Abstract

Oblique plane microscopy (OPM) is a single objective light-sheet microscopy that performs three dimensional (3D) imaging by axial scan of the generated light-sheet. Recently, multiple techniques for lateral scanning of the generated light-sheet in OPM have emerged. However, their suitability for geometrically distortion free 3D imaging, which essentially requires a constant tilt light-sheet scan, has not been evaluated. In this work, we use a geometrical optics approach and derive analytical relationship for the amount of tilt variance in planar mirror based scanned oblique plane illumination (SOPi) arrangement. We experimentally validate the derived relationship and use it to arrive at an optimized scanner geometry and to understand its associated limitations. We discuss the effects of scanning on optical aberrations and 3D field of view in optimized, tilt invariant, lateral scanning OPM systems. We also provide experimental strategies enabling precise scanner alignment for tilt invariance, as well as an open source platform for rapid design of new oblique light-sheet microscopes.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (5)

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, C. Yin, L. Wei, S. Kang, L. A. Barner, W. Xie, E. F. McCarty, C. Mao, A. R. Halpern, C. R. Stoltzfus, J. S. Daniels, M. Y. Gerner, P. R. Nicovich, J. C. Vaughan, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Multi-immersion open-top light-sheet microscope for high-throughput imaging of cleared tissues,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2781 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Kumar and Y. Kozorovitskiy, “Tilt-invariant scanned oblique plane illumination microscopy for large-scale volumetric imaging,” Opt. Lett. 44(7), 1706–1709 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Yang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, S. Feng, V. Pessino, N. Stuurman, N. H. Cho, K. W. Cheng, S. J. Lord, L. Xu, D. Xie, R. Dyche Mullins, M. Leonetti, and B. Huang, “Epi-illumination spim for volumetric imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution,” Nat. Methods 16(6), 501–504 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Hoffmann and B. Judkewitz, “Diffractive oblique plane microscopy,” Optica 6(9), 1166–1170 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Voleti, K. B. Patel, W. Li, C. P. Campos, S. Bharadwaj, H. Yu, C. Ford, M. J. Casper, R. W. Yan, W. Liang, C. Wen, K. D. Kimura, K. L. Targoff, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Real-time volumetric microscopy of in vivo dynamics and large-scale samples with scape 2.0,” Nat. Methods 16(10), 1054–1062 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

B. Migliori, M. S. Datta, C. Dupre, M. C. Apak, S. Asano, R. Gao, E. S. Boyden, O. Hermanson, R. Yuste, and R. Tomer, “Light sheet theta microscopy for rapid high-resolution imaging of large biological samples,” BMC Biol. 16(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Shin, D. Kim, and H.-S. Kwon, “Oblique scanning 2-photon light-sheet fluorescence microscopy for rapid volumetric imaging,” J. Biophotonics 11(5), e201700270 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kumar, S. Kishore, J. Nasenbeny, D. L. McLean, and Y. Kozorovitskiy, “Integrated one-and two-photon scanned oblique plane illumination (sopi) microscopy for rapid volumetric imaging,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13027–13041 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. B. Sikkel, S. Kumar, V. Maioli, C. Rowlands, F. Gordon, S. E. Harding, A. R. Lyon, K. T. MacLeod, and C. Dunsby, “High speed scmos-based oblique plane microscopy applied to the study of calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes,” J. Biophotonics 9(3), 311–323 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (scape) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. Wu, P. Wawrzusin, J. Senseney, R. S. Fischer, R. Christensen, A. Santella, A. G. York, P. W. Winter, C. M. Waterman, Z. Bao, D. A. Colón-Ramos, Z. McAuliffe, and H. Schroff, “Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(11), 1032–1038 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Y. Wu, A. Ghitani, R. Christensen, A. Santella, Z. Du, G. Rondeau, Z. Bao, D. Colón-Ramos, and H. Shroff, “Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (ispim) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in caenorhabditis elegans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108(43), 17708–17713 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, D. Wilding, M. B. Sikkel, A. R. Lyon, K. T. MacLeod, and C. Dunsby, “High-speed 2d and 3d fluorescence microscopy of cardiac myocytes,” Opt. Express 19(15), 13839–13847 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

