba, M. Nagano, N. Kariya, K. Ogawa, T. Shinozaki, S. Shimosato, Y. Hoshi, “Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia,” Biol. Psychiatry 55(2), 154–164 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Suto, M. Fukuda, M. Ito, T. Uehara, M. Mikuni, “Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy in depression and schizophrenia: cognitive brain activation study,” Biol. Psychiatry 55(5), 501–511 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

Y. Fukui, Y. Ajichi, E. Okada, “Monte Carlo prediction of near-infrared light propagation in realistic adult and neonatal head models,” Appl. Opt. 42(16), 2881–2887 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yao, “High-resolution EEG mapping: an equivalent charge-layer approach,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(13), 1997–2011 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Koizumi, T. Yamamoto, A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, H. Sato, H. Kawaguchi, N. Ichikawa, “Optical topography: practical problems and new applications,” Appl. Opt. 42(16), 3054–3062 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peña, A. Maki, D. Kovacić, G. Dehaene-Lambertz, H. Koizumi, F. Bouquet, J. Mehler, “Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(20), 11702–11705 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. Riley, M. Schweiger, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “A method for generating patient-specific finite element meshes for head modelling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(4), 481–495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

A. A. Baird, J. Kagan, T. Gaudette, K. A. Walz, N. Hershlag, D. A. Boas, “Frontal lobe activation during object permanence: data from near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 16(4), 1120–1126 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hoshi, S.-J. Chen, “Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with emotions in children,” Pediatr. Neurol. 27(4), 275–281 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Kennan, D. Kim, A. Maki, H. Koizumi, R. T. Constable, “Non-invasive assessment of language lateralization by transcranial near infrared optical topography and functional MRI,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 16(3), 183–189 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. He, X. Zhang, J. Lian, H. Sasaki, D. Wu, V. L. Towle, “Boundary element method-based cortical potential imaging of somatosensory evoked potentials using subjects’ magnetic resonance images,” Neuroimage 16(3), 564–576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. O. Ollikainen, M. Vaukhonen, P. A. Karjalainen, J. P. Kaipio, “A new computational approach for cortical imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20(4), 325–332 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

B. Fischl, M. I. Sereno, A. M. Dale, “Cortical surface-based analysis. II: Inflation, flattening, and a surface-based coordinate system,” Neuroimage 9(2), 195–207 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
[PubMed]

H. Sato, T. Takeuchi, K. L. Sakai, “Temporal cortex activation during speech recognition: an optical topography study,” Cognition 73(3), B55–B66 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15(2), R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19(1), 89–97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdelnour, F.

F. Abdelnour, T. Huppert, “A random-effects model for group-level analysis of diffuse optical brain imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(1), 1–25 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Abdelnour, B. Schmidt, T. J. Huppert, “Topographic localization of brain activation in diffuse optical imaging using spherical wavelets,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(20), 6383–6413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajichi, Y.

Arridge, S.

J. Elisee, A. Gibson, S. Arridge, “Combination of boundary element method and finite element method in diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(11), 2737–2745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

J. Sikora, A. Zacharopoulos, A. Douiri, M. Schweiger, L. Horesh, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, “Diffuse photon propagation in multilayered geometries,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(3), 497–516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, I. Nissilä, “Gauss-Newton method for image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(10), 2365–2386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. Riley, M. Schweiger, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “A method for generating patient-specific finite element meshes for head modelling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(4), 481–495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15(2), R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36(1), 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Photon-measurement density functions. Part 2: Finite-element-method calculations,” Appl. Opt. 34(34), 8026–8037 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ausman, J. I.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19(1), 89–97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, T.

J. C. Hebden, T. Austin, “Optical tomography of the neonatal brain,” Eur. Radiol. 17(11), 2926–2933 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azechi, M.

T. Nakahachi, R. Ishii, M. Iwase, L. Canuet, H. Takahashi, R. Kurimoto, K. Ikezawa, M. Azechi, R. Sekiyama, E. Honaga, C. Uchiumi, M. Iwakiri, N. Motomura, M. Takeda, “Frontal activity during the digit symbol substitution test determined by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuropsychobiology 57(4), 151–158 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baird, A. A.

