Abstract

Terahertz (THz) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) provide complementary information with similar length scales. In addition to OCT’s extensive use in ophthalmology, both methods have shown some promise for other medical applications and non-destructive testing. In this paper, we present an iterative algorithm that combines the information from OCT and THz imaging at two different measurement locations within an object to determine both the depth of the reflecting layers at the two locations and the unknown refractive index of the medium for both the OCT wavelengths and THz frequencies. We validate this algorithm using a silicone test object with embedded layers and show that the depths and refractive index values obtained from the algorithm agreed with the measured values to within 3.3%. We further demonstrate for the first time that OCT and THz images can be co-registered and aligned using unsupervised image registration. Hence we show that a combined OCT/THz system can provide unique information beyond the capability of the separate modalities alone, with possible applications in the medical, industrial and pharmaceutical sectors.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (2)

2018 (4)

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Cassar, A. Al-Ibadi, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, G. MacGrogan, T. Zimmer, U. R. Pfeiffer, J.-P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “Pilot study of freshly excised breast tissue response in the 300–600 GHz range,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 2930–2942 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. Karnowski, P. B. Noble, A. Cairncross, A. James, M. Villiger, and D. D. Sampson, “Robust reconstruction of local optic axis orientation with fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5437–5455 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

C. S. Cheung, M. Spring, and H. Liang, “Ultra-high resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for old master paintings,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10145–10157 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

J. L. Güell, M. A. El Husseiny, F. Manero, O. Gris, and D. Elies, “Historical Review and Update of Surgical Treatment for Corneal Endothelial Diseases,” Ophthalmol. Ther. 3(1-2), 1–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, and P. C. Ashworth, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Structured three-dimensional optical phantom for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19480–19485 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. M. M. D. Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. D. Kinkelder, J. V. Marle, T. G. V. Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(01), 1–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. O. Eghrari and J. D. Gottsch, “Fuchs’ corneal dystrophy,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 5(2), 147–159 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Góra, L. Tymińska-Widmer, J. Marczak, and A. Kowalczyk, “Optical coherence tomography in art diagnostics and restoration,” Appl. Phys. A 92(1), 1–9 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159, 567–577 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of water concentration in human cornea with differential absorption optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2190–2197 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

Adam, A. J. L.

Ahuja, A. T.

Alexandrova, P. V.

N. V. Chernomyrdin, I. Dolganova, S.-I. Beshplav, G. Komandin, I. V. Reshetov, A. A. Potapov, V. Tuchin, K. Zaytsev, P. V. Alexandrova, K. Malakhov, P. V. Nikitin, A. V. Kosyr’kova, and G. Musina, Differentiation of healthy and malignant brain tissues using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (2019), p. 5.

Al-Ibadi, A.

Arauz-Garofalo, G.

C. Seco-Martorell, V. Lopez-Dominguez, G. Arauz-Garofalo, A. Redo-Sanchez, J. Palacios, and J. Tejada, Goya’s artwork imaging with Terahertz waves (2013), Vol. 21, pp. 17800–17805.

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ashworth, P. C.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, and P. C. Ashworth, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bajwa, N.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bergmann, U.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Berry, E.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beshplav, S.-I.

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J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159, 567–577 (2008).
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A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
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B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
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M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
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E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
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D. M. M. D. Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. D. Kinkelder, J. V. Marle, T. G. V. Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(01), 1–10 (2010).
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M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
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Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
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D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
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Cairncross, A.

Campbell, G.

Cassar, Q.

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E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
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Cheung, C. S.

Chiu, T.-W.

Christens-Barry, W.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Cole, B. E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
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R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
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R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
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J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159, 567–577 (2008).
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D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
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Davis, G.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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Dolganova, I.

N. V. Chernomyrdin, I. Dolganova, S.-I. Beshplav, G. Komandin, I. V. Reshetov, A. A. Potapov, V. Tuchin, K. Zaytsev, P. V. Alexandrova, K. Malakhov, P. V. Nikitin, A. V. Kosyr’kova, and G. Musina, Differentiation of healthy and malignant brain tissues using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (2019), p. 5.

Dong, Y.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
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M. Heyden, S. Ebbinghaus, and M Havenith, “Terahertz Spectroscopy as a Tool to Study Hydration Dynamics,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, 2010).

