Abstract

This work presents the first models of light sword intraocular lenses (LS IOLs) with angularly modulated optical power. We performed an experimental, comparative study with multifocal and extended depth of focus intraocular lenses, which are available on the market. The measurements conducted in an original optical bench were utilised for an analysis of point spread functions, elongated foci, modulation transfer functions and the areas defined by them. The LS IOL models perform homogeneous imaging in the whole range of designed defocus. The proposed concept of extended depth of focus seems to be promising for the development of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses capable of regaining fully functional vision.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  45. A. Alarcon, C. Canovas, R Rosen, H Weeber, and P. Piers, (Amo Groningen BV). Apparatus, systems and methods for improving visual outcomes for pseudophakic patients. WIPO (PCT) Patent no. WO/2016/087914, 2016.

2019 (2)

K. Petelczyc, A. Byszewska, E. Chojnacka, Z. Jaroszewicz, K. Kakarenko, A. Mira-Agudelo, A. Ostrowska-Spaleniak, A. Skladowska, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Rekas, “The Light Sword Lens - A novel method of presbyopia compensation: Pilot clinical study,” PLoS One 14(2), e0211823 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. de Carneros-Llorente A, M. de Carneros A, M. de Carneros-Llorente P, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Comparison of visual quality and subjective outcomes among three trifocal intraocular lenses and one bifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 45(5), 587–594 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

R. Ruiz-Mesa, A. Abengózar-Vela, and M. Ruiz-Santos, “A comparative study of the visual outcomes between a new trifocal and an extended depth of focus intraocular lens,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 28(2), 182–187 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Pedrotti, F. Carones, F. Aiello, R. Mastropasqua, E. Bruni, E. Bonacci, P. Talli, C. Nucci, C. Mariotti, and G. Marchini, “Comparative analysis of visual outcomes with 4 intraocular lenses: Monofocal, multifocal, and extended range of vision,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 44(2), 156–167 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Khoramnia R, T. M. Tandogan T, S. Liebling, G. Labuz, C. Y. Choi, and G. Auffarth, “Optical quality of three trifocal intraocular lens models. An optical bench comparison,” Ophthalmologe 115(1), 21–28 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Böhm, E. Hemkeppler, M. Herzog, S. Schönbrunn, N. de’Lorenzo, K. Petermann, and T. Kohnen, “Comparison of a panfocal and trifocal diffractive intraocular lens after femtosecond laser–assisted lens surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 44(12), 1454–1462 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Mencucci, E. Favuzza, O. Caporossi, A. Savastano, and S. Rizzo, “Comparative analysis of visual outcomes, reading skills, contrast sensitivity, and patient satisfaction with two models of trifocal diffractive intraocular lenses and an extended range of vision intraocular lens,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 256(10), 1913–1922 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. S. Akella and V. V. Juthani, “Extended depth of focus intraocular lenses for presbyopia,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 29(4), 318–322 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Vega, M. S. Millán, N. Garzón, I. Altemir, F. Poyales, and J. M. Larrosa, “Visual acuity of pseudophakic patients predicted from in-vitro measurements of intraocular lenses with different design,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(10), 4893–4906 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

J. L. Alió, J. L. Alió del Barrio, and A. Vega-Estrada, “Accommodative intraocular lenses: where are we and where we are going,” Eye and Vis. 4(1), 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. M. Rocha, “Extended depth of focus IOLs: The next chapter in refractive technology?” J. Refract. Surg. Surg. 33(3), 146–149 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. E. Moore, R. N. McNeely, E. E. Pazo, and T. C. B. Moore, “Rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lenses: preoperative considerations and postoperative outcomes,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 28(1), 9–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. N. McNeely, E. Pazo, A. Spence, O. Richoz, A. Nesbit, T. C. B. Moore, and J. E. Moore, “Visual quality and performance comparison between 2 refractive rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 43(8), 1020–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. S. Son, T. Tandogan, S. Liebing, P. R. Merz, C. Y. Choi, R. Khoramnia, and G. U. Auffarth, “In vitro optical quality measurements of three intraocular lens models having identical platform,” BMC Ophthalmol. 17(1), 108 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Baldassare and R. Bedi, “Symfony Extended Depth of Focus IOL: a Review of Reported Data,” Curr. Ophthalmol. Rep. 5(3), 225–231 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. A. Lenkowa, “Features of optical surfaces of multifocal diffractive-refractive eye lenses,” Optoelectron. Instrument. Proc. 53(5), 431–441 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Gundersen and R. Potvin, “Trifocal intraocular lenses: a comparison of the visual performance and quality of vision provided by two different lens designs,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 11, 1081–1087 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