A. A. Baird, J. Kagan, T. Gaudette, K. A. Walz, N. Hershlag, D. A. Boas, “Frontal lobe activation during object permanence: data from near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 16(4), 1120–1126 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, N. J.

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
[PubMed]

Baselli, G.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayford, R. H.

A. Tizzard, L. Horesh, R. J. Yerworth, D. S. Holder, R. H. Bayford, “Generating accurate finite element meshes for the forward model of the human head in EIT,” Physiol. Meas. 26(2), S251–S261 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bianchi, A. M.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

A. Custo, D. A. Boas, D. Tsuzuki, I. Dan, R. Mesquita, B. Fischl, W. E. L. Grimson, W. Wells, “Anatomical atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography of brain activation,” Neuroimage 49(1), 561–567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Baird, J. Kagan, T. Gaudette, K. A. Walz, N. Hershlag, D. A. Boas, “Frontal lobe activation during object permanence: data from near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 16(4), 1120–1126 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borrett, D. S.

K. R. Liu, D. S. Borrett, A. Cheng, D. Gasparro, H. C. Kwan, “Near-infrared spectroscopy study of language activated hyper- and hypo-oxygenation in human prefrontal cortex,” Int. J. Neurosci. 118(5), 657–666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouquet, F.

M. Peña, A. Maki, D. Kovacić, G. Dehaene-Lambertz, H. Koizumi, F. Bouquet, J. Mehler, “Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(20), 11702–11705 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butti, M.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caffini, M.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canuet, L.

T. Nakahachi, R. Ishii, M. Iwase, L. Canuet, H. Takahashi, R. Kurimoto, K. Ikezawa, M. Azechi, R. Sekiyama, E. Honaga, C. Uchiumi, M. Iwakiri, N. Motomura, M. Takeda, “Frontal activity during the digit symbol substitution test determined by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuropsychobiology 57(4), 151–158 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerutti, S.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.-J.

Y. Hoshi, S.-J. Chen, “Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with emotions in children,” Pediatr. Neurol. 27(4), 275–281 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, A.

K. R. Liu, D. S. Borrett, A. Cheng, D. Gasparro, H. C. Kwan, “Near-infrared spectroscopy study of language activated hyper- and hypo-oxygenation in human prefrontal cortex,” Int. J. Neurosci. 118(5), 657–666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constable, R. T.

R. P. Kennan, D. Kim, A. Maki, H. Koizumi, R. T. Constable, “Non-invasive assessment of language lateralization by transcranial near infrared optical topography and functional MRI,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 16(3), 183–189 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contini, D.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, R. Cubeddu, “Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5418–5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36(1), 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cova, S.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, R. Cubeddu, “Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5418–5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Custo, A.

A. Custo, D. A. Boas, D. Tsuzuki, I. Dan, R. Mesquita, B. Fischl, W. E. L. Grimson, W. Wells, “Anatomical atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography of brain activation,” Neuroimage 49(1), 561–567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dale, A. M.

B. Fischl, M. I. Sereno, A. M. Dale, “Cortical surface-based analysis. II: Inflation, flattening, and a surface-based coordinate system,” Neuroimage 9(2), 195–207 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalla Mora, A.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dan, I.

A. Custo, D. A. Boas, D. Tsuzuki, I. Dan, R. Mesquita, B. Fischl, W. E. L. Grimson, W. Wells, “Anatomical atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography of brain activation,” Neuroimage 49(1), 561–567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehaene-Lambertz, G.

M. Peña, A. Maki, D. Kovacić, G. Dehaene-Lambertz, H. Koizumi, F. Bouquet, J. Mehler, “Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(20), 11702–11705 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Leung, C. E. Elwell, D. T. Delpy, “Estimation of cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes in a layered adult head model using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(24), 5783–5798 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A frequency multiplexed near-infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Gibson, J. Riley, M. Schweiger, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “A method for generating patient-specific finite element meshes for head modelling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(4), 481–495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36(1), 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douiri, A.

J. Sikora, A. Zacharopoulos, A. Douiri, M. Schweiger, L. Horesh, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, “Diffuse photon propagation in multilayered geometries,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(3), 497–516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dujovny, M.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19(1), 89–97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elisee, J.

J. Elisee, A. Gibson, S. Arridge, “Combination of boundary element method and finite element method in diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(11), 2737–2745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwell, C. E.

