Abstract

We present a novel non-invasive and non-contact system for reflex-free retinal imaging and dynamic retinal vessel analysis in the rat. Theoretical analysis was performed prior to development of the new optical design, taking into account the optical properties of the rat eye and its specific illumination and imaging requirements. A novel optical model of the rat eye was developed for use with standard optical design software, facilitating both sequential and non-sequential modes. A retinal camera for the rat was constructed using standard optical and mechanical components. The addition of a customized illumination unit and existing standard software enabled dynamic vessel analysis. Seven-minute in-vivo vessel diameter recordings performed on 9 Brown-Norway rats showed stable readings. On average, the coefficient of variation was (1.1 ± 0.19) % for the arteries and (0.6 ± 0.08) % for the veins. The slope of the linear regression analysis was (0.56 ± 0.26) % for the arteries and (0.15 ± 0.27) % for the veins. In conclusion, the device can be used in basic studies of retinal vessel behavior.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (4)

M. Blum, A. Saemann, and G. Wolf, “The eye, the kidney and microcirculation,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.26(1), 4–6 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Lanzl, S.-F. Seidova, M. Maier, C. Lohmann, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, M. Halle, and K. E. Kotliar, “Dynamic retinal vessel response to flicker in age-related macular degeneration patients before and after vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor injection,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 472–479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koronyo-Hamaoui, Y. Koronyo, A. V. Ljubimov, C. A. Miller, M. K. Ko, K. L. Black, M. Schwartz, and D. L. Farkas, “Identification of amyloid plaques in retinas from Alzheimer’s patients and noninvasive in vivo optical imaging of retinal plaques in a mouse model,” Neuroimage54(Suppl 1), S204–S217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Geng, L. A. Schery, R. Sharma, A. Dubra, K. Ahmad, R. T. Libby, and D. R. Williams, “Optical properties of the mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 717–738 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

R. L. Ufret-Vincenty, B. Aredo, X. Liu, A. McMahon, P. W. Chen, H. Sun, J. Y. Niederkorn, and W. Kedzierski, “Transgenic mice expressing variants of complement factor H develop AMD-like retinal findings,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5878–5887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Mandecka, J. Dawczynski, W. Vilser, M. Blum, N. Müller, C. Kloos, G. Wolf, and U. A. Müller, “Abnormal retinal autoregulation is detected by provoked stimulation with flicker light in well-controlled patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.86(1), 51–55 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pemp, G. Weigert, K. Karl, U. Petzl, M. Wolzt, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Correlation of flicker-induced and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with endothelial dysfunction and healthy volunteers,” Diabetes Care32(8), 1536–1541 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

T. Bek, J. Hajari, and P. Jeppesen, “Interaction between flicker-induced vasodilatation and pressure autoregulation in early retinopathy of type 2 diabetes,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 763–769 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Murata, M. Aihara, Y.-N. Chen, T. Ota, J. Numaga, and M. Araie, “Imaging mouse retinal ganglion cells and their loss in vivo by a fundus camera in the normal and ischemia-reperfusion model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5546–5552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. R. Uhlhorn, E. Hernandez, R. A. Juarez, R. Will, J.-M. Parel, and F. Manns, “Simultaneous fundus imaging and optical coherence tomography of the mouse retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(3), 1283–1289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Koschmieder and L. Müller, “[Image diagnostic of the retina with fundus cameras],” Z. Med. Phys.17(1), 67–72 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paques, J. L. Guyomard, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, J. F. Legargasson, and J. A. Sahel, “Panretinal, high-resolution color photography of the mouse fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(6), 2769–2774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Pang and A. F. Clark, “Rodent models for glaucoma retinopathy and optic neuropathy,” J. Glaucoma16(5), 483–505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

L. Padnick-Silver, J. J. Kang Derwent, E. Giuliano, K. Narfström, and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygenation and oxygen metabolism in Abyssinian cats with a hereditary retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3683–3689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, M. D. Knudtson, T. Y. Wong, and M. Y. Tsai, “Are inflammatory factors related to retinal vessel caliber? the Beaver Dam Eye study,” Arch. Ophthalmol.124(1), 87–94 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, “Optical aberrations in the mouse eye,” Vision Res.46(16), 2546–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. K. Ikram, J. C. M. Witteman, J. R. Vingerling, M. M. B. Breteler, A. Hofman, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Retinal vessel diameters and risk of hypertension: the Rotterdam study,” Hypertension47(2), 189–194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. E. Moss, T. Y. Wong, L. Hubbard, K. J. Cruickshanks, and M. Palta, “The relation of retinal vessel caliber to the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy: XIX: the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(1), 76–83 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

B. E. Cohan, A. C. Pearch, P. T. Jokelainen, and D. F. Bohr, “Optic disc imaging in conscious rats and mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(1), 160–163 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

B.-U. Seifert and W. Vilser, “Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA)--design and function,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.)47(s1bSuppl 1 Pt 2), 678–681 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Vilser, E. Nagel, and I. Lanzl, “Retinal Vessel Analysis--new possibilities,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.)47(s1bSuppl 1 Pt 2), 682–685 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

E. Nagel, W. Vilser, and I. M. Lanzl, “Retinal vessel reaction to short-term IOP elevation in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol.11(4), 338–344 (2001).
[PubMed]

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, D. J. Couper, L. S. Cooper, E. Shahar, L. D. Hubbard, M. R. Wofford, and A. R. Sharrett, “Retinal microvascular abnormalities and incident stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Lancet358(9288), 1134–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

N. L. Hawes, R. S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. John, “Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes,” Mol. Vis.5, 22 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

P. Artal, P. Herreros de Tejada, C. Muñoz Tedó, and D. G. Green, “Retinal image quality in the rodent eye,” Vis. Neurosci.15(4), 597–605 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. DiLoreto, D. A. Grover, C. del Cerro, and M. del Cerro, “A new procedure for fundus photography and fluorescein angiography in small laboratory animal eyes,” Curr. Eye Res.13(2), 157–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

E. Stefansson, “Oxygen and diabetic eye disease,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.228(2), 120–123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

M. C. W. Campbell and A. Hughes, “An analytic, gradient index schematic lens and eye for the rat which predicts aberrations for finite pupils,” Vision Res.21(7), 1129–1148, 1135–1148 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

A. Hughes, “A schematic eye for the rat,” Vision Res.19(5), 569–588 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Pomerantzeff, R. H. Webb, and F. C. Delori, “Image formation in fundus cameras,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.18(6), 630–637 (1979).
[PubMed]

Ahmad, K.