A. Domínguez-Vicent, J. J. Esteve-Taboada, A. J. Del Águila-Carrasco, T. Ferrer-Blasco, and R. Montés-Micó, “In vitro optical quality comparison between the Mini WELL Ready progressive multifocal and the TECNIS Symfony,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(7), 1387–1397 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Acar B, E. Duman, and S. Simsek, “Clinical outcomes of a new diffractive trifocal intraocular lens with Enhanced Depth of Focus (EDOF),” BMC Ophthalmol. 16(1), 208 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Cochener, “Clinical outcomes of a new extended range of vision intraocular lens: International Multicenter Concerto Study,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 42(9), 1268–1275 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Mira-Agudelo, W. Torres-Sepúlveda, J. F. Barrera, R. Henao, N. Blocki, K. Petelczyc, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Compensation of presbyopia with the Light Sword Lens,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(15), 6870–6877 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Carson, Z. Xu, E. Alexander, M. Choi, Z. Zhao, and X. Hong, “Optical bench performance of 3 trifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 42(9), 1361–1367 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, M. Choi, Z. Xu, Z. Zhao, E. Alexander, and Y. Liu, “Optical bench performance of a novel trifocal intraocular lens compared with a multifocal intraocular lens,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 10, 1031–1038 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Yoo, J. Y. Kwag, I. S. Song, M. J. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, and H. Tchah, “Comparison of Visual Function after Implantation of Inferior Sector-Shaped Intraocular Lenses: Low-Add + 1.5 D Vs + 3.0 D,” Eur. J. Ophtalmol. 26(6), 607–611 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Alarcon, C. Canovas, R. Rosen, H. Weeber, L. Tsai, K. Hileman, and P. Piers, “Preclinical metrics to predict through-focus visual acuity for pseudophakic patients,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1877–1888 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

F. Vega, F. Alba-Bueno, M. S. Millán, C. Varón, M. A. Gil, and J. A. Buil, “Halo and through-focus performance of four diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(6), 3967–3975 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kakarenko, I. Ducin, K. Grabowiecki, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Mira-Agudelo, K. Petelczyc, A. Skladowska, and M. Sypek, “Assessment of imaging with extended depth-of-field by means of the light sword lens in terms of visual acuity scale,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1738–1748 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Grabner, R. E. Ang, and S. Vilupuru, “The small-aperture IC-8 intraocular lens: A new concept for added depth of focus in cataract patients,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(6), 1176–1184.e1 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

W. Hill, D. Carson, X. Hong, and M. Karakelle, “Optical bench performance of AcrySof IQ ReSTOR, AT LISA tri, and FineVision intraocular lenses,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 2105–2113 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ruiz-Alcocer, D. Madrid-Costa, S. García-Lázaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco, and R. Montés-Micó, “Optical performance of two new trifocal intraocular lenses: through-focus modulation transfer function and influence of pupil size,” Clin. Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(3), 271–276 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. Gatinel and Y. Houbrechts, “Comparison of bifocal and trifocal diffractive and refractive intraocular lenses using an optical bench,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 39(7), 1093–1099 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

R. Montes-Mico, N. Lopez-Gil, C. Perez-Vives, S. Bonaque, and T. Ferrer-Blasco, “In vitro optical performance of nonrotational symmetric and refractive–diffractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lenses: Impact of tilt and decentration,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 38(9), 1657–1663 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Alio, A. B. Plaza-Puche, J. Javaloy, M. J. Ayala, L. J. Moreno, and D. P. Piñero, “Comparison of a new refractive multifocal intraocular lens with an inferior segmental near add and a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” Ophthalmology 119(3), 555–563 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. A. Gallego, S. Bara, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Visual Strehl performance of IOL designs with extended depth of focus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(12), 1702–1707 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vis. 12(10), 12 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

K. Petelczyc, J. Ares García, S. Bara, Z. Jaroszewicz, K. Kakarenko, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Strehl ratios characterizing optical elements designed for presbyopia compensation,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8693–8699 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Petelczyc, S. Bara, A. Ciro-Lopez, Z. Jaroszewicz, K. Kakarenko, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Contrast transfer characteristics of the light sword optical element designed for presbyopia compensations,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 6, 11053 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

1998 (1)

N. E. S. Norrby, L. W. Grossman, E. P. Geraghty, C. F. Kreiner, M. Mihori, A. S. Patel, V. Portney, and D. M. Silberman, “Determining the imaging quality of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 24(5), 703–714 (1998).
[Crossref]

Abengózar-Vela, A.