C. Dunsby, “Optically sectioned imaging by oblique plane microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20306–20316 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. F. Holekamp, D. Turaga, and T. E. Holy, “Fast three-dimensional fluorescence imaging of activity in neural populations by objective-coupled planar illumination microscopy,” Neuron 57(5), 661–672 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Tokunaga, N. Imamoto, and K. Sakata-Sogawa, “Highly inclined thin illumination enables clear single-molecule imaging in cells,” Nat. Methods 5(2), 159–161 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juškaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. H. Voie, D. Burns, and F. Spelman, “Orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning: Three-dimensional imaging of macroscopic biological specimens,” J. Microsc. 170(3), 229–236 (1993).
[Crossref]

1902 (1)

H. Siedentopf and R. Zsigmondy, “Uber sichtbarmachung und größenbestimmung ultramikoskopischer teilchen, mit besonderer anwendung auf goldrubingläser,” Ann. Phys. 315(1), 1–39 (1902).
[Crossref]

Apak, M. C.

B. Migliori, M. S. Datta, C. Dupre, M. C. Apak, S. Asano, R. Gao, E. S. Boyden, O. Hermanson, R. Yuste, and R. Tomer, “Light sheet theta microscopy for rapid high-resolution imaging of large biological samples,” BMC Biol. 16(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

Asano, S.

B. Migliori, M. S. Datta, C. Dupre, M. C. Apak, S. Asano, R. Gao, E. S. Boyden, O. Hermanson, R. Yuste, and R. Tomer, “Light sheet theta microscopy for rapid high-resolution imaging of large biological samples,” BMC Biol. 16(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bao, Z.

Y. Wu, P. Wawrzusin, J. Senseney, R. S. Fischer, R. Christensen, A. Santella, A. G. York, P. W. Winter, C. M. Waterman, Z. Bao, D. A. Colón-Ramos, Z. McAuliffe, and H. Schroff, “Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(11), 1032–1038 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, A. Ghitani, R. Christensen, A. Santella, Z. Du, G. Rondeau, Z. Bao, D. Colón-Ramos, and H. Shroff, “Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (ispim) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in caenorhabditis elegans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108(43), 17708–17713 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barner, L. A.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, C. Yin, L. Wei, S. Kang, L. A. Barner, W. Xie, E. F. McCarty, C. Mao, A. R. Halpern, C. R. Stoltzfus, J. S. Daniels, M. Y. Gerner, P. R. Nicovich, J. C. Vaughan, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Multi-immersion open-top light-sheet microscope for high-throughput imaging of cleared tissues,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2781 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bharadwaj, S.

V. Voleti, K. B. Patel, W. Li, C. P. Campos, S. Bharadwaj, H. Yu, C. Ford, M. J. Casper, R. W. Yan, W. Liang, C. Wen, K. D. Kimura, K. L. Targoff, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Real-time volumetric microscopy of in vivo dynamics and large-scale samples with scape 2.0,” Nat. Methods 16(10), 1054–1062 (2019).
[Crossref]

Booth, M. J.

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juškaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free optical refocusing in high numerical aperture microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2007 (2007).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Elsevier, 2013).

Botcherby, E. J.

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juškaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free optical refocusing in high numerical aperture microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2007 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bouchard, M. B.

M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (scape) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boyden, E. S.

B. Migliori, M. S. Datta, C. Dupre, M. C. Apak, S. Asano, R. Gao, E. S. Boyden, O. Hermanson, R. Yuste, and R. Tomer, “Light sheet theta microscopy for rapid high-resolution imaging of large biological samples,” BMC Biol. 16(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bruno, R. M.

M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (scape) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Burns, D.