Aihara, M.

H. Murata, M. Aihara, Y.-N. Chen, T. Ota, J. Numaga, and M. Araie, “Imaging mouse retinal ganglion cells and their loss in vivo by a fundus camera in the normal and ischemia-reperfusion model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5546–5552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ali, M.

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araie, M.

H. Murata, M. Aihara, Y.-N. Chen, T. Ota, J. Numaga, and M. Araie, “Imaging mouse retinal ganglion cells and their loss in vivo by a fundus camera in the normal and ischemia-reperfusion model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5546–5552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aredo, B.

R. L. Ufret-Vincenty, B. Aredo, X. Liu, A. McMahon, P. W. Chen, H. Sun, J. Y. Niederkorn, and W. Kedzierski, “Transgenic mice expressing variants of complement factor H develop AMD-like retinal findings,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5878–5887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

P. Artal, P. Herreros de Tejada, C. Muñoz Tedó, and D. G. Green, “Retinal image quality in the rodent eye,” Vis. Neurosci.15(4), 597–605 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayerle-Eder, M.

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bek, T.

T. Bek, J. Hajari, and P. Jeppesen, “Interaction between flicker-induced vasodilatation and pressure autoregulation in early retinopathy of type 2 diabetes,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 763–769 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Black, K. L.

M. Koronyo-Hamaoui, Y. Koronyo, A. V. Ljubimov, C. A. Miller, M. K. Ko, K. L. Black, M. Schwartz, and D. L. Farkas, “Identification of amyloid plaques in retinas from Alzheimer’s patients and noninvasive in vivo optical imaging of retinal plaques in a mouse model,” Neuroimage54(Suppl 1), S204–S217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blum, M.

M. Blum, A. Saemann, and G. Wolf, “The eye, the kidney and microcirculation,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.26(1), 4–6 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mandecka, J. Dawczynski, W. Vilser, M. Blum, N. Müller, C. Kloos, G. Wolf, and U. A. Müller, “Abnormal retinal autoregulation is detected by provoked stimulation with flicker light in well-controlled patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.86(1), 51–55 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohr, D. F.

B. E. Cohan, A. C. Pearch, P. T. Jokelainen, and D. F. Bohr, “Optic disc imaging in conscious rats and mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(1), 160–163 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breteler, M. M. B.

M. K. Ikram, J. C. M. Witteman, J. R. Vingerling, M. M. B. Breteler, A. Hofman, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Retinal vessel diameters and risk of hypertension: the Rotterdam study,” Hypertension47(2), 189–194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, M. C. W.

M. C. W. Campbell and A. Hughes, “An analytic, gradient index schematic lens and eye for the rat which predicts aberrations for finite pupils,” Vision Res.21(7), 1129–1148, 1135–1148 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, B.

N. L. Hawes, R. S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. John, “Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes,” Mol. Vis.5, 22 (1999).
[PubMed]

Chen, P. W.

R. L. Ufret-Vincenty, B. Aredo, X. Liu, A. McMahon, P. W. Chen, H. Sun, J. Y. Niederkorn, and W. Kedzierski, “Transgenic mice expressing variants of complement factor H develop AMD-like retinal findings,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5878–5887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-N.

H. Murata, M. Aihara, Y.-N. Chen, T. Ota, J. Numaga, and M. Araie, “Imaging mouse retinal ganglion cells and their loss in vivo by a fundus camera in the normal and ischemia-reperfusion model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5546–5552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, A. F.

I. H. Pang and A. F. Clark, “Rodent models for glaucoma retinopathy and optic neuropathy,” J. Glaucoma16(5), 483–505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohan, B. E.

B. E. Cohan, A. C. Pearch, P. T. Jokelainen, and D. F. Bohr, “Optic disc imaging in conscious rats and mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(1), 160–163 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, L. S.

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, D. J. Couper, L. S. Cooper, E. Shahar, L. D. Hubbard, M. R. Wofford, and A. R. Sharrett, “Retinal microvascular abnormalities and incident stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Lancet358(9288), 1134–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couper, D. J.

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, D. J. Couper, L. S. Cooper, E. Shahar, L. D. Hubbard, M. R. Wofford, and A. R. Sharrett, “Retinal microvascular abnormalities and incident stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Lancet358(9288), 1134–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cruickshanks, K. J.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. E. Moss, T. Y. Wong, L. Hubbard, K. J. Cruickshanks, and M. Palta, “The relation of retinal vessel caliber to the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy: XIX: the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(1), 76–83 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davisson, M.

N. L. Hawes, R. S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. John, “Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes,” Mol. Vis.5, 22 (1999).
[PubMed]

Dawczynski, J.

A. Mandecka, J. Dawczynski, W. Vilser, M. Blum, N. Müller, C. Kloos, G. Wolf, and U. A. Müller, “Abnormal retinal autoregulation is detected by provoked stimulation with flicker light in well-controlled patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.86(1), 51–55 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jong, P. T. V. M.

M. K. Ikram, J. C. M. Witteman, J. R. Vingerling, M. M. B. Breteler, A. Hofman, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Retinal vessel diameters and risk of hypertension: the Rotterdam study,” Hypertension47(2), 189–194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de la Cera, E. G.

E. G. de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, “Optical aberrations in the mouse eye,” Vision Res.46(16), 2546–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

del Cerro, C.

D. DiLoreto, D. A. Grover, C. del Cerro, and M. del Cerro, “A new procedure for fundus photography and fluorescein angiography in small laboratory animal eyes,” Curr. Eye Res.13(2), 157–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

del Cerro, M.

D. DiLoreto, D. A. Grover, C. del Cerro, and M. del Cerro, “A new procedure for fundus photography and fluorescein angiography in small laboratory animal eyes,” Curr. Eye Res.13(2), 157–161 (1994).
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Delori, F. C.

O. Pomerantzeff, R. H. Webb, and F. C. Delori, “Image formation in fundus cameras,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.18(6), 630–637 (1979).
[PubMed]

DiLoreto, D.

D. DiLoreto, D. A. Grover, C. del Cerro, and M. del Cerro, “A new procedure for fundus photography and fluorescein angiography in small laboratory animal eyes,” Curr. Eye Res.13(2), 157–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubra, A.

Esefeld, K.

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farkas, D. L.