R. Ruiz-Mesa, A. Abengózar-Vela, and M. Ruiz-Santos, “A comparative study of the visual outcomes between a new trifocal and an extended depth of focus intraocular lens,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 28(2), 182–187 (2018).
[Crossref]

Acar B, T.

T. Acar B, E. Duman, and S. Simsek, “Clinical outcomes of a new diffractive trifocal intraocular lens with Enhanced Depth of Focus (EDOF),” BMC Ophthalmol. 16(1), 208 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aiello, F.

E. Pedrotti, F. Carones, F. Aiello, R. Mastropasqua, E. Bruni, E. Bonacci, P. Talli, C. Nucci, C. Mariotti, and G. Marchini, “Comparative analysis of visual outcomes with 4 intraocular lenses: Monofocal, multifocal, and extended range of vision,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 44(2), 156–167 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akella, S. S.

S. S. Akella and V. V. Juthani, “Extended depth of focus intraocular lenses for presbyopia,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 29(4), 318–322 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alarcon, A.

A. Alarcon, C. Canovas, R. Rosen, H. Weeber, L. Tsai, K. Hileman, and P. Piers, “Preclinical metrics to predict through-focus visual acuity for pseudophakic patients,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1877–1888 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Alarcon, C. Canovas, R Rosen, H Weeber, and P. Piers, (Amo Groningen BV). Apparatus, systems and methods for improving visual outcomes for pseudophakic patients. WIPO (PCT) Patent no. WO/2016/087914, 2016.

Alba-Bueno, F.

F. Vega, F. Alba-Bueno, M. S. Millán, C. Varón, M. A. Gil, and J. A. Buil, “Halo and through-focus performance of four diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 56(6), 3967–3975 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alexander, E.

D. Carson, Z. Xu, E. Alexander, M. Choi, Z. Zhao, and X. Hong, “Optical bench performance of 3 trifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 42(9), 1361–1367 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, M. Choi, Z. Xu, Z. Zhao, E. Alexander, and Y. Liu, “Optical bench performance of a novel trifocal intraocular lens compared with a multifocal intraocular lens,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 10, 1031–1038 (2016).
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K. Petelczyc, J. Ares García, S. Bara, Z. Jaroszewicz, K. Kakarenko, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Strehl ratios characterizing optical elements designed for presbyopia compensation,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8693–8699 (2011).
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W. Hill, D. Carson, X. Hong, and M. Karakelle, “Optical bench performance of AcrySof IQ ReSTOR, AT LISA tri, and FineVision intraocular lenses,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 2105–2113 (2014).
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Y. Khoramnia R, T. M. Tandogan T, S. Liebling, G. Labuz, C. Y. Choi, and G. Auffarth, “Optical quality of three trifocal intraocular lens models. An optical bench comparison,” Ophthalmologe 115(1), 21–28 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. S. Son, T. Tandogan, S. Liebing, P. R. Merz, C. Y. Choi, R. Khoramnia, and G. U. Auffarth, “In vitro optical quality measurements of three intraocular lens models having identical platform,” BMC Ophthalmol. 17(1), 108 (2017).
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D. Carson, Z. Xu, E. Alexander, M. Choi, Z. Zhao, and X. Hong, “Optical bench performance of 3 trifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 42(9), 1361–1367 (2016).
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S. Lee, M. Choi, Z. Xu, Z. Zhao, E. Alexander, and Y. Liu, “Optical bench performance of a novel trifocal intraocular lens compared with a multifocal intraocular lens,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 10, 1031–1038 (2016).
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K. Petelczyc, S. Bara, A. Ciro-Lopez, Z. Jaroszewicz, K. Kakarenko, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Contrast transfer characteristics of the light sword optical element designed for presbyopia compensations,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 6, 11053 (2011).
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R. Mencucci, E. Favuzza, O. Caporossi, A. Savastano, and S. Rizzo, “Comparative analysis of visual outcomes, reading skills, contrast sensitivity, and patient satisfaction with two models of trifocal diffractive intraocular lenses and an extended range of vision intraocular lens,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 256(10), 1913–1922 (2018).
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J. Ruiz-Alcocer, D. Madrid-Costa, S. García-Lázaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco, and R. Montés-Micó, “Optical performance of two new trifocal intraocular lenses: through-focus modulation transfer function and influence of pupil size,” Clin. Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(3), 271–276 (2014).
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R. Montes-Mico, N. Lopez-Gil, C. Perez-Vives, S. Bonaque, and T. Ferrer-Blasco, “In vitro optical performance of nonrotational symmetric and refractive–diffractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lenses: Impact of tilt and decentration,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 38(9), 1657–1663 (2012).
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A. Mira-Agudelo, W. Torres-Sepúlveda, J. F. Barrera, R. Henao, N. Blocki, K. Petelczyc, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Compensation of presbyopia with the Light Sword Lens,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(15), 6870–6877 (2016).
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M. Böhm, E. Hemkeppler, M. Herzog, S. Schönbrunn, N. de’Lorenzo, K. Petermann, and T. Kohnen, “Comparison of a panfocal and trifocal diffractive intraocular lens after femtosecond laser–assisted lens surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 44(12), 1454–1462 (2018).
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Hill, W.

