Abstract

Disease diagnosis in low-resource settings can be challenging due to the lack of equipment and trained personnel required for histologic analysis. In this paper, we have developed a smartphone-based epifluorescence microscope (SeFM) for imaging fresh tissues at sub-cellular resolution. SeFM provides similar resolution and field of view (FOV) as those used during histologic analysis. The SeFM device achieved the lateral resolution of 0.57 µm and provided microscopy images over a sample area larger than 500 µm. The material cost was low, approximately $3,000. Preliminary images of human pancreatic tumor specimens clearly visualized cellular details. Quantitative analysis showed that using an excess dose of a chemotherapy drug significantly reduced the tumor-specific fluorescence signal, confirming the specificity of the drug and the detection potential of SeFM.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. H. Kim, H. G. Joo, T. H. Kim, and Y. G. Ju, “A Smartphone-based Fluorescence Microscope Utilizing an External Phone Camera Lens Module,” BioChip J. 9(4), 285–292 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. Y. Li, “Miniature Optofluidic Darkfield Microscope for Biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9198, 91980G (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. J. Sowerby, J. A. Crump, M. C. Johnstone, K. L. Krause, and P. C. Hill, “Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 94(1), 227–230 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. A. Switz, M. V. D’Ambrosio, and D. A. Fletcher, “Low-Cost Mobile Phone Microscopy with a Reversed Mobile Phone Camera Lens,” PLoS One 9(5), e95330 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Jung, J. H. Choi, S. Kim, S. Ryu, W. Lee, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Smartphone-based multi-contrast microscope using color-multiplexed illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7564 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. X. Q. Hong, V. K. Nagarajan, D. H. Mugler, and B. Yu, “Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging,” J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci. 9(5), 1650046 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. I. I. Bogoch, H. C. Koydemir, D. Tseng, R. K. D. Ephraim, E. Duah, J. Tee, J. R. Andrews, and A. Ozcan, “Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96(6), 1468–1471 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. M. Knowlton, I. Sencan, Y. Aytar, J. Khoory, M. M. Heeney, I. C. Ghiran, and S. Tasoglu, “Sickle cell detection using a smartphone,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15022 (2015).
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  13. Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
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  14. D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066018 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. B. Yin, L. P. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. D. S. Franca, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, and V. Shah, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers–first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).
  20. B. Carney, S. Kossatz, and T. Reiner, “Molecular imaging of PARP,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(7), 1025–1030 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Reiner, J. Lacy, E. J. Keliher, K. S. Yang, A. Ullal, R. H. Kohler, C. Vinegoni, and R. Weissleder, “Imaging Therapeutic PARP Inhibition In Vivo through Bioorthogonally Developed Companion Imaging Agents,” Neoplasia 14(3), 169–IN3 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

2019 (1)

C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Carney, S. Kossatz, and T. Reiner, “Molecular imaging of PARP,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(7), 1025–1030 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. I. Bogoch, H. C. Koydemir, D. Tseng, R. K. D. Ephraim, E. Duah, J. Tee, J. R. Andrews, and A. Ozcan, “Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96(6), 1468–1471 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Jung, J. H. Choi, S. Kim, S. Ryu, W. Lee, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Smartphone-based multi-contrast microscope using color-multiplexed illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7564 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. B. Yin, L. P. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

X. Q. Hong, V. K. Nagarajan, D. H. Mugler, and B. Yu, “Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging,” J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci. 9(5), 1650046 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Sowerby, J. A. Crump, M. C. Johnstone, K. L. Krause, and P. C. Hill, “Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 94(1), 227–230 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

J. H. Kim, H. G. Joo, T. H. Kim, and Y. G. Ju, “A Smartphone-based Fluorescence Microscope Utilizing an External Phone Camera Lens Module,” BioChip J. 9(4), 285–292 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Knowlton, I. Sencan, Y. Aytar, J. Khoory, M. M. Heeney, I. C. Ghiran, and S. Tasoglu, “Sickle cell detection using a smartphone,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15022 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

