Abstract

We present a double-clad fiber coupler (DCFC) for use in confocal endomicroscopy to reduce speckle contrast, increase signal collection while preserving optical sectioning. The DCFC is made by incorporating a double-clad tapered fiber (DCTF) to a fused-tapered DCFC for achromatic transmission (from 1265 nm to 1325 nm) of > 95% illumination light trough the single mode (SM) core and collection of > 40% diffuse light through inner cladding modes. Its potential for confocal endomicroscopy is demonstrated in a spectrally-encoded imaging setup which shows a 3 times reduction in speckle contrast as well as 5.5 × increase in signal collection compared to imaging with a SM fiber.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

G. Liu and Z. Chen, “Fiber-based combined optical coherence and multiphoton endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 036010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

M. Strupler, E. D. Montigny, D. Morneau, and C. Boudoux, “Rapid spectrally encoded fluorescence imaging using a wavelength-swept source,” Opt. Lett.35, 1737–1739 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Neumann, R. Kiesslich, M. B. Wallace, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications,” Gastroenterology139, 388–392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Farahati, O. Stachs, F. Prall, J. Stave, R. Guthoff, H. W. Pau, and T. Just, “Rigid confocal endoscopy for in vivo imaging of experimental oral squamous intra-epithelial lesions,” J. Oral. Pathol. Med.39, 318–327 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express18, 9755–9764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bao, S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Lee, W. Tao, and M. Gu, “Nonlinear endomicroscopy using a double-clad fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett.35, 995–997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

2008 (2)

S. Y. Ryu, H. Y. Choi, J. Na, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Combined system of optical coherence tomography and fluorescence spectroscopy based on double-cladding fiber,” Opt. Lett.33, 2347–2349 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Seibel, C. M. Brown, J. A. Dominitz, and M. B. Kimmey, “Scanning single fiber endoscopy: a new platform technology for integrated laser imaging, diagnosis, and future therapies,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.18, 467–478 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

L. Fu and M. Gu, “Double-clad photonic crystal fiber coupler for compact nonlinear optical microscopy imaging,” Opt. Lett.31, 1471–1473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. White, J. Motz, T. Hasan, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions,” Gynecologic Oncology99, S84–S88 (2005), The 4th International Conference on Cervical Cancer with a Day of Spiritual, Psychological, Complementary, and Alternative Treatment of Cancer and Pain.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luck, K. Carlson, A. Bovik, and R. Richards-Kortum, “An image model and segmentation algorithm for reflectance confocal images of in vivo cervical tissue,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.14, 1265–1276 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. Yun, W. Oh, W. White, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. Bouma, and G. Tearnet, “Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express13(20), 8214–8221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.29, 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

Abramov, A.

Bao, H.

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bourg-Heckly, G.

L. Thiberville, M. Salan, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways.” Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society6, 444 – 449 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bovik, A.

B. Luck, K. Carlson, A. Bovik, and R. Richards-Kortum, “An image model and segmentation algorithm for reflectance confocal images of in vivo cervical tissue,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.14, 1265–1276 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, C. M.

E. J. Seibel, C. M. Brown, J. A. Dominitz, and M. B. Kimmey, “Scanning single fiber endoscopy: a new platform technology for integrated laser imaging, diagnosis, and future therapies,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.18, 467–478 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchner, A. M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bures, J.

J. Bures, Guided Optics: Optical Fibers and All-Fiber Components (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

Burg, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlini, A. R.

Carlson, K.

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions,” Gynecologic Oncology99, S84–S88 (2005), The 4th International Conference on Cervical Cancer with a Day of Spiritual, Psychological, Complementary, and Alternative Treatment of Cancer and Pain.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luck, K. Carlson, A. Bovik, and R. Richards-Kortum, “An image model and segmentation algorithm for reflectance confocal images of in vivo cervical tissue,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.14, 1265–1276 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

G. Liu and Z. Chen, “Fiber-based combined optical coherence and multiphoton endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 036010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, E. S.

Choi, H. Y.

Choi, H.-Y.

Choi, W.-J.

Collier, T.

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions,” Gynecologic Oncology99, S84–S88 (2005), The 4th International Conference on Cervical Cancer with a Day of Spiritual, Psychological, Complementary, and Alternative Treatment of Cancer and Pain.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crook, J. E.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Daxhelet, X.

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express18, 9755–9764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lacroix, N. Godbout, and X. Daxhelet, Optical fiber components: design and applications (Research Signpost, India, 2006), chap. Optical fiber components: design and applications of fused biconical tapered components, Habib Hamam, ed.