W. Hill, D. Carson, X. Hong, and M. Karakelle, “Optical bench performance of AcrySof IQ ReSTOR, AT LISA tri, and FineVision intraocular lenses,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 2105–2113 (2014).
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D. Carson, Z. Xu, E. Alexander, M. Choi, Z. Zhao, and X. Hong, “Optical bench performance of 3 trifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 42(9), 1361–1367 (2016).
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W. Hill, D. Carson, X. Hong, and M. Karakelle, “Optical bench performance of AcrySof IQ ReSTOR, AT LISA tri, and FineVision intraocular lenses,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 2105–2113 (2014).
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[Crossref]

K. Petelczyc, S. Bara, A. Ciro-Lopez, Z. Jaroszewicz, K. Kakarenko, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Contrast transfer characteristics of the light sword optical element designed for presbyopia compensations,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 6, 11053 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Petelczyc, J. Ares García, S. Bara, Z. Jaroszewicz, K. Kakarenko, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Strehl ratios characterizing optical elements designed for presbyopia compensation,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8693–8699 (2011).
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[Crossref]

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A. Yoo, J. Y. Kwag, I. S. Song, M. J. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, and H. Tchah, “Comparison of Visual Function after Implantation of Inferior Sector-Shaped Intraocular Lenses: Low-Add + 1.5 D Vs + 3.0 D,” Eur. J. Ophtalmol. 26(6), 607–611 (2016).
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K. Petelczyc, A. Byszewska, E. Chojnacka, Z. Jaroszewicz, K. Kakarenko, A. Mira-Agudelo, A. Ostrowska-Spaleniak, A. Skladowska, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Rekas, “The Light Sword Lens - A novel method of presbyopia compensation: Pilot clinical study,” PLoS One 14(2), e0211823 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Kakarenko, I. Ducin, K. Grabowiecki, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Mira-Agudelo, K. Petelczyc, A. Skladowska, and M. Sypek, “Assessment of imaging with extended depth-of-field by means of the light sword lens in terms of visual acuity scale,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1738–1748 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Petelczyc, J. Ares García, S. Bara, Z. Jaroszewicz, K. Kakarenko, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Strehl ratios characterizing optical elements designed for presbyopia compensation,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8693–8699 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Petelczyc, S. Bara, A. Ciro-Lopez, Z. Jaroszewicz, K. Kakarenko, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Contrast transfer characteristics of the light sword optical element designed for presbyopia compensations,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 6, 11053 (2011).
[Crossref]

Karakelle, M.

W. Hill, D. Carson, X. Hong, and M. Karakelle, “Optical bench performance of AcrySof IQ ReSTOR, AT LISA tri, and FineVision intraocular lenses,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 2105–2113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Khoramnia, R.

H. S. Son, T. Tandogan, S. Liebing, P. R. Merz, C. Y. Choi, R. Khoramnia, and G. U. Auffarth, “In vitro optical quality measurements of three intraocular lens models having identical platform,” BMC Ophthalmol. 17(1), 108 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Y. Khoramnia R, T. M. Tandogan T, S. Liebling, G. Labuz, C. Y. Choi, and G. Auffarth, “Optical quality of three trifocal intraocular lens models. An optical bench comparison,” Ophthalmologe 115(1), 21–28 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. Y.