S. Roy, L. Pantanowitz, M. Amin, R. R. Seethala, A. Ishtiaque, S. A. Yousem, A. V. Parwani, I. Cucoranu, and D. J. Hartman, “Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography,” J. Pathol. Inform. 5(1), 24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Li, “Miniature Optofluidic Darkfield Microscope for Biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9198, 91980G (2014).
[Crossref]

N. A. Switz, M. V. D’Ambrosio, and D. A. Fletcher, “Low-Cost Mobile Phone Microscopy with a Reversed Mobile Phone Camera Lens,” PLoS One 9(5), e95330 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066018 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Reiner, J. Lacy, E. J. Keliher, K. S. Yang, A. Ullal, R. H. Kohler, C. Vinegoni, and R. Weissleder, “Imaging Therapeutic PARP Inhibition In Vivo through Bioorthogonally Developed Companion Imaging Agents,” Neoplasia 14(3), 169–IN3 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahsen, O. O.

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Amerson, E.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amin, M.

S. Roy, L. Pantanowitz, M. Amin, R. R. Seethala, A. Ishtiaque, S. A. Yousem, A. V. Parwani, I. Cucoranu, and D. J. Hartman, “Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography,” J. Pathol. Inform. 5(1), 24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andrews, J. R.

I. I. Bogoch, H. C. Koydemir, D. Tseng, R. K. D. Ephraim, E. Duah, J. Tee, J. R. Andrews, and A. Ozcan, “Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96(6), 1468–1471 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aytar, Y.

S. M. Knowlton, I. Sencan, Y. Aytar, J. Khoory, M. M. Heeney, I. C. Ghiran, and S. Tasoglu, “Sickle cell detection using a smartphone,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15022 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bar, A.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Benveniste, A. P.

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birur, P.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Bishop, J.

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bogoch, I. I.

I. I. Bogoch, H. C. Koydemir, D. Tseng, R. K. D. Ephraim, E. Duah, J. Tee, J. R. Andrews, and A. Ozcan, “Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96(6), 1468–1471 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bombonato, C.

C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
[Crossref]

Borowsky, A. D.

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brand, C.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. D. S. Franca, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, and V. Shah, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers–first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Brooker, J. S.

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burbano, J.

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[Crossref]

Buziba, N.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bwana, M.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cable, A. E.

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carney, B.

B. Carney, S. Kossatz, and T. Reiner, “Molecular imaging of PARP,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(7), 1025–1030 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. D. S. Franca, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, and V. Shah, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers–first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Chan, R. Y. L.

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, N.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. B. Yin, L. P. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. H.

D. Jung, J. H. Choi, S. Kim, S. Ryu, W. Lee, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Smartphone-based multi-contrast microscope using color-multiplexed illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Connolly, J. L.

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cortazar, B.

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[Crossref]

Crump, J. A.

S. J. Sowerby, J. A. Crump, M. C. Johnstone, K. L. Krause, and P. C. Hill, “Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 94(1), 227–230 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cucoranu, I.

S. Roy, L. Pantanowitz, M. Amin, R. R. Seethala, A. Ishtiaque, S. A. Yousem, A. V. Parwani, I. Cucoranu, and D. J. Hartman, “Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography,” J. Pathol. Inform. 5(1), 24 (2014).
[Crossref]

D’Ambrosio, M. V.

N. A. Switz, M. V. D’Ambrosio, and D. A. Fletcher, “Low-Cost Mobile Phone Microscopy with a Reversed Mobile Phone Camera Lens,” PLoS One 9(5), e95330 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Souza França, P. D.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Demos, S. G.

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
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Ding, H.

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dobbs, J. L.

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Duah, E.

I. I. Bogoch, H. C. Koydemir, D. Tseng, R. K. D. Ephraim, E. Duah, J. Tee, J. R. Andrews, and A. Ozcan, “Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96(6), 1468–1471 (2017).
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C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
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Ephraim, R. K. D.