T. S. Leung, C. E. Elwell, D. T. Delpy, “Estimation of cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes in a layered adult head model using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(24), 5783–5798 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, P. D.

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
[PubMed]

Everdell, N.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everdell, N. L.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A frequency multiplexed near-infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Firbank, M.

Fischl, B.

A. Custo, D. A. Boas, D. Tsuzuki, I. Dan, R. Mesquita, B. Fischl, W. E. L. Grimson, W. Wells, “Anatomical atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography of brain activation,” Neuroimage 49(1), 561–567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fischl, M. I. Sereno, A. M. Dale, “Cortical surface-based analysis. II: Inflation, flattening, and a surface-based coordinate system,” Neuroimage 9(2), 195–207 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frederick, B.

Y. Tong, B. Frederick, “Using fmri analysis tools (fsl/freesurfer) to analyze near-infrared imaging of the brain,” Neuroimage 47, S58 (2009) [presented at Organization for Human Brain Mapping 2009 Annual Meeting].

Fukuda, M.

T. Suto, M. Fukuda, M. Ito, T. Uehara, M. Mikuni, “Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy in depression and schizophrenia: cognitive brain activation study,” Biol. Psychiatry 55(5), 501–511 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, Y.

Gasparro, D.

K. R. Liu, D. S. Borrett, A. Cheng, D. Gasparro, H. C. Kwan, “Near-infrared spectroscopy study of language activated hyper- and hypo-oxygenation in human prefrontal cortex,” Int. J. Neurosci. 118(5), 657–666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaudette, T.

A. A. Baird, J. Kagan, T. Gaudette, K. A. Walz, N. Hershlag, D. A. Boas, “Frontal lobe activation during object permanence: data from near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 16(4), 1120–1126 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Germon, T. J.

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
[PubMed]

Gibson, A.

J. Elisee, A. Gibson, S. Arridge, “Combination of boundary element method and finite element method in diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(11), 2737–2745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, A. P.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A frequency multiplexed near-infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Gibson, J. Riley, M. Schweiger, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “A method for generating patient-specific finite element meshes for head modelling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(4), 481–495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetting, M. G.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19(1), 89–97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimson, W. E. L.

A. Custo, D. A. Boas, D. Tsuzuki, I. Dan, R. Mesquita, B. Fischl, W. E. L. Grimson, W. Wells, “Anatomical atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography of brain activation,” Neuroimage 49(1), 561–567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, B.

B. He, X. Zhang, J. Lian, H. Sasaki, D. Wu, V. L. Towle, “Boundary element method-based cortical potential imaging of somatosensory evoked potentials using subjects’ magnetic resonance images,” Neuroimage 16(3), 564–576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, T. Austin, “Optical tomography of the neonatal brain,” Eur. Radiol. 17(11), 2926–2933 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A frequency multiplexed near-infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Gibson, J. Riley, M. Schweiger, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “A method for generating patient-specific finite element meshes for head modelling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(4), 481–495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hershlag, N.

A. A. Baird, J. Kagan, T. Gaudette, K. A. Walz, N. Hershlag, D. A. Boas, “Frontal lobe activation during object permanence: data from near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 16(4), 1120–1126 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M. C.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holder, D. S.

A. Tizzard, L. Horesh, R. J. Yerworth, D. S. Holder, R. H. Bayford, “Generating accurate finite element meshes for the forward model of the human head in EIT,” Physiol. Meas. 26(2), S251–S261 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honaga, E.

T. Nakahachi, R. Ishii, M. Iwase, L. Canuet, H. Takahashi, R. Kurimoto, K. Ikezawa, M. Azechi, R. Sekiyama, E. Honaga, C. Uchiumi, M. Iwakiri, N. Motomura, M. Takeda, “Frontal activity during the digit symbol substitution test determined by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuropsychobiology 57(4), 151–158 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horesh, L.

J. Sikora, A. Zacharopoulos, A. Douiri, M. Schweiger, L. Horesh, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, “Diffuse photon propagation in multilayered geometries,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(3), 497–516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tizzard, L. Horesh, R. J. Yerworth, D. S. Holder, R. H. Bayford, “Generating accurate finite element meshes for the forward model of the human head in EIT,” Physiol. Meas. 26(2), S251–S261 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoshi, Y.