A. H. Voie, D. Burns, and F. Spelman, “Orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning: Three-dimensional imaging of macroscopic biological specimens,” J. Microsc. 170(3), 229–236 (1993).
[Crossref]

Campos, C. P.

V. Voleti, K. B. Patel, W. Li, C. P. Campos, S. Bharadwaj, H. Yu, C. Ford, M. J. Casper, R. W. Yan, W. Liang, C. Wen, K. D. Kimura, K. L. Targoff, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Real-time volumetric microscopy of in vivo dynamics and large-scale samples with scape 2.0,” Nat. Methods 16(10), 1054–1062 (2019).
[Crossref]

Casper, M. J.

V. Voleti, K. B. Patel, W. Li, C. P. Campos, S. Bharadwaj, H. Yu, C. Ford, M. J. Casper, R. W. Yan, W. Liang, C. Wen, K. D. Kimura, K. L. Targoff, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Real-time volumetric microscopy of in vivo dynamics and large-scale samples with scape 2.0,” Nat. Methods 16(10), 1054–1062 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

B. Yang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, S. Feng, V. Pessino, N. Stuurman, N. H. Cho, K. W. Cheng, S. J. Lord, L. Xu, D. Xie, R. Dyche Mullins, M. Leonetti, and B. Huang, “Epi-illumination spim for volumetric imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution,” Nat. Methods 16(6), 501–504 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, C. Yin, L. Wei, S. Kang, L. A. Barner, W. Xie, E. F. McCarty, C. Mao, A. R. Halpern, C. R. Stoltzfus, J. S. Daniels, M. Y. Gerner, P. R. Nicovich, J. C. Vaughan, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Multi-immersion open-top light-sheet microscope for high-throughput imaging of cleared tissues,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2781 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K. W.

B. Yang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, S. Feng, V. Pessino, N. Stuurman, N. H. Cho, K. W. Cheng, S. J. Lord, L. Xu, D. Xie, R. Dyche Mullins, M. Leonetti, and B. Huang, “Epi-illumination spim for volumetric imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution,” Nat. Methods 16(6), 501–504 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cho, N. H.

B. Yang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, S. Feng, V. Pessino, N. Stuurman, N. H. Cho, K. W. Cheng, S. J. Lord, L. Xu, D. Xie, R. Dyche Mullins, M. Leonetti, and B. Huang, “Epi-illumination spim for volumetric imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution,” Nat. Methods 16(6), 501–504 (2019).
[Crossref]

Christensen, R.

Y. Wu, P. Wawrzusin, J. Senseney, R. S. Fischer, R. Christensen, A. Santella, A. G. York, P. W. Winter, C. M. Waterman, Z. Bao, D. A. Colón-Ramos, Z. McAuliffe, and H. Schroff, “Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(11), 1032–1038 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, A. Ghitani, R. Christensen, A. Santella, Z. Du, G. Rondeau, Z. Bao, D. Colón-Ramos, and H. Shroff, “Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (ispim) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in caenorhabditis elegans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108(43), 17708–17713 (2011).
[Crossref]

Colón-Ramos, D.

Y. Wu, A. Ghitani, R. Christensen, A. Santella, Z. Du, G. Rondeau, Z. Bao, D. Colón-Ramos, and H. Shroff, “Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (ispim) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in caenorhabditis elegans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108(43), 17708–17713 (2011).
[Crossref]

Colón-Ramos, D. A.

Y. Wu, P. Wawrzusin, J. Senseney, R. S. Fischer, R. Christensen, A. Santella, A. G. York, P. W. Winter, C. M. Waterman, Z. Bao, D. A. Colón-Ramos, Z. McAuliffe, and H. Schroff, “Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(11), 1032–1038 (2013).
[Crossref]

Daniels, J. S.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, C. Yin, L. Wei, S. Kang, L. A. Barner, W. Xie, E. F. McCarty, C. Mao, A. R. Halpern, C. R. Stoltzfus, J. S. Daniels, M. Y. Gerner, P. R. Nicovich, J. C. Vaughan, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Multi-immersion open-top light-sheet microscope for high-throughput imaging of cleared tissues,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2781 (2019).
[Crossref]

Datta, M. S.