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A. O. Eghrari and J. D. Gottsch, “Fuchs’ corneal dystrophy,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 5(2), 147–159 (2010).
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J. L. Güell, M. A. El Husseiny, F. Manero, O. Gris, and D. Elies, “Historical Review and Update of Surgical Treatment for Corneal Endothelial Diseases,” Ophthalmol. Ther. 3(1-2), 1–15 (2014).
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J. L. Güell, M. A. El Husseiny, F. Manero, O. Gris, and D. Elies, “Historical Review and Update of Surgical Treatment for Corneal Endothelial Diseases,” Ophthalmol. Ther. 3(1-2), 1–15 (2014).
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A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Faber, D. J.

D. M. M. D. Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. D. Kinkelder, J. V. Marle, T. G. V. Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(01), 1–10 (2010).
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A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Farsiu, S.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Fercher, A. F.

Fitzgerald, A.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, and P. C. Ashworth, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
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A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
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A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
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Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Góra, L. Tymińska-Widmer, J. Marczak, and A. Kowalczyk, “Optical coherence tomography in art diagnostics and restoration,” Appl. Phys. A 92(1), 1–9 (2008).
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A. O. Eghrari and J. D. Gottsch, “Fuchs’ corneal dystrophy,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 5(2), 147–159 (2010).
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Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Griffiths, J.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Gris, O.

J. L. Güell, M. A. El Husseiny, F. Manero, O. Gris, and D. Elies, “Historical Review and Update of Surgical Treatment for Corneal Endothelial Diseases,” Ophthalmol. Ther. 3(1-2), 1–15 (2014).
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Grischkowsky, D.

Grundfest, W. S.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
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Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
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Grzyb, J.

Güell, J. L.

J. L. Güell, M. A. El Husseiny, F. Manero, O. Gris, and D. Elies, “Historical Review and Update of Surgical Treatment for Corneal Endothelial Diseases,” Ophthalmol. Ther. 3(1-2), 1–15 (2014).
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Guillet, J.-P.

Günter, P.

Handley, J. W.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
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M. Heyden, S. Ebbinghaus, and M Havenith, “Terahertz Spectroscopy as a Tool to Study Hydration Dynamics,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, 2010).

He, Y.

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
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Hee, M. R.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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M. Heyden, S. Ebbinghaus, and M Havenith, “Terahertz Spectroscopy as a Tool to Study Hydration Dynamics,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, 2010).

Hillger, P.

Hillman, T. R.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Hubschman, J.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
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Hubschman, J. P.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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Hubschman, J.-P.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
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M. Iwanicka, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Sylwestrzak, and P. Targowski, Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real time monitoring of consolidation of the paint layer in Hinterglasmalerei objects, SPIE Optical Metrology (SPIE, 2011), Vol. 8084.

Izatt, J. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
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Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
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James, A.

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
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Johnson, R. D.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
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Jones, C.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Kaczvinsky, J. R.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159, 567–577 (2008).
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Karnowski, K.

Kealey, C. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
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Keiding, S.

Kennedy, B. F.

Kennedy, K. M.

Kindt, J. T.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
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D. M. M. D. Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. D. Kinkelder, J. V. Marle, T. G. V. Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(01), 1–10 (2010).
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Koch, E.

Kodach, V. M.

D. M. M. D. Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. D. Kinkelder, J. V. Marle, T. G. V. Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(01), 1–10 (2010).
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Komandin, G.

N. V. Chernomyrdin, I. Dolganova, S.-I. Beshplav, G. Komandin, I. V. Reshetov, A. A. Potapov, V. Tuchin, K. Zaytsev, P. V. Alexandrova, K. Malakhov, P. V. Nikitin, A. V. Kosyr’kova, and G. Musina, Differentiation of healthy and malignant brain tissues using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (2019), p. 5.

Kosyr’kova, A. V.

N. V. Chernomyrdin, I. Dolganova, S.-I. Beshplav, G. Komandin, I. V. Reshetov, A. A. Potapov, V. Tuchin, K. Zaytsev, P. V. Alexandrova, K. Malakhov, P. V. Nikitin, A. V. Kosyr’kova, and G. Musina, Differentiation of healthy and malignant brain tissues using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (2019), p. 5.

Kowalczyk, A.