T. Shinba, M. Nagano, N. Kariya, K. Ogawa, T. Shinozaki, S. Shimosato, Y. Hoshi, “Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia,” Biol. Psychiatry 55(2), 154–164 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hoshi, S.-J. Chen, “Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with emotions in children,” Pediatr. Neurol. 27(4), 275–281 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huppert, T.

Huppert, T. J.

F. Abdelnour, B. Schmidt, T. J. Huppert, “Topographic localization of brain activation in diffuse optical imaging using spherical wavelets,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(20), 6383–6413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichikawa, N.

Ikezawa, K.

T. Nakahachi, R. Ishii, M. Iwase, L. Canuet, H. Takahashi, R. Kurimoto, K. Ikezawa, M. Azechi, R. Sekiyama, E. Honaga, C. Uchiumi, M. Iwakiri, N. Motomura, M. Takeda, “Frontal activity during the digit symbol substitution test determined by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuropsychobiology 57(4), 151–158 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, R.

T. Nakahachi, R. Ishii, M. Iwase, L. Canuet, H. Takahashi, R. Kurimoto, K. Ikezawa, M. Azechi, R. Sekiyama, E. Honaga, C. Uchiumi, M. Iwakiri, N. Motomura, M. Takeda, “Frontal activity during the digit symbol substitution test determined by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuropsychobiology 57(4), 151–158 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, M.

T. Suto, M. Fukuda, M. Ito, T. Uehara, M. Mikuni, “Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy in depression and schizophrenia: cognitive brain activation study,” Biol. Psychiatry 55(5), 501–511 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwakiri, M.

T. Nakahachi, R. Ishii, M. Iwase, L. Canuet, H. Takahashi, R. Kurimoto, K. Ikezawa, M. Azechi, R. Sekiyama, E. Honaga, C. Uchiumi, M. Iwakiri, N. Motomura, M. Takeda, “Frontal activity during the digit symbol substitution test determined by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuropsychobiology 57(4), 151–158 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwase, M.

T. Nakahachi, R. Ishii, M. Iwase, L. Canuet, H. Takahashi, R. Kurimoto, K. Ikezawa, M. Azechi, R. Sekiyama, E. Honaga, C. Uchiumi, M. Iwakiri, N. Motomura, M. Takeda, “Frontal activity during the digit symbol substitution test determined by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuropsychobiology 57(4), 151–158 (2008).
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Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder, M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, W.

A. Custo, D. A. Boas, D. Tsuzuki, I. Dan, R. Mesquita, B. Fischl, W. E. L. Grimson, W. Wells, “Anatomical atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography of brain activation,” Neuroimage 49(1), 561–567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, D.

B. He, X. Zhang, J. Lian, H. Sasaki, D. Wu, V. L. Towle, “Boundary element method-based cortical potential imaging of somatosensory evoked potentials using subjects’ magnetic resonance images,” Neuroimage 16(3), 564–576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

Yamashita, Y.

Yao, D.

D. Yao, “High-resolution EEG mapping: an equivalent charge-layer approach,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(13), 1997–2011 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yerworth, R. J.

A. Tizzard, L. Horesh, R. J. Yerworth, D. S. Holder, R. H. Bayford, “Generating accurate finite element meshes for the forward model of the human head in EIT,” Physiol. Meas. 26(2), S251–S261 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yusof, R. M.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zacharopoulos, A.

J. Sikora, A. Zacharopoulos, A. Douiri, M. Schweiger, L. Horesh, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, “Diffuse photon propagation in multilayered geometries,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(3), 497–516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zappa, F.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

B. He, X. Zhang, J. Lian, H. Sasaki, D. Wu, V. L. Towle, “Boundary element method-based cortical potential imaging of somatosensory evoked potentials using subjects’ magnetic resonance images,” Neuroimage 16(3), 564–576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zolek, N.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Biol. Psychiatry (2)

T. Shinba, M. Nagano, N. Kariya, K. Ogawa, T. Shinozaki, S. Shimosato, Y. Hoshi, “Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia,” Biol. Psychiatry 55(2), 154–164 (2004).
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T. Suto, M. Fukuda, M. Ito, T. Uehara, M. Mikuni, “Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy in depression and schizophrenia: cognitive brain activation study,” Biol. Psychiatry 55(5), 501–511 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Anaesth. (1)