I. I. Bogoch, H. C. Koydemir, D. Tseng, R. K. D. Ephraim, E. Duah, J. Tee, J. R. Andrews, and A. Ozcan, “Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96(6), 1468–1471 (2017).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
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Fereidouni, F.

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
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N. A. Switz, M. V. D’Ambrosio, and D. A. Fletcher, “Low-Cost Mobile Phone Microscopy with a Reversed Mobile Phone Camera Lens,” PLoS One 9(5), e95330 (2014).
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S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. D. S. Franca, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, and V. Shah, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers–first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
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C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
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Gareau, D.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066018 (2012).
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Ghiran, I. C.

S. M. Knowlton, I. Sencan, Y. Aytar, J. Khoory, M. M. Heeney, I. C. Ghiran, and S. Tasoglu, “Sickle cell detection using a smartphone,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15022 (2015).
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Ghossein, R. A.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Glaser, A. K.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. B. Yin, L. P. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
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Gönen, M.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Gorocs, Z.

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harmany, Z. T.

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
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Hartman, D. J.

S. Roy, L. Pantanowitz, M. Amin, R. R. Seethala, A. Ishtiaque, S. A. Yousem, A. V. Parwani, I. Cucoranu, and D. J. Hartman, “Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography,” J. Pathol. Inform. 5(1), 24 (2014).
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Hedne, N.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Heeney, M. M.

S. M. Knowlton, I. Sencan, Y. Aytar, J. Khoory, M. M. Heeney, I. C. Ghiran, and S. Tasoglu, “Sickle cell detection using a smartphone,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15022 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hill, P. C.

S. J. Sowerby, J. A. Crump, M. C. Johnstone, K. L. Krause, and P. C. Hill, “Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 94(1), 227–230 (2016).
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Hong, X. Q.

X. Q. Hong, V. K. Nagarajan, D. H. Mugler, and B. Yu, “Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging,” J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci. 9(5), 1650046 (2016).
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Ishtiaque, A.

S. Roy, L. Pantanowitz, M. Amin, R. R. Seethala, A. Ishtiaque, S. A. Yousem, A. V. Parwani, I. Cucoranu, and D. J. Hartman, “Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography,” J. Pathol. Inform. 5(1), 24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jacques, S.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Johnson, N. B.

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johnstone, M. C.

S. J. Sowerby, J. A. Crump, M. C. Johnstone, K. L. Krause, and P. C. Hill, “Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 94(1), 227–230 (2016).
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Joo, C.

D. Jung, J. H. Choi, S. Kim, S. Ryu, W. Lee, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Smartphone-based multi-contrast microscope using color-multiplexed illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7564 (2017).
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Joo, H. G.

J. H. Kim, H. G. Joo, T. H. Kim, and Y. G. Ju, “A Smartphone-based Fluorescence Microscope Utilizing an External Phone Camera Lens Module,” BioChip J. 9(4), 285–292 (2015).
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Ju, Y. G.

J. H. Kim, H. G. Joo, T. H. Kim, and Y. G. Ju, “A Smartphone-based Fluorescence Microscope Utilizing an External Phone Camera Lens Module,” BioChip J. 9(4), 285–292 (2015).
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Jung, D.

D. Jung, J. H. Choi, S. Kim, S. Ryu, W. Lee, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Smartphone-based multi-contrast microscope using color-multiplexed illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Keliher, E. J.

T. Reiner, J. Lacy, E. J. Keliher, K. S. Yang, A. Ullal, R. H. Kohler, C. Vinegoni, and R. Weissleder, “Imaging Therapeutic PARP Inhibition In Vivo through Bioorthogonally Developed Companion Imaging Agents,” Neoplasia 14(3), 169–IN3 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khoory, J.