B. Migliori, M. S. Datta, C. Dupre, M. C. Apak, S. Asano, R. Gao, E. S. Boyden, O. Hermanson, R. Yuste, and R. Tomer, “Light sheet theta microscopy for rapid high-resolution imaging of large biological samples,” BMC Biol. 16(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

Del Bene, F.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Du, Z.

Y. Wu, A. Ghitani, R. Christensen, A. Santella, Z. Du, G. Rondeau, Z. Bao, D. Colón-Ramos, and H. Shroff, “Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (ispim) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in caenorhabditis elegans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108(43), 17708–17713 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dunsby, C.

M. B. Sikkel, S. Kumar, V. Maioli, C. Rowlands, F. Gordon, S. E. Harding, A. R. Lyon, K. T. MacLeod, and C. Dunsby, “High speed scmos-based oblique plane microscopy applied to the study of calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes,” J. Biophotonics 9(3), 311–323 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, D. Wilding, M. B. Sikkel, A. R. Lyon, K. T. MacLeod, and C. Dunsby, “High-speed 2d and 3d fluorescence microscopy of cardiac myocytes,” Opt. Express 19(15), 13839–13847 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Dunsby, “Optically sectioned imaging by oblique plane microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20306–20316 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dupre, C.

B. Migliori, M. S. Datta, C. Dupre, M. C. Apak, S. Asano, R. Gao, E. S. Boyden, O. Hermanson, R. Yuste, and R. Tomer, “Light sheet theta microscopy for rapid high-resolution imaging of large biological samples,” BMC Biol. 16(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dyche Mullins, R.

B. Yang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, S. Feng, V. Pessino, N. Stuurman, N. H. Cho, K. W. Cheng, S. J. Lord, L. Xu, D. Xie, R. Dyche Mullins, M. Leonetti, and B. Huang, “Epi-illumination spim for volumetric imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution,” Nat. Methods 16(6), 501–504 (2019).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

B. Yang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, S. Feng, V. Pessino, N. Stuurman, N. H. Cho, K. W. Cheng, S. J. Lord, L. Xu, D. Xie, R. Dyche Mullins, M. Leonetti, and B. Huang, “Epi-illumination spim for volumetric imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution,” Nat. Methods 16(6), 501–504 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fischer, R. E.

R. E. Fischer, B. Tadic-Galeb, and P. R. Yoder, Optical System Design (SPIE Press, 2008).

Fischer, R. S.

Y. Wu, P. Wawrzusin, J. Senseney, R. S. Fischer, R. Christensen, A. Santella, A. G. York, P. W. Winter, C. M. Waterman, Z. Bao, D. A. Colón-Ramos, Z. McAuliffe, and H. Schroff, “Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(11), 1032–1038 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ford, C.

V. Voleti, K. B. Patel, W. Li, C. P. Campos, S. Bharadwaj, H. Yu, C. Ford, M. J. Casper, R. W. Yan, W. Liang, C. Wen, K. D. Kimura, K. L. Targoff, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Real-time volumetric microscopy of in vivo dynamics and large-scale samples with scape 2.0,” Nat. Methods 16(10), 1054–1062 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gao, R.

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V. Voleti, K. B. Patel, W. Li, C. P. Campos, S. Bharadwaj, H. Yu, C. Ford, M. J. Casper, R. W. Yan, W. Liang, C. Wen, K. D. Kimura, K. L. Targoff, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Real-time volumetric microscopy of in vivo dynamics and large-scale samples with scape 2.0,” Nat. Methods 16(10), 1054–1062 (2019).
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Wittbrodt, J.

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M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Elsevier, 2013).