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Góra, L. Tymińska-Widmer, J. Marczak, and A. Kowalczyk, “Optical coherence tomography in art diagnostics and restoration,” Appl. Phys. A 92(1), 1–9 (2008).
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M. Iwanicka, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Sylwestrzak, and P. Targowski, Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real time monitoring of consolidation of the paint layer in Hinterglasmalerei objects, SPIE Optical Metrology (SPIE, 2011), Vol. 8084.

Lamouche, G.

Lee, H.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
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D. M. M. D. Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. D. Kinkelder, J. V. Marle, T. G. V. Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(01), 1–10 (2010).
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Li, G.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Liang, H.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Lin, H.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
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Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
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Lopez-Dominguez, V.

C. Seco-Martorell, V. Lopez-Dominguez, G. Arauz-Garofalo, A. Redo-Sanchez, J. Palacios, and J. Tejada, Goya’s artwork imaging with Terahertz waves (2013), Vol. 21, pp. 17800–17805.

MacGrogan, G.

Malakhov, K.

N. V. Chernomyrdin, I. Dolganova, S.-I. Beshplav, G. Komandin, I. V. Reshetov, A. A. Potapov, V. Tuchin, K. Zaytsev, P. V. Alexandrova, K. Malakhov, P. V. Nikitin, A. V. Kosyr’kova, and G. Musina, Differentiation of healthy and malignant brain tissues using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (2019), p. 5.

Manero, F.

J. L. Güell, M. A. El Husseiny, F. Manero, O. Gris, and D. Elies, “Historical Review and Update of Surgical Treatment for Corneal Endothelial Diseases,” Ophthalmol. Ther. 3(1-2), 1–15 (2014).
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A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Marcott, C.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159, 567–577 (2008).
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Marczak, J.

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Góra, L. Tymińska-Widmer, J. Marczak, and A. Kowalczyk, “Optical coherence tomography in art diagnostics and restoration,” Appl. Phys. A 92(1), 1–9 (2008).
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Markl, D.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
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Marle, J. V.

D. M. M. D. Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. D. Kinkelder, J. V. Marle, T. G. V. Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(01), 1–10 (2010).
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Matts, P. J.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159, 567–577 (2008).
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Maughan Jones, C.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Mavarani, L.

Mazza, R.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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McLaughlin, R. A.

Meloni, S.

Merchant, W. J.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
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Miles, R. E.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
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Mills, D.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Modregger, P.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Munro, P. R. T.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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N. V. Chernomyrdin, I. Dolganova, S.-I. Beshplav, G. Komandin, I. V. Reshetov, A. A. Potapov, V. Tuchin, K. Zaytsev, P. V. Alexandrova, K. Malakhov, P. V. Nikitin, A. V. Kosyr’kova, and G. Musina, Differentiation of healthy and malignant brain tissues using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (2019), p. 5.

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N. V. Chernomyrdin, I. Dolganova, S.-I. Beshplav, G. Komandin, I. V. Reshetov, A. A. Potapov, V. Tuchin, K. Zaytsev, P. V. Alexandrova, K. Malakhov, P. V. Nikitin, A. V. Kosyr’kova, and G. Musina, Differentiation of healthy and malignant brain tissues using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (2019), p. 5.

Noble, P. B.

Nowroozi, B.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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O’Kelly, P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, and P. C. Ashworth, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
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Olivo, A.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Palacios, J.

C. Seco-Martorell, V. Lopez-Dominguez, G. Arauz-Garofalo, A. Redo-Sanchez, J. Palacios, and J. Tejada, Goya’s artwork imaging with Terahertz waves (2013), Vol. 21, pp. 17800–17805.

Pan, Y.

Parrott, E. P. J.

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
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Pepper, M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
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R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
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J. Wang, Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz imaging to evaluate scar treatment strategies: silicone gel sheeting,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(7), 3584–3590 (2019).
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Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
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Pinder, S. E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, and P. C. Ashworth, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
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Piquette, K. E.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
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Pircher, M.

Planken, P. C. M.

Potapov, A. A.

N. V. Chernomyrdin, I. Dolganova, S.-I. Beshplav, G. Komandin, I. V. Reshetov, A. A. Potapov, V. Tuchin, K. Zaytsev, P. V. Alexandrova, K. Malakhov, P. V. Nikitin, A. V. Kosyr’kova, and G. Musina, Differentiation of healthy and malignant brain tissues using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (2019), p. 5.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, and P. C. Ashworth, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
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A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
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Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
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R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
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Quirk, B. C.