Delaney, P.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Descour, M.

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions,” Gynecologic Oncology99, S84–S88 (2005), The 4th International Conference on Cervical Cancer with a Day of Spiritual, Psychological, Complementary, and Alternative Treatment of Cancer and Pain.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135, 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dominique, S.

L. Thiberville, M. Salan, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways.” Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society6, 444 – 449 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dominitz, J. A.

E. J. Seibel, C. M. Brown, J. A. Dominitz, and M. B. Kimmey, “Scanning single fiber endoscopy: a new platform technology for integrated laser imaging, diagnosis, and future therapies,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.18, 467–478 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enders, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farahati, B.

B. Farahati, O. Stachs, F. Prall, J. Stave, R. Guthoff, H. W. Pau, and T. Just, “Rigid confocal endoscopy for in vivo imaging of experimental oral squamous intra-epithelial lesions,” J. Oral. Pathol. Med.39, 318–327 (2010).
[PubMed]

Follen, M.

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions,” Gynecologic Oncology99, S84–S88 (2005), The 4th International Conference on Cervical Cancer with a Day of Spiritual, Psychological, Complementary, and Alternative Treatment of Cancer and Pain.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

Ghabril, M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gnaendiger, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godbout, N.

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express18, 9755–9764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lacroix, N. Godbout, and X. Daxhelet, Optical fiber components: design and applications (Research Signpost, India, 2006), chap. Optical fiber components: design and applications of fused biconical tapered components, Habib Hamam, ed.

Gomez, V.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J.

J. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics: Theory and Applications (Roberts & Co., 2007).

Gu, M.

Guthoff, R.

B. Farahati, O. Stachs, F. Prall, J. Stave, R. Guthoff, H. W. Pau, and T. Just, “Rigid confocal endoscopy for in vivo imaging of experimental oral squamous intra-epithelial lesions,” J. Oral. Pathol. Med.39, 318–327 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hartnick, C. J.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135, 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. White, J. Motz, T. Hasan, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckman, M. G.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iftimia, N.

Janell, D.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ju, M.-J.

Jung, Y.

Just, T.

B. Farahati, O. Stachs, F. Prall, J. Stave, R. Guthoff, H. W. Pau, and T. Just, “Rigid confocal endoscopy for in vivo imaging of experimental oral squamous intra-epithelial lesions,” J. Oral. Pathol. Med.39, 318–327 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

H. Neumann, R. Kiesslich, M. B. Wallace, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications,” Gastroenterology139, 388–392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-T.

Kimmey, M. B.

E. J. Seibel, C. M. Brown, J. A. Dominitz, and M. B. Kimmey, “Scanning single fiber endoscopy: a new platform technology for integrated laser imaging, diagnosis, and future therapies,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.18, 467–478 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishna, M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lachkar, S.

L. Thiberville, M. Salan, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways.” Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society6, 444 – 449 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacroix, S.

S. Lacroix, N. Godbout, and X. Daxhelet, Optical fiber components: design and applications (Research Signpost, India, 2006), chap. Optical fiber components: design and applications of fused biconical tapered components, Habib Hamam, ed.

Lane, P. M.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, B.-H.

Lemire-Renaud, S.

Leng, Y.

Leuin, S. C.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135, 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Liu, G.

G. Liu and Z. Chen, “Fiber-based combined optical coherence and multiphoton endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 036010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Love, J.

A. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Luck, B.

B. Luck, K. Carlson, A. Bovik, and R. Richards-Kortum, “An image model and segmentation algorithm for reflectance confocal images of in vivo cervical tissue,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.14, 1265–1276 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, W.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merman, M.

Montigny, E. D.

Moreno-Swirc, S.

L. Thiberville, M. Salan, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways.” Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society6, 444 – 449 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morneau, D.

Motz, J.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. White, J. Motz, T. Hasan, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motz, J. T.

Na, J.

Na, J.-H.

Nafe, B.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumann, H.

H. Neumann, R. Kiesslich, M. B. Wallace, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications,” Gastroenterology139, 388–392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

H. Neumann, R. Kiesslich, M. B. Wallace, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications,” Gastroenterology139, 388–392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W.

Oh, W. Y.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135, 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pau, H. W.

B. Farahati, O. Stachs, F. Prall, J. Stave, R. Guthoff, H. W. Pau, and T. Just, “Rigid confocal endoscopy for in vivo imaging of experimental oral squamous intra-epithelial lesions,” J. Oral. Pathol. Med.39, 318–327 (2010).
[PubMed]

Pavlova, I.