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
[PubMed]

Cognition (1)

H. Sato, T. Takeuchi, K. L. Sakai, “Temporal cortex activation during speech recognition: an optical topography study,” Cognition 73(3), B55–B66 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crit. Care Med. (1)

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19(1), 89–97 (1991).
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Eur. Radiol. (1)

J. C. Hebden, T. Austin, “Optical tomography of the neonatal brain,” Eur. Radiol. 17(11), 2926–2933 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hum. Brain Mapp. (1)

R. P. Kennan, D. Kim, A. Maki, H. Koizumi, R. T. Constable, “Non-invasive assessment of language lateralization by transcranial near infrared optical topography and functional MRI,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 16(3), 183–189 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. Elisee, A. Gibson, S. Arridge, “Combination of boundary element method and finite element method in diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(11), 2737–2745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

J. O. Ollikainen, M. Vaukhonen, P. A. Karjalainen, J. P. Kaipio, “A new computational approach for cortical imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20(4), 325–332 (2001).
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Int. J. Neurosci. (1)

K. R. Liu, D. S. Borrett, A. Cheng, D. Gasparro, H. C. Kwan, “Near-infrared spectroscopy study of language activated hyper- and hypo-oxygenation in human prefrontal cortex,” Int. J. Neurosci. 118(5), 657–666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inverse Probl. (1)

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15(2), R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, R. Maniewski, “Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

R. Weissleder, M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (6)

A. A. Baird, J. Kagan, T. Gaudette, K. A. Walz, N. Hershlag, D. A. Boas, “Frontal lobe activation during object permanence: data from near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 16(4), 1120–1126 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fischl, M. I. Sereno, A. M. Dale, “Cortical surface-based analysis. II: Inflation, flattening, and a surface-based coordinate system,” Neuroimage 9(2), 195–207 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tong, B. Frederick, “Using fmri analysis tools (fsl/freesurfer) to analyze near-infrared imaging of the brain,” Neuroimage 47, S58 (2009) [presented at Organization for Human Brain Mapping 2009 Annual Meeting].

A. Custo, D. A. Boas, D. Tsuzuki, I. Dan, R. Mesquita, B. Fischl, W. E. L. Grimson, W. Wells, “Anatomical atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography of brain activation,” Neuroimage 49(1), 561–567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. He, X. Zhang, J. Lian, H. Sasaki, D. Wu, V. L. Towle, “Boundary element method-based cortical potential imaging of somatosensory evoked potentials using subjects’ magnetic resonance images,” Neuroimage 16(3), 564–576 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuropsychobiology (1)

T. Nakahachi, R. Ishii, M. Iwase, L. Canuet, H. Takahashi, R. Kurimoto, K. Ikezawa, M. Azechi, R. Sekiyama, E. Honaga, C. Uchiumi, M. Iwakiri, N. Motomura, M. Takeda, “Frontal activity during the digit symbol substitution test determined by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuropsychobiology 57(4), 151–158 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Pediatr. Neurol. (1)

Y. Hoshi, S.-J. Chen, “Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with emotions in children,” Pediatr. Neurol. 27(4), 275–281 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (8)

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Abdelnour, B. Schmidt, T. J. Huppert, “Topographic localization of brain activation in diffuse optical imaging using spherical wavelets,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(20), 6383–6413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yao, “High-resolution EEG mapping: an equivalent charge-layer approach,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(13), 1997–2011 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Leung, C. E. Elwell, D. T. Delpy, “Estimation of cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes in a layered adult head model using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(24), 5783–5798 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sikora, A. Zacharopoulos, A. Douiri, M. Schweiger, L. Horesh, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, “Diffuse photon propagation in multilayered geometries,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(3), 497–516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, I. Nissilä, “Gauss-Newton method for image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(10), 2365–2386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. Riley, M. Schweiger, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “A method for generating patient-specific finite element meshes for head modelling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(4), 481–495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

A. Tizzard, L. Horesh, R. J. Yerworth, D. S. Holder, R. H. Bayford, “Generating accurate finite element meshes for the forward model of the human head in EIT,” Physiol. Meas. 26(2), S251–S261 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

M. Peña, A. Maki, D. Kovacić, G. Dehaene-Lambertz, H. Koizumi, F. Bouquet, J. Mehler, “Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(20), 11702–11705 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A frequency multiplexed near-infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A time-domain nir brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging II (Optical Society of America, 2005), p. WA5.