Rawlings, A. V.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159, 567–577 (2008).
[Crossref]

Redo-Sanchez, A.

C. Seco-Martorell, V. Lopez-Dominguez, G. Arauz-Garofalo, A. Redo-Sanchez, J. Palacios, and J. Tejada, Goya’s artwork imaging with Terahertz waves (2013), Vol. 21, pp. 17800–17805.

Reshetov, I. V.

N. V. Chernomyrdin, I. Dolganova, S.-I. Beshplav, G. Komandin, I. V. Reshetov, A. A. Potapov, V. Tuchin, K. Zaytsev, P. V. Alexandrova, K. Malakhov, P. V. Nikitin, A. V. Kosyr’kova, and G. Musina, Differentiation of healthy and malignant brain tissues using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (2019), p. 5.

Rouba, B.

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Góra, L. Tymińska-Widmer, J. Marczak, and A. Kowalczyk, “Optical coherence tomography in art diagnostics and restoration,” Appl. Phys. A 92(1), 1–9 (2008).
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Sampson, D. D.

Sassoon, D. J.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
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Sayre, J. W.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
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Schneider, A.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Seco-Martorell, C.

C. Seco-Martorell, V. Lopez-Dominguez, G. Arauz-Garofalo, A. Redo-Sanchez, J. Palacios, and J. Tejada, Goya’s artwork imaging with Terahertz waves (2013), Vol. 21, pp. 17800–17805.

Shen, Y.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
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Sieg, A.

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159, 567–577 (2008).
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Singh, R. S.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
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Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smith, M. A.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
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Southern, J. F.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
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Stantchev, R. I.

Stevenson, A.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stojadinovic, A.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, Q.

J. Wang, Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz imaging to evaluate scar treatment strategies: silicone gel sheeting,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(7), 3584–3590 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sung, S.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sylwestrzak, M.

M. Iwanicka, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Sylwestrzak, and P. Targowski, Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real time monitoring of consolidation of the paint layer in Hinterglasmalerei objects, SPIE Optical Metrology (SPIE, 2011), Vol. 8084.

Taday, P. F.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

Targowski, P.

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Góra, L. Tymińska-Widmer, J. Marczak, and A. Kowalczyk, “Optical coherence tomography in art diagnostics and restoration,” Appl. Phys. A 92(1), 1–9 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Iwanicka, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Sylwestrzak, and P. Targowski, Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real time monitoring of consolidation of the paint layer in Hinterglasmalerei objects, SPIE Optical Metrology (SPIE, 2011), Vol. 8084.

Taylor, Z. D.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G. J.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tejada, J.

C. Seco-Martorell, V. Lopez-Dominguez, G. Arauz-Garofalo, A. Redo-Sanchez, J. Palacios, and J. Tejada, Goya’s artwork imaging with Terahertz waves (2013), Vol. 21, pp. 17800–17805.

Terras, M.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tewari, P.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toth, M. B.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tuchin, V.

N. V. Chernomyrdin, I. Dolganova, S.-I. Beshplav, G. Komandin, I. V. Reshetov, A. A. Potapov, V. Tuchin, K. Zaytsev, P. V. Alexandrova, K. Malakhov, P. V. Nikitin, A. V. Kosyr’kova, and G. Musina, Differentiation of healthy and malignant brain tissues using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (2019), p. 5.

Tyminska-Widmer, L.

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Góra, L. Tymińska-Widmer, J. Marczak, and A. Kowalczyk, “Optical coherence tomography in art diagnostics and restoration,” Appl. Phys. A 92(1), 1–9 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref]

van Exter, M.

Venugopal, B.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Villiger, M.

Wallace, V.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wallace, V. P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, and P. C. Ashworth, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref]

Walther, J.

Wang, J.

Williams, B. M.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wogelius, R. A.

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zaytsev, K.

N. V. Chernomyrdin, I. Dolganova, S.-I. Beshplav, G. Komandin, I. V. Reshetov, A. A. Potapov, V. Tuchin, K. Zaytsev, P. V. Alexandrova, K. Malakhov, P. V. Nikitin, A. V. Kosyr’kova, and G. Musina, Differentiation of healthy and malignant brain tissues using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (2019), p. 5.