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions,” Gynecologic Oncology99, S84–S88 (2005), The 4th International Conference on Cervical Cancer with a Day of Spiritual, Psychological, Complementary, and Alternative Treatment of Cancer and Pain.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polglase, A.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prall, F.

B. Farahati, O. Stachs, F. Prall, J. Stave, R. Guthoff, H. W. Pau, and T. Just, “Rigid confocal endoscopy for in vivo imaging of experimental oral squamous intra-epithelial lesions,” J. Oral. Pathol. Med.39, 318–327 (2010).
[PubMed]

Raimondo, M.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions,” Gynecologic Oncology99, S84–S88 (2005), The 4th International Conference on Cervical Cancer with a Day of Spiritual, Psychological, Complementary, and Alternative Treatment of Cancer and Pain.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luck, K. Carlson, A. Bovik, and R. Richards-Kortum, “An image model and segmentation algorithm for reflectance confocal images of in vivo cervical tissue,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.14, 1265–1276 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivard, M.

Rizvi, I.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. White, J. Motz, T. Hasan, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, S. Y.

Ryu, S.-Y.

Salan, M.

L. Thiberville, M. Salan, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways.” Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society6, 444 – 449 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibel, E. J.

E. J. Seibel, C. M. Brown, J. A. Dominitz, and M. B. Kimmey, “Scanning single fiber endoscopy: a new platform technology for integrated laser imaging, diagnosis, and future therapies,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.18, 467–478 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahid, M. W.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Shishkov, M.

Snyder, A.

A. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Stachs, O.

B. Farahati, O. Stachs, F. Prall, J. Stave, R. Guthoff, H. W. Pau, and T. Just, “Rigid confocal endoscopy for in vivo imaging of experimental oral squamous intra-epithelial lesions,” J. Oral. Pathol. Med.39, 318–327 (2010).
[PubMed]

Stave, J.

B. Farahati, O. Stachs, F. Prall, J. Stave, R. Guthoff, H. W. Pau, and T. Just, “Rigid confocal endoscopy for in vivo imaging of experimental oral squamous intra-epithelial lesions,” J. Oral. Pathol. Med.39, 318–327 (2010).
[PubMed]

Strupler, M.

Suter, M. J.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135, 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, W.

Tearnet, G.

Tearney, G.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. White, J. Motz, T. Hasan, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Thiberville, L.

L. Thiberville, M. Salan, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways.” Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society6, 444 – 449 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135, 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verpillat, F.

Vever-Bizet, C.

L. Thiberville, M. Salan, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways.” Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society6, 444 – 449 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vieth, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Neumann, R. Kiesslich, M. B. Wallace, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications,” Gastroenterology139, 388–392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Webb, R. H.

White, W.

White, W. M.

Wilson, T.

Wolfsen, H. C.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T.

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

Yelin, D.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1)

C. Boudoux, S. C. Leuin, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, C. J. Hartnick, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical microscopy of the pediatric vocal fold,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.135, 53–64 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (3)

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology127, 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Buchner, M. W. Shahid, M. G. Heckman, M. Krishna, M. Ghabril, M. Hasan, J. E. Crook, V. Gomez, M. Raimondo, T. Woodward, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, “Comparison of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy with virtual chromoendoscopy for classification of colon polyps,” Gastroenterology138, 834–842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Neumann, R. Kiesslich, M. B. Wallace, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications,” Gastroenterology139, 388–392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. (1)

E. J. Seibel, C. M. Brown, J. A. Dominitz, and M. B. Kimmey, “Scanning single fiber endoscopy: a new platform technology for integrated laser imaging, diagnosis, and future therapies,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.18, 467–478 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gynecologic Oncology (1)

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions,” Gynecologic Oncology99, S84–S88 (2005), The 4th International Conference on Cervical Cancer with a Day of Spiritual, Psychological, Complementary, and Alternative Treatment of Cancer and Pain.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

B. Luck, K. Carlson, A. Bovik, and R. Richards-Kortum, “An image model and segmentation algorithm for reflectance confocal images of in vivo cervical tissue,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.14, 1265–1276 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Liu and Z. Chen, “Fiber-based combined optical coherence and multiphoton endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16, 036010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

J. Oral. Pathol. Med. (1)

B. Farahati, O. Stachs, F. Prall, J. Stave, R. Guthoff, H. W. Pau, and T. Just, “Rigid confocal endoscopy for in vivo imaging of experimental oral squamous intra-epithelial lesions,” J. Oral. Pathol. Med.39, 318–327 (2010).
[PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. White, J. Motz, T. Hasan, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society (1)

L. Thiberville, M. Salan, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, “Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways.” Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society6, 444 – 449 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

J. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics: Theory and Applications (Roberts & Co., 2007).