S. M. Knowlton, I. Sencan, Y. Aytar, J. Khoory, M. M. Heeney, I. C. Ghiran, and S. Tasoglu, “Sickle cell detection using a smartphone,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15022 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim, H. G. Joo, T. H. Kim, and Y. G. Ju, “A Smartphone-based Fluorescence Microscope Utilizing an External Phone Camera Lens Module,” BioChip J. 9(4), 285–292 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

D. Jung, J. H. Choi, S. Kim, S. Ryu, W. Lee, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Smartphone-based multi-contrast microscope using color-multiplexed illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. H.

J. H. Kim, H. G. Joo, T. H. Kim, and Y. G. Ju, “A Smartphone-based Fluorescence Microscope Utilizing an External Phone Camera Lens Module,” BioChip J. 9(4), 285–292 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kintner, J. A.

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
[Crossref]

Knowlton, S. M.

S. M. Knowlton, I. Sencan, Y. Aytar, J. Khoory, M. M. Heeney, I. C. Ghiran, and S. Tasoglu, “Sickle cell detection using a smartphone,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15022 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kohler, R. H.

T. Reiner, J. Lacy, E. J. Keliher, K. S. Yang, A. Ullal, R. H. Kohler, C. Vinegoni, and R. Weissleder, “Imaging Therapeutic PARP Inhibition In Vivo through Bioorthogonally Developed Companion Imaging Agents,” Neoplasia 14(3), 169–IN3 (2012).
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Kossatz, S.

B. Carney, S. Kossatz, and T. Reiner, “Molecular imaging of PARP,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(7), 1025–1030 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. D. S. Franca, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, and V. Shah, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers–first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Koydemir, H. C.

I. I. Bogoch, H. C. Koydemir, D. Tseng, R. K. D. Ephraim, E. Duah, J. Tee, J. R. Andrews, and A. Ozcan, “Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96(6), 1468–1471 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krause, K. L.

S. J. Sowerby, J. A. Crump, M. C. Johnstone, K. L. Krause, and P. C. Hill, “Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 94(1), 227–230 (2016).
[Crossref]

Krishnamurthy, S.

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuerer, H. M.

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuriakose, M. A.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Kyakwera, C.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kyrgidis, A.

C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lacy, J.

T. Reiner, J. Lacy, E. J. Keliher, K. S. Yang, A. Ullal, R. H. Kohler, C. Vinegoni, and R. Weissleder, “Imaging Therapeutic PARP Inhibition In Vivo through Bioorthogonally Developed Companion Imaging Agents,” Neoplasia 14(3), 169–IN3 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laker, M.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

LeBoit, P.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lechpammer, M.

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. S.

D. Jung, J. H. Choi, S. Kim, S. Ryu, W. Lee, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Smartphone-based multi-contrast microscope using color-multiplexed illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

D. Jung, J. H. Choi, S. Kim, S. Ryu, W. Lee, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Smartphone-based multi-contrast microscope using color-multiplexed illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Levenson, R.

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Li, “Miniature Optofluidic Darkfield Microscope for Biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9198, 91980G (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. T. C.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. B. Yin, L. P. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
[Crossref]

Longo, C.

C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
[Crossref]

Martin, J.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mauguen, A.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. D. S. Franca, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, and V. Shah, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers–first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Maurer, T.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mbidde, E.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

McCalmont, T.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

McCarty, E. F.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. B. Yin, L. P. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
[Crossref]

McLeod, E.

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[Crossref]

McPherson, J. D.

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mirra, M.

C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
[Crossref]

Molena, D.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Mugler, D. H.

X. Q. Hong, V. K. Nagarajan, D. H. Mugler, and B. Yu, “Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging,” J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci. 9(5), 1650046 (2016).
[Crossref]

Musick, B.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muyindike, W.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nagarajan, V. K.

X. Q. Hong, V. K. Nagarajan, D. H. Mugler, and B. Yu, “Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging,” J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci. 9(5), 1650046 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ozcan, A.