M. Koronyo-Hamaoui, Y. Koronyo, A. V. Ljubimov, C. A. Miller, M. K. Ko, K. L. Black, M. Schwartz, and D. L. Farkas, “Identification of amyloid plaques in retinas from Alzheimer’s patients and noninvasive in vivo optical imaging of retinal plaques in a mouse model,” Neuroimage54(Suppl 1), S204–S217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garhofer, G.

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pemp, G. Weigert, K. Karl, U. Petzl, M. Wolzt, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Correlation of flicker-induced and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with endothelial dysfunction and healthy volunteers,” Diabetes Care32(8), 1536–1541 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geng, Y.

Giuliano, E.

L. Padnick-Silver, J. J. Kang Derwent, E. Giuliano, K. Narfström, and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygenation and oxygen metabolism in Abyssinian cats with a hereditary retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3683–3689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, D. G.

P. Artal, P. Herreros de Tejada, C. Muñoz Tedó, and D. G. Green, “Retinal image quality in the rodent eye,” Vis. Neurosci.15(4), 597–605 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grover, D. A.

D. DiLoreto, D. A. Grover, C. del Cerro, and M. del Cerro, “A new procedure for fundus photography and fluorescein angiography in small laboratory animal eyes,” Curr. Eye Res.13(2), 157–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guyomard, J. L.

M. Paques, J. L. Guyomard, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, J. F. Legargasson, and J. A. Sahel, “Panretinal, high-resolution color photography of the mouse fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(6), 2769–2774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hager, A.

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajari, J.

T. Bek, J. Hajari, and P. Jeppesen, “Interaction between flicker-induced vasodilatation and pressure autoregulation in early retinopathy of type 2 diabetes,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 763–769 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halle, M.

I. M. Lanzl, S.-F. Seidova, M. Maier, C. Lohmann, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, M. Halle, and K. E. Kotliar, “Dynamic retinal vessel response to flicker in age-related macular degeneration patients before and after vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor injection,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 472–479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanssen, H.

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawes, N. L.

N. L. Hawes, R. S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. John, “Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes,” Mol. Vis.5, 22 (1999).
[PubMed]

Heckenlively, J. R.

N. L. Hawes, R. S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. John, “Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes,” Mol. Vis.5, 22 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hernandez, E.

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. R. Uhlhorn, E. Hernandez, R. A. Juarez, R. Will, J.-M. Parel, and F. Manns, “Simultaneous fundus imaging and optical coherence tomography of the mouse retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(3), 1283–1289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herreros de Tejada, P.

P. Artal, P. Herreros de Tejada, C. Muñoz Tedó, and D. G. Green, “Retinal image quality in the rodent eye,” Vis. Neurosci.15(4), 597–605 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofman, A.

M. K. Ikram, J. C. M. Witteman, J. R. Vingerling, M. M. B. Breteler, A. Hofman, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Retinal vessel diameters and risk of hypertension: the Rotterdam study,” Hypertension47(2), 189–194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubbard, L.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. E. Moss, T. Y. Wong, L. Hubbard, K. J. Cruickshanks, and M. Palta, “The relation of retinal vessel caliber to the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy: XIX: the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(1), 76–83 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubbard, L. D.

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, D. J. Couper, L. S. Cooper, E. Shahar, L. D. Hubbard, M. R. Wofford, and A. R. Sharrett, “Retinal microvascular abnormalities and incident stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Lancet358(9288), 1134–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, A.

M. C. W. Campbell and A. Hughes, “An analytic, gradient index schematic lens and eye for the rat which predicts aberrations for finite pupils,” Vision Res.21(7), 1129–1148, 1135–1148 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hughes, “A schematic eye for the rat,” Vision Res.19(5), 569–588 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikram, M. K.

M. K. Ikram, J. C. M. Witteman, J. R. Vingerling, M. M. B. Breteler, A. Hofman, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Retinal vessel diameters and risk of hypertension: the Rotterdam study,” Hypertension47(2), 189–194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeppesen, P.

T. Bek, J. Hajari, and P. Jeppesen, “Interaction between flicker-induced vasodilatation and pressure autoregulation in early retinopathy of type 2 diabetes,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 763–769 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S. W.

N. L. Hawes, R. S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. John, “Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes,” Mol. Vis.5, 22 (1999).
[PubMed]

Jokelainen, P. T.

B. E. Cohan, A. C. Pearch, P. T. Jokelainen, and D. F. Bohr, “Optic disc imaging in conscious rats and mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(1), 160–163 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juarez, R. A.

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. R. Uhlhorn, E. Hernandez, R. A. Juarez, R. Will, J.-M. Parel, and F. Manns, “Simultaneous fundus imaging and optical coherence tomography of the mouse retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(3), 1283–1289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaemmerer, H.

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang Derwent, J. J.

L. Padnick-Silver, J. J. Kang Derwent, E. Giuliano, K. Narfström, and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygenation and oxygen metabolism in Abyssinian cats with a hereditary retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3683–3689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karl, K.

B. Pemp, G. Weigert, K. Karl, U. Petzl, M. Wolzt, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Correlation of flicker-induced and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with endothelial dysfunction and healthy volunteers,” Diabetes Care32(8), 1536–1541 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kautzky-Willer, A.

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kedzierski, W.

R. L. Ufret-Vincenty, B. Aredo, X. Liu, A. McMahon, P. W. Chen, H. Sun, J. Y. Niederkorn, and W. Kedzierski, “Transgenic mice expressing variants of complement factor H develop AMD-like retinal findings,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5878–5887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, B. E.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. E. Moss, T. Y. Wong, L. Hubbard, K. J. Cruickshanks, and M. Palta, “The relation of retinal vessel caliber to the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy: XIX: the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(1), 76–83 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, B. E. K.

R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, M. D. Knudtson, T. Y. Wong, and M. Y. Tsai, “Are inflammatory factors related to retinal vessel caliber? the Beaver Dam Eye study,” Arch. Ophthalmol.124(1), 87–94 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, R.

R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, M. D. Knudtson, T. Y. Wong, and M. Y. Tsai, “Are inflammatory factors related to retinal vessel caliber? the Beaver Dam Eye study,” Arch. Ophthalmol.124(1), 87–94 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. E. Moss, T. Y. Wong, L. Hubbard, K. J. Cruickshanks, and M. Palta, “The relation of retinal vessel caliber to the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy: XIX: the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(1), 76–83 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, D. J. Couper, L. S. Cooper, E. Shahar, L. D. Hubbard, M. R. Wofford, and A. R. Sharrett, “Retinal microvascular abnormalities and incident stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Lancet358(9288), 1134–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kloos, C.