Zeitler, J. A.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zimmer, T.

Zinov’ev, N. N.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Góra, L. Tymińska-Widmer, J. Marczak, and A. Kowalczyk, “Optical coherence tomography in art diagnostics and restoration,” Appl. Phys. A 92(1), 1–9 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

J. M. Crowther, A. Sieg, P. Blenkiron, C. Marcott, P. J. Matts, J. R. Kaczvinsky, and A. V. Rawlings, “Measuring the effects of topical moisturizers on changes in stratum corneum thickness, water gradients and hydration in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159, 567–577 (2008).
[Crossref]

Circulation (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref]

Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. O. Eghrari and J. D. Gottsch, “Fuchs’ corneal dystrophy,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 5(2), 147–159 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heritage Sci. (1)

A. Gibson, K. E. Piquette, U. Bergmann, W. Christens-Barry, G. Davis, M. Endrizzi, S. Fan, S. Farsiu, A. Fitzgerald, J. Griffiths, C. Jones, G. Li, P. L. Manning, C. Maughan Jones, R. Mazza, D. Mills, P. Modregger, P. R. T. Munro, A. Olivo, A. Stevenson, B. Venugopal, V. Wallace, R. A. Wogelius, M. B. Toth, and M. Terras, “An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms,” Heritage Sci. 6(1), 7 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (2)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, and P. C. Ashworth, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. M. M. D. Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. D. Kinkelder, J. V. Marle, T. G. V. Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Optical phantoms of varying geometry based on thin building blocks with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(01), 1–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Biophotonics (1)

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Pharm. Sci. (2)

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nat. Rev. Cancer (1)

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmol. Ther. (1)

J. L. Güell, M. A. El Husseiny, F. Manero, O. Gris, and D. Elies, “Historical Review and Update of Surgical Treatment for Corneal Endothelial Diseases,” Ophthalmol. Ther. 3(1-2), 1–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref]

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

M. Iwanicka, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Sylwestrzak, and P. Targowski, Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real time monitoring of consolidation of the paint layer in Hinterglasmalerei objects, SPIE Optical Metrology (SPIE, 2011), Vol. 8084.

N. V. Chernomyrdin, I. Dolganova, S.-I. Beshplav, G. Komandin, I. V. Reshetov, A. A. Potapov, V. Tuchin, K. Zaytsev, P. V. Alexandrova, K. Malakhov, P. V. Nikitin, A. V. Kosyr’kova, and G. Musina, Differentiation of healthy and malignant brain tissues using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (2019), p. 5.

M. Heyden, S. Ebbinghaus, and M Havenith, “Terahertz Spectroscopy as a Tool to Study Hydration Dynamics,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, 2010).