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Y. Wu, P. Wawrzusin, J. Senseney, R. S. Fischer, R. Christensen, A. Santella, A. G. York, P. W. Winter, C. M. Waterman, Z. Bao, D. A. Colón-Ramos, Z. McAuliffe, and H. Schroff, “Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(11), 1032–1038 (2013).
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Y. Wu, A. Ghitani, R. Christensen, A. Santella, Z. Du, G. Rondeau, Z. Bao, D. Colón-Ramos, and H. Shroff, “Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (ispim) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in caenorhabditis elegans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108(43), 17708–17713 (2011).
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B. Yang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, S. Feng, V. Pessino, N. Stuurman, N. H. Cho, K. W. Cheng, S. J. Lord, L. Xu, D. Xie, R. Dyche Mullins, M. Leonetti, and B. Huang, “Epi-illumination spim for volumetric imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution,” Nat. Methods 16(6), 501–504 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xie, W.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, C. Yin, L. Wei, S. Kang, L. A. Barner, W. Xie, E. F. McCarty, C. Mao, A. R. Halpern, C. R. Stoltzfus, J. S. Daniels, M. Y. Gerner, P. R. Nicovich, J. C. Vaughan, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Multi-immersion open-top light-sheet microscope for high-throughput imaging of cleared tissues,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2781 (2019).
[Crossref]

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B. Yang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, S. Feng, V. Pessino, N. Stuurman, N. H. Cho, K. W. Cheng, S. J. Lord, L. Xu, D. Xie, R. Dyche Mullins, M. Leonetti, and B. Huang, “Epi-illumination spim for volumetric imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution,” Nat. Methods 16(6), 501–504 (2019).
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V. Voleti, K. B. Patel, W. Li, C. P. Campos, S. Bharadwaj, H. Yu, C. Ford, M. J. Casper, R. W. Yan, W. Liang, C. Wen, K. D. Kimura, K. L. Targoff, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Real-time volumetric microscopy of in vivo dynamics and large-scale samples with scape 2.0,” Nat. Methods 16(10), 1054–1062 (2019).
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Y. Wu, P. Wawrzusin, J. Senseney, R. S. Fischer, R. Christensen, A. Santella, A. G. York, P. W. Winter, C. M. Waterman, Z. Bao, D. A. Colón-Ramos, Z. McAuliffe, and H. Schroff, “Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(11), 1032–1038 (2013).
[Crossref]

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V. Voleti, K. B. Patel, W. Li, C. P. Campos, S. Bharadwaj, H. Yu, C. Ford, M. J. Casper, R. W. Yan, W. Liang, C. Wen, K. D. Kimura, K. L. Targoff, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Real-time volumetric microscopy of in vivo dynamics and large-scale samples with scape 2.0,” Nat. Methods 16(10), 1054–1062 (2019).
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Ann. Phys. (1)

H. Siedentopf and R. Zsigmondy, “Uber sichtbarmachung und größenbestimmung ultramikoskopischer teilchen, mit besonderer anwendung auf goldrubingläser,” Ann. Phys. 315(1), 1–39 (1902).
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B. Migliori, M. S. Datta, C. Dupre, M. C. Apak, S. Asano, R. Gao, E. S. Boyden, O. Hermanson, R. Yuste, and R. Tomer, “Light sheet theta microscopy for rapid high-resolution imaging of large biological samples,” BMC Biol. 16(1), 57 (2018).
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A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, C. Yin, L. Wei, S. Kang, L. A. Barner, W. Xie, E. F. McCarty, C. Mao, A. R. Halpern, C. R. Stoltzfus, J. S. Daniels, M. Y. Gerner, P. R. Nicovich, J. C. Vaughan, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Multi-immersion open-top light-sheet microscope for high-throughput imaging of cleared tissues,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2781 (2019).
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[Crossref]

B. Yang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, S. Feng, V. Pessino, N. Stuurman, N. H. Cho, K. W. Cheng, S. J. Lord, L. Xu, D. Xie, R. Dyche Mullins, M. Leonetti, and B. Huang, “Epi-illumination spim for volumetric imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution,” Nat. Methods 16(6), 501–504 (2019).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (scape) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 113–119 (2015).
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E. J. Botcherby, R. Juškaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

Y. Wu, A. Ghitani, R. Christensen, A. Santella, Z. Du, G. Rondeau, Z. Bao, D. Colón-Ramos, and H. Shroff, “Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (ispim) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in caenorhabditis elegans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108(43), 17708–17713 (2011).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

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M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Elsevier, 2013).