I. I. Bogoch, H. C. Koydemir, D. Tseng, R. K. D. Ephraim, E. Duah, J. Tee, J. R. Andrews, and A. Ozcan, “Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96(6), 1468–1471 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pampena, R.

C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pantanowitz, L.

S. Roy, L. Pantanowitz, M. Amin, R. R. Seethala, A. Ishtiaque, S. A. Yousem, A. V. Parwani, I. Cucoranu, and D. J. Hartman, “Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography,” J. Pathol. Inform. 5(1), 24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Parwani, A. V.

S. Roy, L. Pantanowitz, M. Amin, R. R. Seethala, A. Ishtiaque, S. A. Yousem, A. V. Parwani, I. Cucoranu, and D. J. Hartman, “Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography,” J. Pathol. Inform. 5(1), 24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Patel, S. G.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Pellacani, G.

C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
[Crossref]

Piana, S.

C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pirovano, G.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. D. S. Franca, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, and V. Shah, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers–first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Ragazzi, M.

C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ramanajinappa, R. D.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Rasband, W. S.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref]

Raucci, M.

C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
[Crossref]

Reder, N. P.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. B. Yin, L. P. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reiner, T.

B. Carney, S. Kossatz, and T. Reiner, “Molecular imaging of PARP,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(7), 1025–1030 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Reiner, J. Lacy, E. J. Keliher, K. S. Yang, A. Ullal, R. H. Kohler, C. Vinegoni, and R. Weissleder, “Imaging Therapeutic PARP Inhibition In Vivo through Bioorthogonally Developed Companion Imaging Agents,” Neoplasia 14(3), 169–IN3 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Richards-Kortum, R.

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roy, S.

S. Roy, L. Pantanowitz, M. Amin, R. R. Seethala, A. Ishtiaque, S. A. Yousem, A. V. Parwani, I. Cucoranu, and D. J. Hartman, “Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography,” J. Pathol. Inform. 5(1), 24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ruben, B.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ryu, S.

D. Jung, J. H. Choi, S. Kim, S. Ryu, W. Lee, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Smartphone-based multi-contrast microscope using color-multiplexed illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schmolze, D. B.

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schneider, C. A.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seethala, R. R.

S. Roy, L. Pantanowitz, M. Amin, R. R. Seethala, A. Ishtiaque, S. A. Yousem, A. V. Parwani, I. Cucoranu, and D. J. Hartman, “Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography,” J. Pathol. Inform. 5(1), 24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sencan, I.

S. M. Knowlton, I. Sencan, Y. Aytar, J. Khoory, M. M. Heeney, I. C. Ghiran, and S. Tasoglu, “Sickle cell detection using a smartphone,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15022 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shah, V.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. D. S. Franca, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, and V. Shah, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers–first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Sheikine, Y.

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shen, D. J.

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sihag, S.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Simpson, E.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Snaveley, N.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sowerby, S. J.

S. J. Sowerby, J. A. Crump, M. C. Johnstone, K. L. Krause, and P. C. Hill, “Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 94(1), 227–230 (2016).
[Crossref]

Strome, A. L.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. D. S. Franca, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, and V. Shah, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers–first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Strome, M.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Sunny, S. P.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. D. S. Franca, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, and V. Shah, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers–first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Suresh, A.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Swanson, N.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Switz, N. A.

N. A. Switz, M. V. D’Ambrosio, and D. A. Fletcher, “Low-Cost Mobile Phone Microscopy with a Reversed Mobile Phone Camera Lens,” PLoS One 9(5), e95330 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y. K.

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tasoglu, S.

S. M. Knowlton, I. Sencan, Y. Aytar, J. Khoory, M. M. Heeney, I. C. Ghiran, and S. Tasoglu, “Sickle cell detection using a smartphone,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15022 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tee, J.

I. I. Bogoch, H. C. Koydemir, D. Tseng, R. K. D. Ephraim, E. Duah, J. Tee, J. R. Andrews, and A. Ozcan, “Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96(6), 1468–1471 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tian, M.