A. Yoo, J. Y. Kwag, I. S. Song, M. J. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, and H. Tchah, “Comparison of Visual Function after Implantation of Inferior Sector-Shaped Intraocular Lenses: Low-Add + 1.5 D Vs + 3.0 D,” Eur. J. Ophtalmol. 26(6), 607–611 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. J.

A. Yoo, J. Y. Kwag, I. S. Song, M. J. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, and H. Tchah, “Comparison of Visual Function after Implantation of Inferior Sector-Shaped Intraocular Lenses: Low-Add + 1.5 D Vs + 3.0 D,” Eur. J. Ophtalmol. 26(6), 607–611 (2016).
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Kolodziejczyk, A.

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J. Ruiz-Alcocer, D. Madrid-Costa, S. García-Lázaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco, and R. Montés-Micó, “Optical performance of two new trifocal intraocular lenses: through-focus modulation transfer function and influence of pupil size,” Clin. Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(3), 271–276 (2014).
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Supplementary Material (11)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Intensity distributions of focal spots (PSFs) corresponding to far, near and intermediate (trifocal, EDOF and LS IOLs) fields.
» Visualization 2       Intensity distribution of B&L FOCUSforce ReVision IOL's focal spot through defocus from 0D till 5D in linear and logarithmic scale
» Visualization 3       Intensity distribution of LENTIS MPlus LS-313 MF30 IOL's focal spot through defocus from 0D till 5D in linear and logarithmic scale
» Visualization 4       Intensity distribution of Zeiss AT LISA tri 839MP IOL's focal spot through defocus from 0D till 5D in linear and logarithmic scale
» Visualization 5       Intensity distribution of Acrysof IQ PanOptix TFNT00 IOL's focal spot through defocus from 0D till 5D in linear and logarithmic scale
» Visualization 6       Intensity distribution of Tecnis Symfony IOL's focal spot through defocus from 0D till 5D in linear and logarithmic scale
» Visualization 7       Intensity distribution of Acriva Reviol Tri-ED 611 IOL's focal spot through defocus from 0D till 5D in linear and logarithmic scale
» Visualization 8       Intensity distribution of LS IOL 3D model's focal spot through defocus from 0D till 5D in linear and logarithmic scale
» Visualization 9       Intensity distribution of LS IOL 4D model's focal spot through defocus from 0D till 5D in linear and logarithmic scale
» Visualization 10       Side view of Through-Focus PSFs
» Visualization 11       USAF 1951 resolution test images created by LS IOL 3D and LS IOL 4D for different object distances.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Light Sword Intraocular Lens models visualization (A), geometry of LS IOL 3D (B), geometry of LS IOL 4D (C)
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Scheme (A) and picture (B) of the optical bench constructed according to ISO 11979-2. I – CCD Camera with 10x microscope objective; II – artificial cornea and IOL immersed in physiological solution, III – Modified collimator with a movable part containing a pinhole in an entrance pupil,, IV – Illumination arrangement.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Intensity distributions of focal spots (PSFs) corresponding to far, near and intermediate (trifocal, EDOF and LS IOLs) fields. See also Visualization 1 for high resolution and supplementary movies for a whole focal spot evolution: Visualization 2 for FOCUSforce ReVision, Visualization 3 for LENTIS MPlus, Visualization 4 for AT-LISA tri, Visualization 5 for AcrySof IQ PanOptix, Visualization 6 for Tecnis Symfony, Visualization 7 for Acriva Reviol Tri-ED, Visualization 8 for LS IOL 3D and Visualization 9 for LS IOL 4D.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Side view of Through-Focus PSFs. See also Visualization 10 for high resolution
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Through-Focus MTF curves at a spatial frequency of 50 cpmm. Horizontal axis indicates defocus scaled in diopters.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Through-Focus MTFA curves calculated in a range of spatial frequencies from 0 to 50 cpmm. Horizontal axis indicates defocus scaled in diopters.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. USAF 1951 resolution test images created by LS IOL 3D and LS IOL 4D for different object distances. Dimensions and defocus are given in top corners of images. See also Visualization 11 for high resolution

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Optical data of the IOLs

Equations (3)

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D ( θ ) = 21 + D A × θ 2 π
R ( θ ) = 10 3 × ( n P M M A n S S ) × ( 1 5.5 10 3 × n P M M A ) D ( θ ) 2
M T F A = 0 50 M T F ( f ) d f

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