R. E. Fischer, B. Tadic-Galeb, and P. R. Yoder, Optical System Design (SPIE Press, 2008).

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V. N. Mahajan, Aberration Theory Made Simple (SPIE Press, 1991).

A. Millett-Sikking and A. York, “High numerical aperture single objective light-sheet,” Zenodo (2019), https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3244420 .

M. Kumar and Y. Kozorovitskiy, “Crossbill design,” Zenodo (2019), https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3543786 .

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The oblique field of view during lateral scan in SOPi microscopy.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Existing geometries for lateral scan of the generated light-sheet in OPM inspired systems. Insets show corresponding light-sheet scan orientations. (a) First arrangement uses a polygon mirror scanner to perform a lateral scan with varying tilt [15]. (b) Second arrangement uses a refractive transmission scanning window to perform constant tilt lateral scan [16]. (c) Third arrangement uses a plane mirror scanner to aim for constant tilt lateral scan [1721]. MO: microscope objective.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Lens as an optical Fourier transforming element for tilt invariant scan and imaging. (a) A point source at the BFP leads to collimated optical rays where the lateral offset location of point source determines tilt angle of collimated rays. (b) A mirror scanner centered at the BFP leads to an absolutely tilt invariant lateral scan. (c) SOPi scan geometry under consideration for tilt invariant scan and imaging. WD: working distance.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. A generalized SOPi scan geometry for the evaluation of tilt variance. Principal axis: optical axis of the microscope objective (objective not shown); $O$: rotation axis of the scanner; $d_y$: lateral offset of the scanner from the principal axis; $d_z$: axial offset of the scanner from the BFP; $d$: offset of the incident beam from the scanner rotation axis; $\theta$: tilt angle deviation of the scan mirror.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental strategy for evaluation of tilt variance. (a) Schematic of the experimental setup for measuring tilt variance. (b) Dependencies between voltage applied to galvo, galvo tilt, and beam shift/tilt. (c) Comparison of theoretically calculated and experimentally evaluated tilt variance for given galvo and beam offsets. The difference between theoretical and experimental values determines the error in galvo positioning.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Effect of lateral scanning on optical aberrations.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. 3D field of view in SOPi-like microscopy. (a) Acceptance cone of a microscope objective and corresponding two dimensional field of view. (b) A complete picture of acceptance cones through two dimensional field of view, where the overlapping region (double-cone shape) defines the three dimensional field of view. (c) Relationship between 2D field of view, NA, and 3D field of view. (d) Light-sheet orientation and corresponding cross-sectional field of view during lateral scan in SOPi microscopy (also see Visualization 1).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Understanding tilt variance in high NA objective based SOPi microscopy. (a) Schematics of a standard SOPi microscopy system. (b) Subsystems of a SOPi arrangement. (c) Tilt invariant galvo-lens scanning subsystem in SOPi, and (d) measuring beam tilt in a high NA SOPi system. SL: scan lens, TL: tube lens, M: microscopy module, t: coverslip thickness, AB: coverslip oblique thickness.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. An open source graphical user interface for optical parts selection in single objective light-sheet microscopy.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Calculation of Tilt Variance During Scan

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α = ( y f ) ,
P Q = 2 d × tan θ 1 tan θ .
R T = d z d × tan θ .
R S = ( d z d × tan θ ) × tan ( 2 θ ) ,
δ = [ d z × tan ( 2 θ ) f d × tan ( θ ) × tan ( 2 θ ) f ] ,
α = tan 1 ( Δ 2 p ) Δ 2 p ,
δ e x p = α 2 α 1 = Δ 2 2 p Δ 1 2 p ,

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