A. Mandecka, J. Dawczynski, W. Vilser, M. Blum, N. Müller, C. Kloos, G. Wolf, and U. A. Müller, “Abnormal retinal autoregulation is detected by provoked stimulation with flicker light in well-controlled patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.86(1), 51–55 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knudtson, M. D.

R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, M. D. Knudtson, T. Y. Wong, and M. Y. Tsai, “Are inflammatory factors related to retinal vessel caliber? the Beaver Dam Eye study,” Arch. Ophthalmol.124(1), 87–94 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, M. K.

M. Koronyo-Hamaoui, Y. Koronyo, A. V. Ljubimov, C. A. Miller, M. K. Ko, K. L. Black, M. Schwartz, and D. L. Farkas, “Identification of amyloid plaques in retinas from Alzheimer’s patients and noninvasive in vivo optical imaging of retinal plaques in a mouse model,” Neuroimage54(Suppl 1), S204–S217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kocaoglu, O. P.

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. R. Uhlhorn, E. Hernandez, R. A. Juarez, R. Will, J.-M. Parel, and F. Manns, “Simultaneous fundus imaging and optical coherence tomography of the mouse retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(3), 1283–1289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koronyo, Y.

M. Koronyo-Hamaoui, Y. Koronyo, A. V. Ljubimov, C. A. Miller, M. K. Ko, K. L. Black, M. Schwartz, and D. L. Farkas, “Identification of amyloid plaques in retinas from Alzheimer’s patients and noninvasive in vivo optical imaging of retinal plaques in a mouse model,” Neuroimage54(Suppl 1), S204–S217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koronyo-Hamaoui, M.

M. Koronyo-Hamaoui, Y. Koronyo, A. V. Ljubimov, C. A. Miller, M. K. Ko, K. L. Black, M. Schwartz, and D. L. Farkas, “Identification of amyloid plaques in retinas from Alzheimer’s patients and noninvasive in vivo optical imaging of retinal plaques in a mouse model,” Neuroimage54(Suppl 1), S204–S217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschmieder, I.

I. Koschmieder and L. Müller, “[Image diagnostic of the retina with fundus cameras],” Z. Med. Phys.17(1), 67–72 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotliar, K.

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotliar, K. E.

I. M. Lanzl, S.-F. Seidova, M. Maier, C. Lohmann, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, M. Halle, and K. E. Kotliar, “Dynamic retinal vessel response to flicker in age-related macular degeneration patients before and after vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor injection,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 472–479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanzl, I.

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Vilser, E. Nagel, and I. Lanzl, “Retinal Vessel Analysis--new possibilities,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.)47(s1bSuppl 1 Pt 2), 682–685 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanzl, I. M.

I. M. Lanzl, S.-F. Seidova, M. Maier, C. Lohmann, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, M. Halle, and K. E. Kotliar, “Dynamic retinal vessel response to flicker in age-related macular degeneration patients before and after vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor injection,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 472–479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagel, W. Vilser, and I. M. Lanzl, “Retinal vessel reaction to short-term IOP elevation in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol.11(4), 338–344 (2001).
[PubMed]

Legargasson, J. F.

M. Paques, J. L. Guyomard, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, J. F. Legargasson, and J. A. Sahel, “Panretinal, high-resolution color photography of the mouse fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(6), 2769–2774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Libby, R. T.

Linsenmeier, R. A.

L. Padnick-Silver, J. J. Kang Derwent, E. Giuliano, K. Narfström, and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygenation and oxygen metabolism in Abyssinian cats with a hereditary retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3683–3689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

R. L. Ufret-Vincenty, B. Aredo, X. Liu, A. McMahon, P. W. Chen, H. Sun, J. Y. Niederkorn, and W. Kedzierski, “Transgenic mice expressing variants of complement factor H develop AMD-like retinal findings,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5878–5887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ljubimov, A. V.

M. Koronyo-Hamaoui, Y. Koronyo, A. V. Ljubimov, C. A. Miller, M. K. Ko, K. L. Black, M. Schwartz, and D. L. Farkas, “Identification of amyloid plaques in retinas from Alzheimer’s patients and noninvasive in vivo optical imaging of retinal plaques in a mouse model,” Neuroimage54(Suppl 1), S204–S217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llorente, L.

E. G. de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, “Optical aberrations in the mouse eye,” Vision Res.46(16), 2546–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lohmann, C.

I. M. Lanzl, S.-F. Seidova, M. Maier, C. Lohmann, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, M. Halle, and K. E. Kotliar, “Dynamic retinal vessel response to flicker in age-related macular degeneration patients before and after vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor injection,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 472–479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, M.

I. M. Lanzl, S.-F. Seidova, M. Maier, C. Lohmann, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, M. Halle, and K. E. Kotliar, “Dynamic retinal vessel response to flicker in age-related macular degeneration patients before and after vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor injection,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 472–479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandecka, A.

A. Mandecka, J. Dawczynski, W. Vilser, M. Blum, N. Müller, C. Kloos, G. Wolf, and U. A. Müller, “Abnormal retinal autoregulation is detected by provoked stimulation with flicker light in well-controlled patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.86(1), 51–55 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manns, F.

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. R. Uhlhorn, E. Hernandez, R. A. Juarez, R. Will, J.-M. Parel, and F. Manns, “Simultaneous fundus imaging and optical coherence tomography of the mouse retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(3), 1283–1289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

E. G. de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, “Optical aberrations in the mouse eye,” Vision Res.46(16), 2546–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMahon, A.

R. L. Ufret-Vincenty, B. Aredo, X. Liu, A. McMahon, P. W. Chen, H. Sun, J. Y. Niederkorn, and W. Kedzierski, “Transgenic mice expressing variants of complement factor H develop AMD-like retinal findings,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5878–5887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, C. A.

M. Koronyo-Hamaoui, Y. Koronyo, A. V. Ljubimov, C. A. Miller, M. K. Ko, K. L. Black, M. Schwartz, and D. L. Farkas, “Identification of amyloid plaques in retinas from Alzheimer’s patients and noninvasive in vivo optical imaging of retinal plaques in a mouse model,” Neuroimage54(Suppl 1), S204–S217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, S. E.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. E. Moss, T. Y. Wong, L. Hubbard, K. J. Cruickshanks, and M. Palta, “The relation of retinal vessel caliber to the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy: XIX: the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(1), 76–83 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, L.