M. Gu, Principles of Three Dimensional Imaging in Confocal Microscopes (World Scientific, 1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

J. Bures, Guided Optics: Optical Fibers and All-Fiber Components (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

S. Lacroix, N. Godbout, and X. Daxhelet, Optical fiber components: design and applications (Research Signpost, India, 2006), chap. Optical fiber components: design and applications of fused biconical tapered components, Habib Hamam, ed.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Confocal imaging with a DCF. (a) Light propagation schematic. Illumination light originates from the core of the DCF defined by its MFD (taken at the 1/e2 intensity point) and numerical aperture (illumination half-angle β). It is collimated with a lens of focal length fcoll and fills an objective lens (of focal length fobj, aperture 2aobj, illumination cone half-angle α). Light collection is performed through the inner cladding of the DCF (of diameter d). Light propagates along the z-axis and rf, rp and rs define the radial coordinates at the fiber, objective lens pupil and sample planes, respectively. (b) Optical sectioning (u1/2) for a perfect plane reflector as a function of the ratio d/MFD for different values of the pupil filling factor A. c) Excitation efficiency (η) for a perfect plane reflector at focus (u = 0) as a function of the ratio d/MFD for different values of A.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Double-clad tapered fiber (DCTF). (a) Schematic of the DCFC with a tapered end, the gray area representing a high index gel drop to diminish back reflections. (b) Schematic of the tapered end. (c) MFD (solid red line) and inner cladding diameter d (dotted black line) as a function of the taper ratio.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characterization of the down tapered DCFC. (a) Spectral response of the MM inner cladding transmission. (b) Spectral response of the SM core transmission. (c) Cross section of the original DCF. (d) Cross section of the DCTF. (e) Side view of the angle cleaved DCTF. Scale bar: 50 μm. Error bars represent 1 standard deviation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy setup used to demonstrate imaging with the tapered-fiber DCFC. SE is achieved using a polygon-based wavelength-swept laser fiber coupled to an acquisition triggering mechanism and to an imaging arm through a circulator (C) spliced to the tapered-fiber DCFC. The imaging arm consists of a collimating lens, a galvanometer mounted mirror (G), two telecentric telescopes, a transmission grating (GR) and an objective lens. InGaAs photo-detectors (PD) collect coherent and partially coherent light. PC : polarization controllers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simultaneously acquired images of a 7 day old mouse embryo fixed in a solution of 4% of paraformaldehyde. (a) Average of 20 images of the SM signal (scale bar of 50 μm). (b) Average of 20 images of the MM signal (scale bar of 50 μm). (c) Zoom of the SM image. (d) Zoom of the MM image. Intensity scale of the SM and MM images were normalized independently.

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u = 4 k z s sin 2 ( α / 2 ) ,
ν = k r s sin ( α ) ,
I ( u ) 0 ν p | 0 1 P 1 ( ρ ) P 2 ( ρ ) exp ( i u ρ 2 ) J 0 ( ν ρ ) ρ d ρ | 2 ν d ν ,
ν p = k d 2 sin ( β ) ,
ρ = r p a obj ,
E ill ( r f ) = a ill N f exp [ ( 2 r f MFD ) 2 ] ,
N f = 2 π 0 | exp [ ( 2 r f MFD ) 2 ] | 2 r f d r f = π MFD 2 8 .
A = ( k a obj f coll MFD 2 2 ) 2 .
A = ( k M sin ( α ) MFD 2 2 ) 2 ,
M = f obj f coll = sin ( β ) sin ( α ) .
E ill ( r p ) = a ill N p exp [ ( r p A a obj 2 ) 2 ] ,
N p = 2 π 0 | exp [ ( r p A a obj 2 ) 2 ] | 2 r p d r p = π a obj 2 A .
P 1 ( ρ ) = exp [ ( ρ A 2 ) 2 ] .
P 2 ( ρ ) = 1.
ν p = d MFD 2 A .
η 1 = 1 e A .
η 2 = 0 ν p | 0 1 exp [ ( ρ A 2 ) 2 ] J 0 ( ν ρ ) ρ d ρ | 2 ν d ν 0 | 0 1 exp [ ( ρ A 2 ) 2 ] J 0 ( ν ρ ) ρ d ρ | 2 ν d ν .
η = η 1 η 2 .
C MM = σ s I s = Σ n = 1 N I ¯ n 2 Σ n = 1 N I ¯ n ,
C d A c A d A c d .

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