M. Caffini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, A. Custo, J. Dubb, and D. A. Boas, “Validating an anatomical brain atlas for analyzing nirs measurements of brain activation,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JMA87.

T. Ota, K. Kamada, K. Kawai, M. Yumoto, and N. Saito, “Noninvasive determination of language dominance using multiple functional brain imaging,” Neuroimage 47, S120 (2009), Organization for Human Brain Mapping 2009 Annual Meeting.

H. Koizumi, A. Maki, and T. Yamamoto, “Optical topography: Practical problems and novel applications,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2002), p. MC1.

E. Widmaier, H. Raff, and K. Strang, Vander’s Human Physiology: the Mechanisms of Body Function (McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2008), p. 306.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXXI, Vol. 662 of Biomedical and Life Sciences (Springer, 2010), pp. 143–148.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left to right and top to bottom, reconstructions of a Gaussian absorption target simulated with the FEM (1% noise). The target is moved by 2mm from the surface of the brain (top left) to 20mm below the surface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Evolution of the contrast, i.e. the difference absorption of the target divided by the background absorption. The nominal value is 1.43.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Side and top views of a cortical map of the activated brain - the primary motor and somatosensory cortices activation is clearly visible. This position corresponds to the arm region as it can be seen in [45].

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U scalp = 𝒯 U cortex
y scalp = 𝒯 U cortex
( K 00 K 01 K 10 K 11 K 12 K K n n 1 K n n ) ( Φ ( 0 ) Φ ( 1 ) J ( 1 ) Φ ( ) J ( ) Φ ( n ) J ( n ) ) = Q
G ( r , r ) = 1 4 π e ϖ r r r r
A l l SL ( k , k ) = Γ G ( N , k , r ) D ϕ , k ( r ) d S ( r )
A l l DL ( k , k ) = Γ G ( N , k , r ) ν ϕ , k ( r ) d S ( r )
Q j = ( Q j ( 0 ) 0 0 0 ) .
Q j actvn = ( 0 0 0 Q j ( n ) ) , where Q j ( n ) ( r ) = Ω n G n ( r , r ) μ a actvn ( r ) Φ j ( n ) ( r ) d r
Φ j actvn = μ a ECA Φ j cortex .
y j actvn = j 𝒯 μ a ECA Φ j cortex .
( y 1 actvn y 2 actvn y S actvn ) = ( 1 T diag [ Φ 1 cortex ] 2 T diag [ Φ 2 cortex ] S T diag [ Φ S cortex ] ) μ a ECA y actvn = W μ a ECA
w i j = Φ j cortex , * Φ j cortex
( y ln A y θ ) = ( Re Im ) log y = ( Re Im ) diag [ 1 y ] W μ a ECA
y W μ a ECA C y 1 2 + α R ( μ a ECA ) min
( W T C y 1 W + α Ι ) μ a ECA = W T C y 1 y actvn .
( K 00 [ B ] 0 0 [ C ] [ D ] [ E ] [ F ] 0 [ G ] K n 1 , n 1 K n 1 , n 0 0 K n , n 1 K n , n ) ( Φ ( 0 ) [ x ] Φ ( n ) J ( n ) ) = ( 0 0 0 Q )
( [ D ] [ F ] K n 1 , n 1 [ G ] ) [ x ] = ( [ E ] [ F ] K n 1 , n 1 K n 1 , n 1 ) Φ ( n ) + [ C ] Φ ( 0 )
( K 00 [ B ] ( [ D ] [ F ] K n 1 , n 1 [ G ] ) 1 [ C ] ) Φ ( 0 )
= [ B ] ( [ D ] [ F ] K n 1 , n 1 [ G ] ) 1 ( [ E ] [ F ] K n 1 , n 1 K n 1 , n 1 ) Φ ( n )
T = ( K 00 [ B ] H 1 [ C ] ) 1 [ B ] H 1 ( [ E ] [ F ] K n 1 , n 1 K n 1 , n 1 )
H = ( [ D ] [ F ] K n 1 , n 1 [ G ] )

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