I. Koschmieder and L. Müller, “[Image diagnostic of the retina with fundus cameras],” Z. Med. Phys.17(1), 67–72 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, N.

A. Mandecka, J. Dawczynski, W. Vilser, M. Blum, N. Müller, C. Kloos, G. Wolf, and U. A. Müller, “Abnormal retinal autoregulation is detected by provoked stimulation with flicker light in well-controlled patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.86(1), 51–55 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, U. A.

A. Mandecka, J. Dawczynski, W. Vilser, M. Blum, N. Müller, C. Kloos, G. Wolf, and U. A. Müller, “Abnormal retinal autoregulation is detected by provoked stimulation with flicker light in well-controlled patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.86(1), 51–55 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muñoz Tedó, C.

P. Artal, P. Herreros de Tejada, C. Muñoz Tedó, and D. G. Green, “Retinal image quality in the rodent eye,” Vis. Neurosci.15(4), 597–605 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murata, H.

H. Murata, M. Aihara, Y.-N. Chen, T. Ota, J. Numaga, and M. Araie, “Imaging mouse retinal ganglion cells and their loss in vivo by a fundus camera in the normal and ischemia-reperfusion model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5546–5552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagel, E.

W. Vilser, E. Nagel, and I. Lanzl, “Retinal Vessel Analysis--new possibilities,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.)47(s1bSuppl 1 Pt 2), 682–685 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagel, W. Vilser, and I. M. Lanzl, “Retinal vessel reaction to short-term IOP elevation in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol.11(4), 338–344 (2001).
[PubMed]

Narfström, K.

L. Padnick-Silver, J. J. Kang Derwent, E. Giuliano, K. Narfström, and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygenation and oxygen metabolism in Abyssinian cats with a hereditary retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3683–3689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niederkorn, J. Y.

R. L. Ufret-Vincenty, B. Aredo, X. Liu, A. McMahon, P. W. Chen, H. Sun, J. Y. Niederkorn, and W. Kedzierski, “Transgenic mice expressing variants of complement factor H develop AMD-like retinal findings,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5878–5887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Numaga, J.

H. Murata, M. Aihara, Y.-N. Chen, T. Ota, J. Numaga, and M. Araie, “Imaging mouse retinal ganglion cells and their loss in vivo by a fundus camera in the normal and ischemia-reperfusion model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5546–5552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ota, T.

H. Murata, M. Aihara, Y.-N. Chen, T. Ota, J. Numaga, and M. Araie, “Imaging mouse retinal ganglion cells and their loss in vivo by a fundus camera in the normal and ischemia-reperfusion model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5546–5552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padnick-Silver, L.

L. Padnick-Silver, J. J. Kang Derwent, E. Giuliano, K. Narfström, and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygenation and oxygen metabolism in Abyssinian cats with a hereditary retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3683–3689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palta, M.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. E. Moss, T. Y. Wong, L. Hubbard, K. J. Cruickshanks, and M. Palta, “The relation of retinal vessel caliber to the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy: XIX: the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(1), 76–83 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, I. H.

I. H. Pang and A. F. Clark, “Rodent models for glaucoma retinopathy and optic neuropathy,” J. Glaucoma16(5), 483–505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paques, M.

M. Paques, J. L. Guyomard, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, J. F. Legargasson, and J. A. Sahel, “Panretinal, high-resolution color photography of the mouse fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(6), 2769–2774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parel, J.-M.

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. R. Uhlhorn, E. Hernandez, R. A. Juarez, R. Will, J.-M. Parel, and F. Manns, “Simultaneous fundus imaging and optical coherence tomography of the mouse retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(3), 1283–1289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearch, A. C.

B. E. Cohan, A. C. Pearch, P. T. Jokelainen, and D. F. Bohr, “Optic disc imaging in conscious rats and mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(1), 160–163 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pemp, B.

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pemp, G. Weigert, K. Karl, U. Petzl, M. Wolzt, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Correlation of flicker-induced and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with endothelial dysfunction and healthy volunteers,” Diabetes Care32(8), 1536–1541 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petzl, U.

B. Pemp, G. Weigert, K. Karl, U. Petzl, M. Wolzt, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Correlation of flicker-induced and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with endothelial dysfunction and healthy volunteers,” Diabetes Care32(8), 1536–1541 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Picaud, S.

M. Paques, J. L. Guyomard, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, J. F. Legargasson, and J. A. Sahel, “Panretinal, high-resolution color photography of the mouse fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(6), 2769–2774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polska, E.

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomerantzeff, O.

O. Pomerantzeff, R. H. Webb, and F. C. Delori, “Image formation in fundus cameras,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.18(6), 630–637 (1979).
[PubMed]

Pressler, A.

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez, G.

E. G. de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, “Optical aberrations in the mouse eye,” Vision Res.46(16), 2546–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roux, M. J.

M. Paques, J. L. Guyomard, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, J. F. Legargasson, and J. A. Sahel, “Panretinal, high-resolution color photography of the mouse fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(6), 2769–2774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saemann, A.

M. Blum, A. Saemann, and G. Wolf, “The eye, the kidney and microcirculation,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.26(1), 4–6 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahel, J. A.

M. Paques, J. L. Guyomard, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, J. F. Legargasson, and J. A. Sahel, “Panretinal, high-resolution color photography of the mouse fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(6), 2769–2774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaeffel, F.

E. G. de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, “Optical aberrations in the mouse eye,” Vision Res.46(16), 2546–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherr, J.

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schery, L. A.

Schmetterer, L.

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pemp, G. Weigert, K. Karl, U. Petzl, M. Wolzt, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Correlation of flicker-induced and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with endothelial dysfunction and healthy volunteers,” Diabetes Care32(8), 1536–1541 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Trucksäss, A.

I. M. Lanzl, S.-F. Seidova, M. Maier, C. Lohmann, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, M. Halle, and K. E. Kotliar, “Dynamic retinal vessel response to flicker in age-related macular degeneration patients before and after vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor injection,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 472–479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, M.

M. Koronyo-Hamaoui, Y. Koronyo, A. V. Ljubimov, C. A. Miller, M. K. Ko, K. L. Black, M. Schwartz, and D. L. Farkas, “Identification of amyloid plaques in retinas from Alzheimer’s patients and noninvasive in vivo optical imaging of retinal plaques in a mouse model,” Neuroimage54(Suppl 1), S204–S217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidova, S.-F.