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
[Crossref]

Todd, A.

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
[Crossref]

True, L. D.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. B. Yin, L. P. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tseng, D.

I. I. Bogoch, H. C. Koydemir, D. Tseng, R. K. D. Ephraim, E. Duah, J. Tee, J. R. Andrews, and A. Ozcan, “Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96(6), 1468–1471 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ullal, A.

T. Reiner, J. Lacy, E. J. Keliher, K. S. Yang, A. Ullal, R. H. Kohler, C. Vinegoni, and R. Weissleder, “Imaging Therapeutic PARP Inhibition In Vivo through Bioorthogonally Developed Companion Imaging Agents,” Neoplasia 14(3), 169–IN3 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vinegoni, C.

T. Reiner, J. Lacy, E. J. Keliher, K. S. Yang, A. Ullal, R. H. Kohler, C. Vinegoni, and R. Weissleder, “Imaging Therapeutic PARP Inhibition In Vivo through Bioorthogonally Developed Companion Imaging Agents,” Neoplasia 14(3), 169–IN3 (2012).
[Crossref]

Volberding, P.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wabinga, H.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. H.

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. B. Yin, L. P. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wei, L. P.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. B. Yin, L. P. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weissleder, R.

T. Reiner, J. Lacy, E. J. Keliher, K. S. Yang, A. Ullal, R. H. Kohler, C. Vinegoni, and R. Weissleder, “Imaging Therapeutic PARP Inhibition In Vivo through Bioorthogonally Developed Companion Imaging Agents,” Neoplasia 14(3), 169–IN3 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wenger, M.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wools-Kaloustian, K.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. S.

T. Reiner, J. Lacy, E. J. Keliher, K. S. Yang, A. Ullal, R. H. Kohler, C. Vinegoni, and R. Weissleder, “Imaging Therapeutic PARP Inhibition In Vivo through Bioorthogonally Developed Companion Imaging Agents,” Neoplasia 14(3), 169–IN3 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yiannoutsos, C.

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yin, C. B.

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. B. Yin, L. P. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J. Y.

J. Y. Yoon, Smartphone Based Medical Diagnostics (Elsevier Science, 2019).

Yousem, S. A.

S. Roy, L. Pantanowitz, M. Amin, R. R. Seethala, A. Ishtiaque, S. A. Yousem, A. V. Parwani, I. Cucoranu, and D. J. Hartman, “Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography,” J. Pathol. Inform. 5(1), 24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.

X. Q. Hong, V. K. Nagarajan, D. H. Mugler, and B. Yu, “Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging,” J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci. 9(5), 1650046 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, D. K.

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. D. S. Franca, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, and V. Shah, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers–first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2)

S. J. Sowerby, J. A. Crump, M. C. Johnstone, K. L. Krause, and P. C. Hill, “Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 94(1), 227–230 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. I. Bogoch, H. C. Koydemir, D. Tseng, R. K. D. Ephraim, E. Duah, J. Tee, J. R. Andrews, and A. Ozcan, “Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96(6), 1468–1471 (2017).
[Crossref]

BioChip J. (1)

J. H. Kim, H. G. Joo, T. H. Kim, and Y. G. Ju, “A Smartphone-based Fluorescence Microscope Utilizing an External Phone Camera Lens Module,” BioChip J. 9(4), 285–292 (2015).
[Crossref]

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

C. Longo, R. Pampena, C. Bombonato, S. Gardini, S. Piana, M. Mirra, M. Raucci, A. Kyrgidis, G. Pellacani, and M. Ragazzi, “Diagnostic accuracy of ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinomas: a prospective study on 753 margins,” Br. J. Dermatol. 180(6), 1473–1480 (2019).
[Crossref]

Infect. Agents Cancer (1)