C. Seco-Martorell, V. Lopez-Dominguez, G. Arauz-Garofalo, A. Redo-Sanchez, J. Palacios, and J. Tejada, Goya’s artwork imaging with Terahertz waves (2013), Vol. 21, pp. 17800–17805.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Photograph of the front surface of the silicone main test object. The white areas are the embedded highly-scattering silicone-TiO2 contrast objects. Areas A, B and C were the locations where the depth of the silicone back interface was calculated and represent the full thickness of the test object. Areas D and E were the locations where the depth of the embedded square was calculated. The red dotted line represents the profile region along which the depth profile of the rectangle was calculated. (b) An en-face THz image, which takes the absolute value of the integral of the reflected THz pulse over a time range of 12 ps for each time-domain waveform and assigns that value to the pixel to form the 2D image and (c) several of the OCT en-face images manually stitched together. The image property used for each pixel in the OCT image was the maximum of the log intensity of the signal returned from the embedded objects.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Illustration of the THz pulse incident on the front surface of the silicone at 30° and refracted due to the refractive index nTHz before being reflected from the embedded TiO2 layer at location 1 and silicone back interface at location 2. The angle ϑ2 is unknown in this case since it depends on nTHz, and nTHz is assumed to be unknown. The time-of-flight for a normally incident THz pulse is shown as tTHz, while the measured time-of-flight of the THz pulse, incident at 30° is tTHz30.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic flowchart of the iterative algorithm to determine the depth and refractive index values from two locations using OCT and THz images, accounting for the angle of incidence of the THz pulse if it is non-normal. The algorithm assumes initial values for the refractive index at OCT wavelengths and THz frequencies and successively updates these and determines the depth of the layers simultaneously.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Plots showing the convergence of the algorithm over 9 iterations for (a) the THz time-of-flight for region A (circles) and region E (triangles). A full line is plotted at tTHz = 15.665 ps and dotted line at tTHz = 6.647 ps showing the convergence value. (b) The depth determined from each iteration of the algorithm for region A (circles) and region E (triangles) with the full line at d1 = 3.116 mm, and dotted line at d2 = 1.296 mm. (c) The refractive index from the algorithm after each iteration for nTHz (circles) and nOCT (triangles), with a full line at nTHz = 1.517 and nOCT = 1.418 showing convergence.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Side-view photograph of the test object showing the embedded square silicone-TiO2 test object. THz and OCT were incident on the top surface. (b) B-scan from the OCT image of the test object, showing a scattered signal from the top surface of the test object and increased scatter from the embedded square. (c) B-scan THz image showing reflections from the top surface of the test object, the top surface of the embedded square, and the bottom surface of the test object. (d) The co-registered overlay of the THz and OCT images showing the agreement between the two imaging methods, where the OCT image is in ‘hot’ colourmap for contrast.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Side-view photograph of the test object showing the embedded rectangular test object. THz and OCT were incident on the top surface. (b) OCT B-scan image, along the profile shown by the red dotted line in Fig. 1, showing a reflection from the top surface of the test object and increased scatter from the embedded rectangle. (c) B-scan THz image showing reflections from the top surface of the test object, the top surface of the embedded rectangle, and the bottom surface of the test object. (d) The co-registered overlay of the THz and OCT B-scan images showing the agreement between the two imaging methods, where the OCT image is in ‘hot’ colourmap for contrast.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Graph showing the depth of the embedded rectangle along the profile marked in Fig. 1 with a red dotted line. The depth of the layer identified from the THz image is shown as blue triangles, while the depth obtained with OCT images is shown as red circles. ‘OCT 1’ represents the data from the left hand OCT image in Fig. 6(b), while ‘OCT 2’ represents the data from the right hand OCT image

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Comparison of the OCT and THz imaging systems

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Table 2. Values of the depth and refractive index calculated from the iterative algorithm for each of the ten unique pair combinations for the 5 locations A, B, C, D and E. The mean of each value is calculated and presented with the standard deviation. These calculated values are compared to the measured values and the percentage difference between the measured and calculated is given in the bottom row of the table.

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Table 3. The impact of the initial starting values of the refractive index for OCT (nOCT) and THz (nTHz) on the outcome of the algorithm for the case example of pair combination [A,E]. A percentage difference was calculated for each value compared to the measured value. Note that the measured values for d1 and d2 are 3.05 mm and 1.27 mm respectively for regions A and E. The measured refractive index for nOCT is 1.43, and measured refractive index for THz, nTHz, is 1.53.

Equations (12)

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t O C T 1 = d 1 n O C T / c
t O C T 2 = d 2 n O C T / c
t T H z 1 = d 1 n T H z / c
t T H z 2 = d 2 n T H z / c
n O C T = c ( t O C T 1 + t O C T 2 ) d 1 + d 2
n T H z = c ( t T H z 1 + t T H z 2 ) d 1 + d 2
d 1 = c ( t O C T 1 + t T H z 1 ) n O C T + n T H z
d 2 = c ( t O C T 2 + t T H z 2 ) n O C T + n T H z
ϑ 2 = sin 1 ( sin ( 30 ) / sin ( 30 ) n T H z n T H z )
t T H z = t T H z 30 cos ( sin 1 ( sin ( 30 ) / sin ( 30 ) n T H z n T H z ) )
n T H z = n T H z ( t T H z / t T H z t O C T t O C T )
t T H z ( i + 1 ) = t T H z 30 . cos ( sin 1 ( ( sin ( 30 ) . t O C T ) / ( sin ( 30 ) . t O C T ) ( t T H z ( i ) . n O C T ) ( t T H z ( i ) . n O C T ) ) )

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