I. M. Lanzl, S.-F. Seidova, M. Maier, C. Lohmann, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, M. Halle, and K. E. Kotliar, “Dynamic retinal vessel response to flicker in age-related macular degeneration patients before and after vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor injection,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 472–479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seifert, B.-U.

B.-U. Seifert and W. Vilser, “Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA)--design and function,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.)47(s1bSuppl 1 Pt 2), 678–681 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahar, E.

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, D. J. Couper, L. S. Cooper, E. Shahar, L. D. Hubbard, M. R. Wofford, and A. R. Sharrett, “Retinal microvascular abnormalities and incident stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Lancet358(9288), 1134–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, R.

Sharrett, A. R.

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, D. J. Couper, L. S. Cooper, E. Shahar, L. D. Hubbard, M. R. Wofford, and A. R. Sharrett, “Retinal microvascular abnormalities and incident stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Lancet358(9288), 1134–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonutti, M.

M. Paques, J. L. Guyomard, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, J. F. Legargasson, and J. A. Sahel, “Panretinal, high-resolution color photography of the mouse fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(6), 2769–2774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. S.

N. L. Hawes, R. S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. John, “Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes,” Mol. Vis.5, 22 (1999).
[PubMed]

Stefansson, E.

E. Stefansson, “Oxygen and diabetic eye disease,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.228(2), 120–123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H.

R. L. Ufret-Vincenty, B. Aredo, X. Liu, A. McMahon, P. W. Chen, H. Sun, J. Y. Niederkorn, and W. Kedzierski, “Transgenic mice expressing variants of complement factor H develop AMD-like retinal findings,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5878–5887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. Y.

R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, M. D. Knudtson, T. Y. Wong, and M. Y. Tsai, “Are inflammatory factors related to retinal vessel caliber? the Beaver Dam Eye study,” Arch. Ophthalmol.124(1), 87–94 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ufret-Vincenty, R. L.

R. L. Ufret-Vincenty, B. Aredo, X. Liu, A. McMahon, P. W. Chen, H. Sun, J. Y. Niederkorn, and W. Kedzierski, “Transgenic mice expressing variants of complement factor H develop AMD-like retinal findings,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5878–5887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhlhorn, S. R.

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. R. Uhlhorn, E. Hernandez, R. A. Juarez, R. Will, J.-M. Parel, and F. Manns, “Simultaneous fundus imaging and optical coherence tomography of the mouse retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(3), 1283–1289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilser, W.

A. Mandecka, J. Dawczynski, W. Vilser, M. Blum, N. Müller, C. Kloos, G. Wolf, and U. A. Müller, “Abnormal retinal autoregulation is detected by provoked stimulation with flicker light in well-controlled patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.86(1), 51–55 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-U. Seifert and W. Vilser, “Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA)--design and function,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.)47(s1bSuppl 1 Pt 2), 678–681 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Vilser, E. Nagel, and I. Lanzl, “Retinal Vessel Analysis--new possibilities,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.)47(s1bSuppl 1 Pt 2), 682–685 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagel, W. Vilser, and I. M. Lanzl, “Retinal vessel reaction to short-term IOP elevation in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol.11(4), 338–344 (2001).
[PubMed]

Vingerling, J. R.

M. K. Ikram, J. C. M. Witteman, J. R. Vingerling, M. M. B. Breteler, A. Hofman, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Retinal vessel diameters and risk of hypertension: the Rotterdam study,” Hypertension47(2), 189–194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

O. Pomerantzeff, R. H. Webb, and F. C. Delori, “Image formation in fundus cameras,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.18(6), 630–637 (1979).
[PubMed]

Weigert, G.

B. Pemp, G. Weigert, K. Karl, U. Petzl, M. Wolzt, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Correlation of flicker-induced and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with endothelial dysfunction and healthy volunteers,” Diabetes Care32(8), 1536–1541 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Will, R.

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. R. Uhlhorn, E. Hernandez, R. A. Juarez, R. Will, J.-M. Parel, and F. Manns, “Simultaneous fundus imaging and optical coherence tomography of the mouse retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(3), 1283–1289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Witteman, J. C. M.

M. K. Ikram, J. C. M. Witteman, J. R. Vingerling, M. M. B. Breteler, A. Hofman, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Retinal vessel diameters and risk of hypertension: the Rotterdam study,” Hypertension47(2), 189–194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wofford, M. R.

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, D. J. Couper, L. S. Cooper, E. Shahar, L. D. Hubbard, M. R. Wofford, and A. R. Sharrett, “Retinal microvascular abnormalities and incident stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Lancet358(9288), 1134–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, G.

M. Blum, A. Saemann, and G. Wolf, “The eye, the kidney and microcirculation,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.26(1), 4–6 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mandecka, J. Dawczynski, W. Vilser, M. Blum, N. Müller, C. Kloos, G. Wolf, and U. A. Müller, “Abnormal retinal autoregulation is detected by provoked stimulation with flicker light in well-controlled patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.86(1), 51–55 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolzt, M.

B. Pemp, G. Weigert, K. Karl, U. Petzl, M. Wolzt, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Correlation of flicker-induced and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with endothelial dysfunction and healthy volunteers,” Diabetes Care32(8), 1536–1541 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, T. Y.

R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, M. D. Knudtson, T. Y. Wong, and M. Y. Tsai, “Are inflammatory factors related to retinal vessel caliber? the Beaver Dam Eye study,” Arch. Ophthalmol.124(1), 87–94 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. E. Moss, T. Y. Wong, L. Hubbard, K. J. Cruickshanks, and M. Palta, “The relation of retinal vessel caliber to the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy: XIX: the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(1), 76–83 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, D. J. Couper, L. S. Cooper, E. Shahar, L. D. Hubbard, M. R. Wofford, and A. R. Sharrett, “Retinal microvascular abnormalities and incident stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Lancet358(9288), 1134–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) (1)

I. M. Lanzl, S.-F. Seidova, M. Maier, C. Lohmann, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, M. Halle, and K. E. Kotliar, “Dynamic retinal vessel response to flicker in age-related macular degeneration patients before and after vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor injection,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)89(5), 472–479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Cardiol. (1)