E. Amerson, N. Buziba, H. Wabinga, M. Wenger, M. Bwana, W. Muyindike, C. Kyakwera, M. Laker, E. Mbidde, C. Yiannoutsos, K. Wools-Kaloustian, B. Musick, P. LeBoit, T. McCalmont, B. Ruben, P. Volberding, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agents Cancer 7(S1), P6 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066018 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci. (1)

X. Q. Hong, V. K. Nagarajan, D. H. Mugler, and B. Yu, “Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging,” J. Innovative Opt. Health Sci. 9(5), 1650046 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Nucl. Med. (1)

B. Carney, S. Kossatz, and T. Reiner, “Molecular imaging of PARP,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(7), 1025–1030 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Pathol. Inform. (1)

S. Roy, L. Pantanowitz, M. Amin, R. R. Seethala, A. Ishtiaque, S. A. Yousem, A. V. Parwani, I. Cucoranu, and D. J. Hartman, “Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography,” J. Pathol. Inform. 5(1), 24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (1)

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Biomed. Eng. (2)

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. B. Yin, L. P. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Fereidouni, Z. T. Harmany, M. Tian, A. Todd, J. A. Kintner, J. D. McPherson, A. D. Borowsky, J. Bishop, M. Lechpammer, S. G. Demos, and R. Levenson, “Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(12), 957–966 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref]

Neoplasia (1)

T. Reiner, J. Lacy, E. J. Keliher, K. S. Yang, A. Ullal, R. H. Kohler, C. Vinegoni, and R. Weissleder, “Imaging Therapeutic PARP Inhibition In Vivo through Bioorthogonally Developed Companion Imaging Agents,” Neoplasia 14(3), 169–IN3 (2012).
[Crossref]

PLoS One (1)

N. A. Switz, M. V. D’Ambrosio, and D. A. Fletcher, “Low-Cost Mobile Phone Microscopy with a Reversed Mobile Phone Camera Lens,” PLoS One 9(5), e95330 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

Y. K. Tao, D. J. Shen, Y. Sheikine, O. O. Ahsen, H. H. Wang, D. B. Schmolze, N. B. Johnson, J. S. Brooker, A. E. Cable, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(43), 15304–15309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Z. Y. Li, “Miniature Optofluidic Darkfield Microscope for Biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9198, 91980G (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

D. Jung, J. H. Choi, S. Kim, S. Ryu, W. Lee, J. S. Lee, and C. Joo, “Smartphone-based multi-contrast microscope using color-multiplexed illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7564 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. M. Knowlton, I. Sencan, Y. Aytar, J. Khoory, M. M. Heeney, I. C. Ghiran, and S. Tasoglu, “Sickle cell detection using a smartphone,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15022 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. Y. Yoon, Smartphone Based Medical Diagnostics (Elsevier Science, 2019).

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. D. S. Franca, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, and V. Shah, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers–first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

S. Kossatz, G. Pirovano, P. D. De Souza França, A. L. Strome, S. P. Sunny, D. K. Zanoni, A. Mauguen, B. Carney, C. Brand, V. Shah, R. D. Ramanajinappa, N. Hedne, P. Birur, S. Sihag, R. A. Ghossein, M. Gönen, M. Strome, A. Suresh, D. Molena, M. A. Kuriakose, S. G. Patel, and T. Reiner, “PARP1 as a biomarker for early detection and intraoperative tumor delineation in epithelial cancers – first-in-human results,” bioRxiv, 663385 (2019).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the smartphone epifluorescence microscope (SeFM).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the microscopy optics and two conditions that ensure no vignetting.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Photo of the SeFM device (A) and representative image of the USAF resolution target.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Fluorescence microscopy image of the lens cleaning paper (A) and H&E-stained histology slide of swine esophagus (B).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Fluorescence microscopy images of a human pancreatic tumor specimen stained with tumor-specific fluorescence dye, PARPi-FL. arrows – collagen.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Fluorescence microscopy images of PARPi-FL-stained human pancreatic tumor specimens without and with the chemotherapy drug, Olaparib, as a blocking agent. arrows – collagen.

Tables (1)

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