A. Pressler, K. Esefeld, J. Scherr, M. Ali, H. Hanssen, K. Kotliar, I. Lanzl, M. Halle, H. Kaemmerer, A. Schmidt-Trucksäss, and A. Hager, “Structural alterations of retinal arterioles in adults late after repair of aortic isthmic coarctation,” Am. J. Cardiol.105(5), 740–744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. E. Moss, T. Y. Wong, L. Hubbard, K. J. Cruickshanks, and M. Palta, “The relation of retinal vessel caliber to the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy: XIX: the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol.122(1), 76–83 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, M. D. Knudtson, T. Y. Wong, and M. Y. Tsai, “Are inflammatory factors related to retinal vessel caliber? the Beaver Dam Eye study,” Arch. Ophthalmol.124(1), 87–94 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) (2)

B.-U. Seifert and W. Vilser, “Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA)--design and function,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.)47(s1bSuppl 1 Pt 2), 678–681 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Vilser, E. Nagel, and I. Lanzl, “Retinal Vessel Analysis--new possibilities,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.)47(s1bSuppl 1 Pt 2), 682–685 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

D. DiLoreto, D. A. Grover, C. del Cerro, and M. del Cerro, “A new procedure for fundus photography and fluorescein angiography in small laboratory animal eyes,” Curr. Eye Res.13(2), 157–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diabetes Care (2)

B. Pemp, E. Polska, G. Garhofer, M. Bayerle-Eder, A. Kautzky-Willer, and L. Schmetterer, “Retinal blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy during euglycemic clamp,” Diabetes Care33(9), 2038–2042 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pemp, G. Weigert, K. Karl, U. Petzl, M. Wolzt, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhofer, “Correlation of flicker-induced and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with endothelial dysfunction and healthy volunteers,” Diabetes Care32(8), 1536–1541 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (1)

A. Mandecka, J. Dawczynski, W. Vilser, M. Blum, N. Müller, C. Kloos, G. Wolf, and U. A. Müller, “Abnormal retinal autoregulation is detected by provoked stimulation with flicker light in well-controlled patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.86(1), 51–55 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Nagel, W. Vilser, and I. M. Lanzl, “Retinal vessel reaction to short-term IOP elevation in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol.11(4), 338–344 (2001).
[PubMed]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (2)

T. Bek, J. Hajari, and P. Jeppesen, “Interaction between flicker-induced vasodilatation and pressure autoregulation in early retinopathy of type 2 diabetes,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.246(5), 763–769 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Stefansson, “Oxygen and diabetic eye disease,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.228(2), 120–123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hypertension (1)

M. K. Ikram, J. C. M. Witteman, J. R. Vingerling, M. M. B. Breteler, A. Hofman, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Retinal vessel diameters and risk of hypertension: the Rotterdam study,” Hypertension47(2), 189–194 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (7)

L. Padnick-Silver, J. J. Kang Derwent, E. Giuliano, K. Narfström, and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygenation and oxygen metabolism in Abyssinian cats with a hereditary retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47(8), 3683–3689 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Cohan, A. C. Pearch, P. T. Jokelainen, and D. F. Bohr, “Optic disc imaging in conscious rats and mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44(1), 160–163 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paques, J. L. Guyomard, M. Simonutti, M. J. Roux, S. Picaud, J. F. Legargasson, and J. A. Sahel, “Panretinal, high-resolution color photography of the mouse fundus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(6), 2769–2774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Ufret-Vincenty, B. Aredo, X. Liu, A. McMahon, P. W. Chen, H. Sun, J. Y. Niederkorn, and W. Kedzierski, “Transgenic mice expressing variants of complement factor H develop AMD-like retinal findings,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(11), 5878–5887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Pomerantzeff, R. H. Webb, and F. C. Delori, “Image formation in fundus cameras,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.18(6), 630–637 (1979).
[PubMed]

H. Murata, M. Aihara, Y.-N. Chen, T. Ota, J. Numaga, and M. Araie, “Imaging mouse retinal ganglion cells and their loss in vivo by a fundus camera in the normal and ischemia-reperfusion model,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(12), 5546–5552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. R. Uhlhorn, E. Hernandez, R. A. Juarez, R. Will, J.-M. Parel, and F. Manns, “Simultaneous fundus imaging and optical coherence tomography of the mouse retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(3), 1283–1289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Glaucoma (1)

I. H. Pang and A. F. Clark, “Rodent models for glaucoma retinopathy and optic neuropathy,” J. Glaucoma16(5), 483–505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet (1)

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, D. J. Couper, L. S. Cooper, E. Shahar, L. D. Hubbard, M. R. Wofford, and A. R. Sharrett, “Retinal microvascular abnormalities and incident stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Lancet358(9288), 1134–1140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Vis. (1)

N. L. Hawes, R. S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. John, “Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes,” Mol. Vis.5, 22 (1999).
[PubMed]

Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1)

M. Blum, A. Saemann, and G. Wolf, “The eye, the kidney and microcirculation,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.26(1), 4–6 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (1)

M. Koronyo-Hamaoui, Y. Koronyo, A. V. Ljubimov, C. A. Miller, M. K. Ko, K. L. Black, M. Schwartz, and D. L. Farkas, “Identification of amyloid plaques in retinas from Alzheimer’s patients and noninvasive in vivo optical imaging of retinal plaques in a mouse model,” Neuroimage54(Suppl 1), S204–S217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vis. Neurosci. (1)

P. Artal, P. Herreros de Tejada, C. Muñoz Tedó, and D. G. Green, “Retinal image quality in the rodent eye,” Vis. Neurosci.15(4), 597–605 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (3)

A. Hughes, “A schematic eye for the rat,” Vision Res.19(5), 569–588 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. W. Campbell and A. Hughes, “An analytic, gradient index schematic lens and eye for the rat which predicts aberrations for finite pupils,” Vision Res.21(7), 1129–1148, 1135–1148 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, “Optical aberrations in the mouse eye,” Vision Res.46(16), 2546–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Med. Phys. (1)

I. Koschmieder and L. Müller, “[Image diagnostic of the retina with fundus cameras],” Z. Med. Phys.17(1), 67–72 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

A. Gullstrand, “The optical system of the eye,” in Southall JPC, trans-ed. Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics, orig. German ed. 1909 3ed. (Optical Society of America, 1962), pp. 350–358.

A. Gullstrand, Einführung in die Methoden der Dioptrik des Auges des Menschen (S. Hirzel, Leipzig, 1911).

H. A. Reitsamer and J. W. Kiel, “Oxygen gradients in the anterior segment of the eye,” ARVO Meeting Abstracts 48, 6043 (2007).

J. C. Morrison, E. Johnson, and W. O. Cepurna, “Rat models for glaucoma research,” in Progress in Brain Research, L. C. N. N. O. Carlo Nucci and B. Giacinto, eds. (Elsevier, 2008), pp. 285–301.

M. Bader, “Rat Models of Cardiovascular Diseases,” in Rat Genomics, I. Anegon, ed. (Humana Press, 2010), pp. 403–414.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of retinal vessel analysis in the rat eye utilizing DVA-R. The DVA-R consists of a retina camera adapted to the rat eye (RC-R), an illumination unit (IU) and the standard DVA platform including PC, DVA software, CCD, and CCD control. The RC-R contains the optics for both illumination and imaging geometrically separated by a hole mirror (HM). The IU is comprised of a Xe light source (Xe LS), a liquid light guide (LLG), and a ring stop representing the source ring (SR). The broadband Xe spectrum is filtered with a green filter (GF).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relaxed schematic eyes in ZEMAX. (a) Gullstrand’s human schematic eye No. 1 [35]. (b) Hughes’ schematic rat eye [7]. (c) Reduced schematic rat eye (rSRE). All eyes show a pupil diameter of 1 mm (red lines).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Result of ZEMAX SC illustrating the corneal window (CW) in the reduced schematic rat eye (rSRE). Half-ray bundles are shown for a 0.5 mm pupil (P) (above) and a 1 mm pupil (below), with the rays originating at field points 0° (optical axis) and ± 15°. The 30° field-of-view (FOV) corresponds to 2.8168 mm field height normal to the optical axis. Two rays are plotted for each pupil size: the maximum extent ray (solid line) and the center line (chain line). The 0.50 mm pupil requires a 1.14 mm CW (above), whereas the 1.0 mm pupil requires a 1.68 mm CW (below). P and CW are diameter values.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ZEMAX SC results scaled vertically by a factor of 3. (a) Reverse unfolded illumination path from the pupil ring (PR) to the source ring (SR), with a lateral magnification of 2.3. The ophthalmoscopic lens (OL) produces an intermediate ring image (IRI) at the hole mirror (HM). A field lens (FL) and additional lenses (L1, L2) are used to bring the IRI into the SR plane. (b) Imaging path from the pupil position (imaging aperture (IA) of 1.0 mm) to the fundus image (FI) plane. With the OL and lenses L3 and L4, the fundus at infinity is imaged in the FI plane to form a 7-mm image representing a 30° field of view in object space. AS represents an aperture stop used for CW control.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total optical retina camera in ZEMAX NSC mode, showing the integrated lens optical setup for fundus illumination (folded path) and imaging, adapted to the rat eye. An annular light source, the reduced schematic rat eye, and a CCD are added to enable realistic ray tracing and illustration. Illumination path: source ring (SR) – lenses (L1, L2) – field lens (FL), defines the field of illumination at fundus – hole mirror (HM) – ophthalmoscopic lens (OL) – rat’s pupil (not shown). Imaging path: rat’s fundus – OL – HM – aperture stop (AS) – lenses (L3, L4) – detector. Focus adjustment is done by moving the CCD as indicated by arrows.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ZEMAX NSC mode results for light propagation and stop check along the z-axis ( = optical axis) in the illumination path at a wavelength of 560 nm. The plots show the distribution of light in the xy-plane in position space. (a) Source ring representing the initial annular size and shape. (b) Hole mirror plane tilted by 45°. The intermediate image at the hole mirror shows the expected elliptical shape, with a distribution in x stretched by a factor of 1.414 with respect to y. Its eccentricity at the hole mirror in x is caused by the different ray heights hitting the tilted plane. (c) Pupil ring as aerial image, 0.435 times the source ring size.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

ZEMAX SC mode results, showing system (eye model and retina camera) MTF data for the imaging path at 560 nm wavelength, with spatial frequencies in object space given in cyc/mm (lower horizontal axis). The MTF diffraction limit is represented by the dotted line. Tangential (T) and sagittal (S) graphs calculated for the field points 0 mm (blue), 0.9613 mm (green), and 1.4084 mm (red), correspond to optical axes of 0°, 10°, and 15°, respectively. The spatial frequency shown on the upper horizontal axis gives MTF data in angle space in cyc/deg. Indicated (eye pictograms) are in-vivo contrast data for the rat at 1-mm pupil size (Artal et al. 1998) and schematic rat eye on-axis MTF data for the rSRE (5.2 cyc/deg at 0.5 contrast). In vivo, the contrast was 0.5 for about 1 cyc/deg and 0.1 for 2 cyc/deg, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Performance parameters of image plane lens design in ZEMAX. (a) Spot diagram at the image plane for the field points 0 mm, 2.475 mm, and 3.5 mm, corresponding to rSRE field angles of 0°, 10°, and 15°, respectively. The circle indicates the Airy radius (rAiry = 23.72 µm). Thus, the system is diffraction limited. (b) Field curvatures (mm) are shown for the tangential (T) and sagittal (S) planes. Bending of the curves indicates field curvature, whereas divergence of S and T illustrates astigmatism that increases with field size. (c) Distortion as a function of field height from the optical axis, up to the maximum field at 3.5 mm (15°).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

High-contrast fundus images of rats, obtained with the DVA-R, show retinal vessels arising from the optic disk. (a) Brown-Norway rat fundus image shows a residual optical reflex centrally, just superior to the optic disk. (b) Wistar rat fundus image shows retinal vessels, with no noticeable optical reflexes compared with (a), but with greater penetration depth. Choroidal vessels from deeper layers are visible.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Typical DVA procedure. Retinal artery-vein selection and 7-minute baseline vessel-diameter measurement in a Brown-Norway rat. (a) Manual selection and marking of a retinal artery segment (A, red line) and a vein segment (V, blue line) in the DVA-R selection window. (b) Seven-minute baseline vessel-diameter recordings of the vessel segments shown in (a). The measured diameters are (31.6 ± 0.275) µm for the artery and (45.0 ± 0.271) µm for the vein (values given as mean ± standard deviation).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Schematic Rat Eye Data from Hughes (HSRE data) and for the Reduced Eye (rSRE) in ZEMAX

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Table 2 Key System Design Requirements for Illumination and Imaging

Metrics